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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 382292 matches for " C L Bishop "
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Bacteria help plants grow
C L Bishop
Genome Biology , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/gb-spotlight-20030402-01
Abstract: Ryu et al. investigated the role of VOCs from seven strains of PGPRs on total leaf surface area. They showed that 2,3-butanediol and acetonin, released exclusively from two bacterial strains, triggered the highest levels of plant growth. Insertional analysis of enzymes involved in the synthesis of these two VOCs resulted in a removal of the growth promotion effect. Furthermore, exogenous application of 2,3-butanediol to seedlings resulted in dose-dependent growth promotion."PGPR strains release different volatile blends and that plant growth is stimulated by differences in these volatile blends. The mechanism by which volatile components from PGPR promote growth via cell expansion and/or cell division and the interaction of 2,3-butanediol with established plant growth hormones are areas that now can be examined," conclude the authors.
Amino-acid cycling drives nitrogen fixation
C L Bishop
Genome Biology , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/gb-spotlight-20030422-04
Abstract: Ludwig et al. examined amino-acid cycling in pea bacteriods by the mutation of two ABC-type amino-acid transporters with broad specificity - aap and bra. Single mutants resulted in a 40-70% reduction in rates of amino-acid uptake by pea nodules. No difference in pea growth was observed in the presence of the mutant bacteriods, however. A double aapbra mutant was also capable of amino-acid synthesis, but phenotypic observations suggested that the plants were unable to fix nitrogen. Further analysis established that the plants were capable of reducing nitrogen in the presence of the aapbra mutants, but that the plants could not acquire ammonium. The authors propose that plants provide bacteriods with amino acids via Aap and/or Bra; in turn, bacteriods can shut down ammonium assimilation. To obtain amino acids the bacteriods secrete ammonium to the plant - thus allowing amino-acid synthesis to occur.The authors conclude that "the interaction between the symbiotic partners is far more complex than hitherto realized: each has evolved a complete metabolic dependence on the other."
Gene acquisition in eukaryotes
C L Bishop
Genome Biology , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/gb-spotlight-20030528-01
Abstract: In the early edition of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, John Archibald and colleagues from The Canadian Institute for Advanced Research describe phylogenetic analysis of several plastid-targeted proteins from a chlorarachniophytes. They show that a significant number of genes have been acquired through lateral gene transfer from numerous sources, but that the genes of the chlorophyte Chlamydomonas reinhardtii show no evidence of lateral gene transfer (PNAS, DOI:10.1073/pnas.1230951100).Archibald et al. screened nearly 4,000 ESTs (expressed sequence tags) from the chlorarachniophyte Bigelowiella natans and identified 78 cDNAs encoding putative plastid-targeted proteins. By means of alignment and phylogenetic analysis, they established that the majority were derived from a chlorophyte of green algal origin. But 21% of the proteins had phylogenetic affinities that indicated they were from a source other than the endosymbiont. These genes had been acquired by lateral gene transfer from a variety of sources, including streptophyte algae, red algae, algae with red algal endosymbionts and even bacteria. Similar analysis of the chlorophyte Chlamydomonas reinhardtii showed no evidence of lateral gene transfer."There is no obvious reason to assume that the acquisition of foreign genes by chlorarachniophytes is limited to those involved in plastid function. Whether lateral transfer will prove to be as important in eukaryotes as in prokaryotes remains to be seen... At present, it seems that lateral gene transfer has been a factor in the evolution of eukaryotic genomes, but that its impact may very from lineage to lineage," conclude the authors.
Control of Flowering
C L Bishop
Genome Biology , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/gb-spotlight-20030422-03
Abstract: Hiyama et al. generated transgenic rice that overexpress OsGI under both SD and LD conditions. These mutants flower later than wild-type plants, suggesting that in rice OsGI is a suppressor of flowering, in contrast to the situation in A. thaliana. Comparison of mRNA levels of the downstream targets of OsGI - Hd1 and Hd3a - showed no differences in Hd1 mRNA levels relative to wild-type, regardless of growth conditions. In wild-type plants Hd3a expression is inhibited under LD conditions, and has diurnal levels under SD conditions. No Hd3a mRNA could be detected in the OsGI transgenics, however, consistent with the late-flowering phenotype. The authors suggest that under LD conditions Hd1 expression suppresses expression of Hd3a in rice.Thus, in A. thaliana, under LD conditions GI activates FT via CO, but in rice OsGI activates Hd1 (the CO ortholog), which under LD conditions suppresses Hd3a (the FT ortholog) expression - resulting in suppression of flowering.The authors conclude that "an important gene network for the photoperiod control of flowering is conserved between Arabidopsis and rice, but that the regulation of the downstream gene by an upstream regulatory gene is reversed in the two species. These findings suggest the existence of common mechanisms for the photoperiodic control of various processes in diverse plant species."
Arabidopsis insertional mutant database
C L Bishop
Genome Biology , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/gb-spotlight-20030801-02
Abstract: Alonso et al. used selected Agrobacterium transferred DNA (T-DNA) to generate about 150,000 transformed A. thaliana plants. The genomic location of each integration event was mapped - identifying 88,122 T-DNA/genome junction sequences, and confirming the generation of mutation in 21,799 of the 29,454 annotated genes. The preferences and frequencies of T-DNA integration on an individual chromosome level, within specific genetic elements (e.g., UTRs), and on a gene expression basis were all investigated.The authors then screened their collection for genes responsive to treatment with ethylene - a plant hormone involved in disease resistance and fruit ripening. Using this approach, they were able to isolate mutant plants for a new family of ethylene response DNA binding factors."One of the most significant findings revealed through analysis of genomes of multicellular organisms is the large number of genes for which no function is known or can be predicted. An essential tool for the functional analysis of these completely sequenced genomes is the ability to create loss-of-function mutations for all of the genes," conclude the authors.
Ancient 'GM' corn
C L Bishop
Genome Biology , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/gb-spotlight-20031114-01
Abstract: Jaenicke-Després et al. selected short DNA fragments (~50 bp) suitable for the comparison of allelic frequency from archaeological remains. DNA was extracted from cob samples ranging from 4000 to 650 years old and cloned. Reconstruction of each gene was achieved by sequencing of multiple clones. Comparison of these sequences with those from modern day maize and teosinte samples confirmed modern alleles were present in Mexican maize some 4400 years ago. The phenotypic role of the three genes investigated suggests that cob size and kernel quality were used by prehistoric farmers to select next generation plants."By 4400 years ago, early farmers had already had a substantial homogenizing effect on allelic diversity at three genes associated with maize morphology and biochemical properties of the corn cob... As more genes involved in selected features become identified in maize as well as other crops, the ability to determine nuclear gene sequences from domesticated plants recovered from archaeological excavations will make it possible to follow comprehensively the genetic consequences of domestication over time," conclude the authors."The apparent loss of genetic diversity following the introduction of high-yielding Green Revolution wheat and rice varieties in the 1960s and 1970s, and attending the rapid adoption of superior GM [genetically modified] crops today, is far from a new phenomenon," comments Nina V. Fedoroff from the Huck Institute for Life Sciences in an accompanying article.
Life cycle control of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
C L Bishop
Genome Biology , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/gb-spotlight-20030423-01
Abstract: Huang and Beck generated a Phot RNA interference (RNAi) knockdown mutant with transformants expressing only 10% of wild-type levels of Phot. When assayed, the mutant had reduced levels of conversions of pre-gametes to gametes. Expression analysis of the late-stage gametogenesis genes revealed reduced mRNA levels in the RNAi algae, indicating that phototropin serves as the photoreceptor for the induction of these genes. Examination of the reactivation of dark-activated RNAi and wild-type gametes by illumination suggests that phototropin also functions in the restoration of gamete mating ability. Furthermnore, zygotes generated from wild-type and RNAi gametes were subjected to light-induced germination. The degree of zygote germination was distinctly lower when RNAi gametes were used, suggesting that Phot also mediates light-induced zygote germination. The authors propose that phototropin is the photoreceptor that controls the blue-light-dependent sexual differentiation of C. reinhardtii."Because the reactivation of dark-inactivated gametes does not require protein synthesis, it has been hypothesized that blue light activates proteins of the flagella involved in sexual agglutination by some chemical modifications. This finding opens up the opportunity to analyze the consequences of phototropin activation in flagella, i.e., a system of reduced complexity," conclude the authors.
2,8-Dimethyltricyclo[,9]dodecane-syn-2,syn-8-diol–propanoic acid (1/1)
Yuji Mizobe,Roger Bishop,Donald C. Craig,Marcia L. Scudder
Acta Crystallographica Section E , 2009, DOI: 10.1107/s1600536809016547
Abstract: The racemic title compound, C14H24O2·C3H6O2, crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/c as a 1:1 diol/carboxylic acid cocrystal, A–B. The lattice incorporates infinite chains of the alcohol–carboxylic acid–alcohol supramolecular synthon, (...O—H...O=C(R)—O—H...O—H...), in which the hydrogen-bonded molecules (A—B—A)n surround a pseudo-threefold screw axis. The carboxylic acid group functions like an extended alcohol hydroxy group. Each diol, A, takes part in two such threefold screw arrangements, leading to a hydrogen-bonded layer structure, with adjacent layers containing diol molecules of opposite handedness. The central C atom of the propano bridge is disordered over two sites of occupancies 0.75 (1) and 0.25 (1). The methyl group of the propanoic acid molecule is disordered over two sites of occupancies 0.68 (1) and 0.32 (1).
Jason Ashmore,Roger Bishop,Donald C. Craig,Marcia L. Scudder
Acta Crystallographica Section E , 2008, DOI: 10.1107/s1600536807061235
Abstract: The racemic title compound, C27H26N2O4, crystallizes with its central carbon bridge on a twofold axis. It forms parallel chains of molecules utilizing aryl offset face–face interactions with an interplanar distance of about 3.5 . These chains associate further by means of pairs of O—CH2—H...π (with H–ring distances ranging from 2.69 to 2.95 ) and O—CH2—H...N motifs. The methoxy groups in this structure are coplanar with the aromatic rings to which they are attached. This is recognized as being common behaviour amongst aromatic methoxy compounds.
Association of selected SNP with carcass and taste panel assessed meat quality traits in a commercial population of Aberdeen Angus-sired beef cattle
Jennifer L Gill, Stephen C Bishop, Caroline McCorquodale, John L Williams, Pamela Wiener
Genetics Selection Evolution , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1297-9686-41-36
Abstract: A total of 27 traits were examined, 19 relating to carcass quality, such as carcass weight and fatness, one mechanical measure of tenderness, and the remaining seven were sensory traits, such as flavour and tenderness, assessed by a taste panel.An SNP in the CAPN1 gene, CAPN316, was significantly associated with tenderness measured by both the tenderometer and the taste panel as well as the weight of the hindquarter, where animals inheriting the CC genotype had more tender meat and heavier hindquarters. An SNP in the leptin gene, UASMS2, significantly affected overall liking, where animals with the TT genotype were assigned higher scores by the panellists. The SNP in the GHR gene was significantly associated with odour, where animals inheriting the AA genotype produced steaks with an intense odour when compared with the other genotypes. Finally, the SNP in the DGAT1 gene was associated with sirloin weight after maturation and fat depth surrounding the sirloin, with animals inheriting the AA genotype having heavier sirloins and more fat.The results of this study confirm some previously documented associations. Furthermore, novel associations have been identified which, following validation in other populations, could be incorporated into breeding programmes to improve meat quality.Meat quality is of great importance to the beef industry where the consumer is willing to pay more for superior products [1]. Traditional trait improvement has centred on quantitative genetics, using statistical analysis of phenotypic data to determine animals with the highest genetic merit [2]. This selection approach is most effectively implemented for highly heritable traits that are easily recorded before reproductive age. However, meat quality traits can usually only be measured post-slaughter and often have low heritabilities [3], therefore making progress using direct measurement is difficult for these traits. Marker-assisted selection has the potential to significantly increase the
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