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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 219823 matches for " César; "
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Relationships between Earth’s Rotation or Revolution and Geographical Extent of the Global Surface Monsoons  [PDF]
Mbane Biouele César
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2014.41006

Monsoon seasons, occasionally also known as wet seasons or trade-wind littoral seasons, are found in the regions where there is a complete seasonal reversal of the prevailing surface winds. Accompanying these shifts in the prevailing surface winds are modulations in rainfall activity. Given the fact that our knowledge of the monsoons is mainly based on the interpretation of the mean values of precipitation, cloudiness and winds; relationships between earth’s rotation or revolution and geographical extent of the global surface monsoons deserve to be highlighted. In the abundant literary and audiovisual production devoted to monsoons worldwide and despite the fact that everyone agrees with physical law which shows that Coriolis force acts to the right in the northern hemisphere (to the left in the southern hemisphere), there is no reference to the relationship between Coriolis force (due to earth’s rotation) effects on troposphere general circulation and geographical extent of the global surface monsoons. Furthermore knowing that the ITCZ oscillations on either side of the equators (due to earth’s revolution) determine the seasons (mainly winter and summer), it is clear that earth’s revolution also plays a crucial role in the seasonal reversal of the prevailing surface winds observed in the regions where monsoons are found. Our main objective is to provide a rational answer to the question: what is a monsoon?

Physics as Final Opportunity to Prevent Harms Related to Theatricalization of Meteorology  [PDF]
Mbane Biouele César
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2014.41015

Using Mbane Biouele formula derived in 2009 on the troposphere thermoelastic properties leads to thermal and kinematic profiles of major atmospheric disturbances which clearly indicate that these terrible events for men should not be viewed with fatalism. This unexpected truth is unfortunately always obscured by media outlets of brilliant TV presenters or famous workshops panelists that focus attention on the excessively sensational meteorology (unfortunately folk and pernicious) instead of worrying about the seriousness that should characterize all interventions on the climate study or prediction. Good weather conditions, it is undeniable, facilitate an excellent running of almost all human activities like sports, transport, agricultural activities, celebrations of events, etc.... Far more serious, the advent of supercomputers and satellites could, if their valuable information is used solely for the theatricalization of weather events, trigger the decline of the scientific discipline of great public utility that is meteorology. Indeed, many meteorologists acquire very big head when they succeed in acquiring advanced equipment. Without prejudging what meteorology will become in the future, we hope that the work done in this article will remind each researchers that much remains to be done to promote climate studies. We remind quite emphatically that both hurricanes and cyclones have their weak-points (or talon dAchilles in French) and thus, researchers should begin to think about how to neutralize atmospheric disturbances that have both a large and a strong destructive power”.

Earth’s Atmosphere Prevailing Surface Winds Based on Effectiveness of Mbane Biouele Formula Derived in 2009  [PDF]
César Mbane Biouele
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2014.42022

Any system designed to simulate the earth's atmosphere general circulation, must necessarily be based on the spatial-or temporal average conditions. Irregularities in the profiles of air motions that we observe on daily weather maps often make lose any real meaning to the general circulation. As complicated and inconsistent that is the daily traffic of air particles, it is interesting to define a general circulation characteristic of the average air transportation around the globe. Indeed, this transport responds to a need to transfer heat from the equator (heat source) to the poles (cold sources). Mbane Biouele formula (2009), derived from Clausius-Clapeyron relation (1832), now allows faithful and unique representation of the tricellular general circulation: Hence, the possibility of access to the earth’s atmosphere prevailing surface winds in summer as well as winter.

Application of Clausius-Clappeyron Relation (1832) and Carnot Principle (1824) to Earth’s Atmosphere Tricellular Circulation  [PDF]
Mbane Biouele César
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2014.41001

Atmospheric or climate phenomena are usually a combination of elementary events whose scales range from the very small (microscopic) to the infinitely large (synoptic). This means that build reasoning from ground- or space-based observations only, regardless of the physics of elementary processes, inevitably leads to erroneous results. Given the fact that plots of Troposphere Tricellular Circulation are only based on weather mean conditions measured near the ground (i.e.: pressure and winds fields observed at the surface of the earth), we want to improve these representations of the general circulation of the atmosphere, by using both Clausius-Clapeyron Relation and Carnot Principle derived respectively in 1832 and 1824. Indeed, Clausius-Clapeyron relation shows precisely that, unlike the dry water vapor that can be assimilated to the ideal gas at many circumstances, the saturated water vapor has, in an air parcel at the same time cold (temperature below 0.0098°C) and rich in moisture (vapor pressure above 6.11 mb), thermoelastic properties diametrically opposed to those of ideal gas (including dry water vapor). Vertical profiles of temperature and water vapor in the atmosphere provided by ground- or space-based observations lead to the location of a troposphere region in which the ideal gas assumption should be banned: hence appropriate and unique plot of earth’s atmosphere tricellular circulation.

Fundamentals on Thermodynamic Processes behind Clouds’ and Rainfalls’ Formation  [PDF]
Mbane Biouele César
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2015.53019
Abstract: The prevailing idea so far about why the rainfall occurs was that after agglutination of water droplets with condensation nuclei, the size of the particle formed by the condensation nuclei connected with droplets of water increased considerably and caused its fall. This idea has led to numerous scientific publications in which empirical distribution functions of clouds’ water droplets sizes were proposed. Estimates values provided by these empirical distribution functions, in most cases, were validated by comparison with UHF Radar measurements. The condensation nuclei concept has not been sufficiently exploited and this has led meteorologists to error, in their attempt to describe the clouds, thinking that clouds were formed by liquid water droplets. Indeed, MBANE BIOUELE paradox (2005) confirms this embarrassing situation. In fact, when applying Archimedes theorem to a liquid water droplet suspended in the atmosphere, we obtain a meaningless inequality \"\"?which makes believe that the densities of pure water in liquid and solid phases are much lower than that of the atmosphere considered at the sea level. This meaningless inequality is easy to contradict: of course, if you empty a bottle of pure liquid water in the ocean (where z is equal to 0), this water will not remain suspended in the air, i.e., application of Archimedes’ theorem allows realizing that there is no liquid (or solid) water droplet, suspended in the clouds. Indeed, all liquid (or solid) water droplets which are formed in clouds, fall under the effect of gravity and produce rains. This means that our current description of the clouds is totally wrong. In this study, we describe the clouds as a gas composed of dry air and saturated water vapor whose optical properties depend on temperature, i.e., when the temperature of a cloud decreases, the color of this gaseous system tends towards white.
Relationship between Disruptions of Carbon’s Cyclic Set Natural Transfers and the Upsurge of Weather Conditions with Strong Winds and Heavy Rains  [PDF]
César Mbane Biouele
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2015.54029
Abstract: The cyclic set of natural transfers of carbon (also called: Global Carbon Cycle) is built with the following physicochemical and bacteriological processes: 1) atmosphere to green plants or soil transfers; 2) animals or plants to atmosphere transfers; 3) burning fossil fuels to atmosphere transfers; 4) animals (including humans) to soil transfers; 5) atmosphere to oceans transfers, etc. This whole cycle (despite its obvious complexity), is a formal proof that disturbances recorded by carbon cycle described above, inevitably alter the chemical composition of the atmosphere and, therefore, lead to climate change whose magnitude depends on the sensitivity of the atmosphere relative to the changed settings. The weather models used to assess climate change caused by CFCs, have the annoying tendency to neglect the contribution of clouds to the global carbon balance. Yet it has been proven by C. Mbane in 2015 that clouds are composed of only two elements (dry air and saturated water vapor); and that clouds’ saturated water vapor may form precipitation (solid or liquid) if and only if they met and dissolve condensation nuclei (mainly the carbon dioxide (CO2) in the case of Troposphere). In other words, atmosphere absorbs a significant amount of CO2 in the formation of rains. The purpose of our work is to make it clear to the international opinion that cloud’s saturated water vapor is the true lung of our planet, far ahead of the green plants respiration or photosynthesis those take place only under the influence of sunlight and in the very lower layers of the troposphere (e.g., well below 25 meters from the surface of the earth). Each of us could then easily understand the link between GCCD (Global Carbon Cycle Disruptions) and the upsurge of WCWSWHR (weather conditions with strong winds and heavy rains).
Organization of Propaganda Forums (Such as COP21) by Some Heads of State Seriously Disturbs Scientific Debates on Real Causes of Climate Global Changes  [PDF]
César Mbane Biouele
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2016.61010
Abstract: Faced with many problems (practically insoluble) that call them politicians lie (to save their careers), claiming that they are resolutely interested to earth’s environment protection. Unnecessary (for some) and outrageously expensive (for others) organization of COP21 is part of this logic of distracting the “international community” by (for example) making believe that the reduction of CO2 emissions is something reachable for humans and that this reduction can weaken the harmful effects of global warming such as: floods, endless droughts, melting glaciers, upsurge of hurricanes or tornadoes, etc. Can the “binding” commitments taken during COP21 be effective? Our objective and immediate answer is: No. Because those who have made commitments, ignore completely how the CO2 (main object of their attentions) or sulfur dioxide (SO2) behave with respect to some predominant elements of the atmosphere such as clouds. Moreover, a significant number of the propaganda forums stakeholders ignores that earth’s atmosphere is considerably affected by the radiation from the sun and that the intensity of solar radiation received at the surface of the earth mainly depends on the Earth-Sun distance and the precession angle of the earth relative to its orbit. Earth-Sun distance and precession angle of the Earth’s orbit vary in space and time: this Physical law must be constantly present in our minds. Teaching the fundamentals of Atmospheric Physics allows solar radiation and its derivative forms (e.g.: winds, snow or rains) to cease to be a mystery in the mind of the international community.
Flows’ Similarities between Tornadoes or Cyclones Kinematics and Motions Resulting from Weather Phenomena Coupling Geostrophic Wind with Passive Convection  [PDF]
César Mbane Biouele
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2016.63032
Abstract: Tornadoes and cyclones, as is stated in numerous literary and audiovisual works dedicated to these out of balance physical systems, are two powerful and spectacular atmospheric phenomena whose vertical and horizontal profiles of winds and temperatures are not yet well known. Indeed, data and routine observations accumulated in the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) databases, regardless of their diversity and perfection of the instruments used to achieve these data (e.g. satellites, onboard cameras, wind profilers, ultra modern calculators, etc.), offer mind-blowing performances on the extent of damage caused by these disturbances, but information provided by these ground and space based observations will never allow access to real profiles of winds associated with tornadoes and cyclones both at the ground’s surface and aloft. The works recently carried out by C. Mbane Biouele allow us to discover that winds associated with tornadoes and hurricanes result from vectors addition of troposphere’s horizontal geostrophic winds and vertical movements associated with passive convection. Unfortunately, geostrophic wind and passive convection are two familiar meteorological phenomena described with much awkwardness and monumental mistakes by all scientific books written by authors who have remained loyal to Hadley principle which states (for centuries) that hot air is lighter than cold air. It is very important to know that C. Mbane Biouele’s very recent publications demonstrate that Hadley principle is not valid in the troposphere’s regions occupied by Ferrell cells. Indeed, it is urgent for the development of meteorology to highlight with great insistence to everyone that there is a Physics principle diametrically opposed to popular Hadley one which provides thermodynamic reasons of the formation of Ferrell cells. This Principle will be named Mbane Biouele Principe and be clearly stated in this paper.
Colombia and Its Trans-Pacific Foreign Policy —International Relations in the Pacific Rim  [PDF]
Julio César Cepeda Ladino
Open Journal of Political Science (OJPS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojps.2017.71001
Abstract: The Pacific Rim has become a high-value geostrategic region because of the growing interdependence in its dynamics of political and economic cooperation. The international and regional cooperation systems continue their transformation since the early twenty first century, therefore it is quite relevant to be attuned with these processes. In recent years, Colombia has designed various strategies for international integration in the Asia-Pacific region within its Trans-Pacific foreign policy. It is essential for actors and interest groups to make a diagnosis to establish a forward-looking strategy to diversify the agenda of relations with this region. The purpose is to ensure a better understanding of the next transpacific cooperation schemes.
César Oré
Papeles del CEIC , 2007,
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