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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 219561 matches for " C Jochum "
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Low temperature light yield measurements in NaI and NaI(Tl)
C. Sailer,B. Lubsandorzhiev,C. Strandhagen,J. Jochum
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1140/epjc/s10052-012-2061-7
Abstract: The scintillation light output of a pure and a Thallium doped Sodium Iodide (NaI) crystal under irradiation with 5.486MeV \alpha -particles has been measured over a temperature range from 1.7K to 300K. Estimates of the decay time constant at three selected temperatures are given. For pure NaI an increase in light yield towards low temperatures could be confirmed and measured at higher precision. For NaI(Tl) below 60K an increase in light output has been found.
Neonatology/Paediatrics – Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition, Chapter 13
Fusch, C.,Bauer, K.,B?hles, H. J.,Jochum, F.
GMS German Medical Science , 2009,
Abstract: There are special challenges in implementing parenteral nutrition (PN) in paediatric patients, which arises from the wide range of patients, ranging from extremely premature infants up to teenagers weighing up to and over 100 kg, and their varying substrate requirements. Age and maturity-related changes of the metabolism and fluid and nutrient requirements must be taken into consideration along with the clinical situation during which PN is applied. The indication, the procedure as well as the intake of fluid and substrates are very different to that known in PN-practice in adult patients, e.g. the fluid, nutrient and energy needs of premature infants and newborns per kg body weight are markedly higher than of older paediatric and adult patients. Premature infants <35 weeks of pregnancy and most sick term infants usually require full or partial PN. In neonates the actual amount of PN administered must be calculated (not estimated). Enteral nutrition should be gradually introduced and should replace PN as quickly as possible in order to minimise any side-effects from exposure to PN. Inadequate substrate intake in early infancy can cause long-term detrimental effects in terms of metabolic programming of the risk of illness in later life. If energy and nutrient demands in children and adolescents cannot be met through enteral nutrition, partial or total PN should be considered within 7 days or less depending on the nutritional state and clinical conditions.
HIV-infection during treatment of a chronic hepatitis B virus infection: implications for PrEP?
J Storim,C Jochum,J Timm,D Schadendorf
Journal of the International AIDS Society , 2012, DOI: 10.7448/ias.15.6.18169
Abstract: The protective effect of oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) with or without emtricitabine (FTC) as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) against HIV differed significantly among clinical studies and poor PrEP-adherence was closely associated with PrEP-failure. Despite HIV-infections during PrEP-exposure the development of resistance mutations against PrEP was rarely observed so far. As PrEP is an emerging tool against HIV transmission, it is important to identify risk-factors for PrEP-failure and the induction of PrEP-associated resistance mutations against antiretroviral drugs. We here present the case of a 25-year old MSM who was successfully treated with TDF due to a chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (HBV-DNA always <357 IU/ml after ten months of treatment). As HIV tests were negative when the treatment was initiated and six months later, no routine HIV tests were performed although the patient repetitively acquired sexually transmitted infections (STI). After 30 months, an HIV infection (subtype B) was diagnosed during a syphilis re-infection. At this point, HIV was TDF-resistant (K65R and A62V mutations within the reverse transcriptase gene). Retrospective analysis of frozen serum samples revealed HIV-seroconversion 12 months prior to diagnosis and low HIV-RNA levels from seroconversion to diagnosis (always <400 copies/ml). The TDF-based therapy of the chronic HBV-infection resembles a TDF-HIV-PrEP. But here poor therapy adherence is an unlikely cause for the 'PrEP-failure' as the constantly suppressed HBV-DNA indicates therapeutic TDF-levels over years. Combining TDF with FTC might have augmented the prophylactic effect. However, TDF-levels in the rectal mucosa are high and should therefore protect MSM who practice receptive anal intercourse. On the other hand, the concomitant STI of our patient may have promoted HIV transmission (via compromising the mucosal barrier function and promoting inflammatory reactions) and therefore possibly counteracted TDF-effects. Finally, infection with a TDF-resistant virus strain might explain the lack of protection in this case. But K65R is a rarely transmitted drug resistance mutation and low level viremia for one year suggests considerable TDF effectiveness. In fact, we here rather present a K65R mutation induced by a PrEP-like TDF therapy. The development of the K65R mutation in a PrEP-like situation emphasizes the urgent need of regular HIV-tests during PrEP exposure.
Der Souver n
Uwe Jochum
Libreas : Library Ideas , 2009,
Uwe Jochum
Libreas : Library Ideas , 2006,
The Largest Bio-Silica Structure on Earth: The Giant Basal Spicule from the Deep-Sea Glass Sponge Monorhaphis chuni
Xiaohong Wang,Lu Gan,Klaus P. Jochum,Heinz C. Schr?der,Werner E. G. Müller
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/540987
Abstract: The depth of the ocean is plentifully populated with a highly diverse fauna and flora, from where the Challenger expedition (1873–1876) treasured up a rich collection of vitreous sponges [Hexactinellida]. They have been described by Schulze and represent the phylogenetically oldest class of siliceous sponges [phylum Porifera]; they are eye-catching because of their distinct body plan, which relies on a filigree skeleton. It is constructed by an array of morphologically determined elements, the spicules. Later, during the German Deep Sea Expedition “Valdivia” (1898-1899), Schulze could describe the largest siliceous hexactinellid sponge on Earth, the up to 3?m high Monorhaphis chuni, which develops the equally largest bio-silica structures, the giant basal spicules (3?m × 10?mm). With such spicules as a model, basic knowledge on the morphology, formation, and development of the skeletal elements could be elaborated. Spicules are formed by a proteinaceous scaffold which mediates the formation of siliceous lamellae in which the proteins are encased. Up to eight hundred 5 to 10?μm thick lamellae can be concentrically arranged around an axial canal. The silica matrix is composed of almost pure silicon and oxygen, providing it with unusual optophysical properties that are superior to those of man-made waveguides. Experiments indicated that the spicules function in vivo as a nonocular photoreception system. In addition, the spicules have exceptional mechanical properties, combining mechanical stability with strength and stiffness. Like demosponges the hexactinellids synthesize their silica enzymatically, via the enzyme silicatein. All these basic insights will surely contribute also to a further applied utilization and exploration of bio-silica in material/medical science. 1. Introduction In the last decade, the phylogenetically oldest metazoan phylum, the Porifera (sponges) gained special interest. Mainly due to the introduction of molecular biological techniques, solid evidence was elaborated which indicated that this phylum harbors a cornucopia of new information for the understanding of the dynamics of evolutionary processes that occurred during the Earth period of Ediacara, the time prior to the Cambrian Explosion which can be dated back to approximately 540 million years ago. Furthermore, the species of this phylum are rich and valuable sources for bioprospecting, the translation of life science discoveries into practical products or processes for the benefit of the society. Sponges are the simplest multicellular animals which are grouped to the phylum
Soft Proton Scattering Efficiency Measurements on X-Ray Mirror Shells
S. Diebold,C. Tenzer,E. Perinati,A. Santangelo,M. Freyberg,P. Friedrich,J. Jochum
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1007/s10686-015-9451-4
Abstract: In-orbit experience has shown that soft protons are funneled more efficiently through focusing Wolter-type optics of X-ray observatories than simulations predicted. These protons can degrade the performance of solid-state X-ray detectors and contribute to the instrumental background. Since laboratory measurements of the scattering process are rare, an experiment for grazing angles has been set up at the accelerator facility of the University of T\"ubingen. Systematic measurements at incidence angles ranging from 0.3{\deg} to 1.2{\deg} with proton energies around 250 keV, 500 keV, and 1 MeV have been carried out. Parts of spare mirror shells of the eROSITA (extended ROentgen Survey with an Imaging Telescope Array) instrument have been used as scattering targets. This publication comprises a detailed description of the setup, the calibration and normalization methods, and the scattering efficiency and energy loss results. A comparison of the results with a theoretical scattering description and with simulations is included as well.
Marjane Satrapi. Persépolis
Charbanou Jochum-Maghsoudnia
Droit et Cultures , 2009,
Abstract: Dans les quatre volumes de sa bande dessinée Persépolis Marjane Satrapi décrit et illustre en noir et blanc son autobiographie. Elle y superpose de manière vertigineuse et transparente les événements et les faits marquants de l’Iran contemporain qu’elle entremêle avec les vies au quotidien sous le régime des mollahs. Le récit de sa vie d’adolescente exilée fait appel à des questions universelles comme celles de l’intégration, de l’adaptation à d’autres cultures et de l’identité.Née en Iran en...
Results from the CRESST Dark Matter Search at Gran Sasso
J. Jochum,CRESST Collaboration
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1134/1.855777
Abstract: We present the current status of CRESST(Cryogenic Rare Event Search using Superconducting Thermometers) project and new results concerning the development of new detectors based on the simultaneous measurement of phonons and scintillation light. A significant reduction in the background rate could recently be achieved. With our newly developed method for the simultaneous measurement of scintillation light, strong background discrimination is possible also in larger detectors, resulting in a substantial increase in WIMP detection sensitivity.
Is there a capillary leak after cardiopulmonary bypass in pigs?
GP Eising, H Schad, W Heimisch, C Gippner-Steppert, M Jochum, E Sch?ffer, N Mendler, H Meisner
Critical Care , 1999, DOI: 10.1186/cc326
Abstract: Twenty-six pigs were subjected to 120 min CPB (90 min cardioplegic cardiac arrest, 30 min reperfusion). Left ventricular (LV) power during ejection (= CO × AoP/ejection time) was calculated. Blood samples (before CPB, at 90 min, 120 min CPB and every 30 min until 5 h after CPB) were analyzed for the receptor antagonist IL-1ra, leukocytes, the leukocyte neutral proteinase inhibitor (LNPI to assess leukocyte activation), and plasma protein concentration (PP). Half-life of intravenously injected Evans Blue and intravascular protein content (IVP) were measured before and 3.5 h after CPB. Histologic samples of the LV-wall and septum were assessed for leukocyte infiltration.LV-power was markedly reduced after CPB. Leukocytes, LNPI and IL-1ra were significantly upregulated following CPB and a marked leukocyte infiltration to the subendocardium of the LV was present 5 h after CPB. PP was reduced by the crystalloid primed CPB, it increased after CPB, but did not reach the pre-CPB level. IVP was reduced after CPB. Half-life of intravenously injected Evans Blue was not affected by CPB.In the present model CPB was followed by depression of left ventricular function and a systemic inflammatory response. An increase in microvascular permeability to plasma proteins, however, was absent after 120 min of CPB including 90 min of myocardial ischemia. Fluid shift from the intra- to extravascular compartment occurred due to an increased microvascular effective filtration pressure. This is a result of reduced plasma colloid osmotic pressure due to hemodilution and, in part, to protein loss to the foreign surfaces of the CPB-system.
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