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A History of Italian Citizenship Laws during the Era of the Monarchy (1861-1946)  [PDF]
Luca Bussotti
Advances in Historical Studies (AHS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ahs.2016.54014
Abstract: This article aims to present the evolution of Italian citizenship from political unification to the end of the Second World War, which in Italy corresponds with the end of the monarchy and the advent of the Republic. In this long period, the central definition of Italian citizenship was given by the Civil Code (1865), the basis of which was Ius sanguinis and the patrilineal system. The 1912 Law on Citizenship changed some aspects of the previous legislation, but did not alter the general legal scenario, despite great pressure from some organised movements such as those formed by Italian expatriates in the Americas. With the advent of fascism (1922), the discourse on the Italian nation became radicalised, but Mussolini’s regime did not pass any organic laws on citizenship. The innovations introduced under fascism were relatively modest; many were directed towards limiting the rights of particular categories of citizens, such as political opponents and Jewish people. Italy reached the beginning of the republican period with a legal apparatus on citizenship that was very similar to the one established for the first time in the Civil Code of 1865. This shows how Italian political classes have given more attention to the orthodoxy of the law than to the need to adapt it to the numerous transformations in Italian society.
On the Conceptual and Civilization Frames in René Descartes’ Physical Works  [PDF]
Paolo Bussotti, Raffaele Pisano
Advances in Historical Studies (AHS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ahs.2013.23015
Abstract: The paper try to provide a contribution to the scientific—historiographic debate concerning the relations between experiments, metaphysics and mathematics in Descartes’ physics. The three works on which the analysis is focused are the Principia philosophiae and the two physical essays: La Dioptrique and Les Météores. The authors will highlight the profound methodological and epistemological differences characterizing, from one side, the Principia and, from the other side, the physical essays. Three significant examples will be dealt with: 1) the collision rules in the Principia philosophiae; 2) the refraction law in La Dioptrique; 3) the rainbow in Les Météores. In the final remarks these differences will be interpreted as depending upon the different role Descartes ascribed to the three books inside his whole work. The concepts of intensity and gradation of the physical quantities used by Descartes will provide an important interpretative means. In this paper, we compare the aprioristic approach to physics typical for Descartes’ Principia with the experimental and mathematical one characterizing Descartes’ Essays.
On the Jesuit Edition of Newton’s Principia. Science and Advanced Researches in the Western Civilization  [PDF]
Paolo Bussotti, Raffaele Pisano
Advances in Historical Studies (AHS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ahs.2014.31005
Abstract: In this research, we present the most important characteristics of the so called and so much explored Jesuit Edition of Newton’s Philosophi? Naturalis Principia Mathematica edited by Thomas Le Seur and Fran?ois Jacquier in the 1739-1742. The edition, densely annotated by the commentators (the notes and the comments are longer than Newton’s text itself) is a very treasure concerning Newton’s ideas and his heritage, e.g., Newton’s geometry and mathematical physics. Conspicuous pieces of information as to history of physics, history of mathematics and epistemology can be drawn from it. This paper opens a series of study concerning Jesuit Edition, whose final scope is to put in evidence all the conceptual aspects of such edition and its role inside the spread of scientific ideas and inside the complex relation science, popularization & society.
The Geometrical Foundation of Federigo Enriques’ Gnoseology and Epistemology  [PDF]
Paolo Bussotti, Raffaele Pisano
Advances in Historical Studies (AHS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ahs.2015.42012
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to valuate the role of geometry inside Enriques’ theory of knowledge and epistemology. Our thesis is that such a role is prominent. We offer a particular interpretation of Enriques’ gnoseology, according to which geometry is the cornerstone to fully catch also the way in which he framed his conception of the history of science, of the origin of philosophy and of mathematics’ foundations. Our argumentation is divided into three sections: in the first one, we provide the reader with Enriques’ ideas on the physiological and conceptual bases of geometry. We distinguish between the primary and the secondary intuitions and expound the role Enriques ascribes to history inside the construction of human mind. In the second section, Enriques’ idea that philosophy was born as a rational geometry is expounded. In the third section we see what foundations of mathematics means in Enriques’ speculation. The reader will be in front of a thinker, whose theories are not separated one from the other, rather they are strictly connected. Geometry is the link which ties the various parts of Enriques’ theories and contributions. The Italian mathematician was an important thinker inside the European cultural milieu oriented towards scientific philosophy. In different forms, and with different ideas, mathematicians, philosophers, scientists as Mach, Poincaré, Hilbert, Painlevé—only to mention the most famous ones— were members of such a milieu, which, between the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the first world war, hoped to construct a philosophy based on science, whose value should have not been only scientific, but socio-anthropological, as well.
Introduction to Advances in Historical Studies Special Issue: Exploring Changes in How the Histories of the Exact Sciences Have Been Written: Interpreting the Dynamics of Change in These Sciences and Interrelations amongst Them—Past Problems, Future Cures?  [PDF]
Raffaele Pisano, Paolo Bussotti
Advances in Historical Studies (AHS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ahs.2015.42007
Abstract: Introduction to Advances in Historical Studies Special Issue: Exploring Changes in How the Histories of the Exact Sciences Have Been Written: Interpreting the Dynamics of Change in These Sciences and Interrelations amongst Them—Past Problems, Future Cures?
Historical Details on Freud and the Moral Order Foundations of Societies  [PDF]
Gabriel Mithá Ribeiro, Luca Bussotti
Advances in Historical Studies (AHS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ahs.2014.35021
Abstract: Freud considered that, in the beginning, the idea of society resulted from the moral order imposed by a totemic ideal generated by feelings of guilt and remorse motivated by the parricide of the founder of the community. Since the substance of the process has persisted in reinventions of social identities throughout history, from this assumption the article interprets the foundations of the moral order in postcolonial African societies, whose origins date back to pre-colonial African heritage, European colonial legacies and reactive historical phenomena of independence. While Freud’s ideal type focuses on the sense of collective guilt, the authors’ empirical approach highlights the historical relevance of the ideal of victimization in the twentieth century.
Italy and Mozambique: Science, Economy & Society within a History of an Anomalous Cooperation  [PDF]
Luca Bussotti, Antonella De Muti
Advances in Historical Studies (AHS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ahs.2013.24023
Abstract: In this article the authors aim at showing how an “anomalous” international and very intense cooperation between Italy and Mozambiquewas born. In fact, Italy has not a strong colonial tradition, especially in Mozambique, so it seems interesting to try to understand the reason why this former Portuguese colony has become the Italian most important partner in its cooperation activity. This analysis is based on the main hypothesis related to the birth of international bilateral cooperation: they have been seriously considered in order to explain the origin of this strange relationship, but they cannot completely clarify this particular case. According to the Italian social and political recent history, the privileged relationship with Mozambiqueis due more to a “bottom up” process than to geo-strategic or economic reasons. The fact that Mozambique had belonged to a weak Western power such as Portugal certainly gave Italy the opportunity to penetrate more easily in this country than in the ones which had been under the strong dominion of France or England. One of the most important results of this “anomalous” cooperation has to be found in the scientific fields (such as geology, architecture, biotechnologies) and in its impact on the development of Mozambique.
Annali di Botanica , 1996,
Abstract: After presenting the situation of forest decline in Italy and analyzing the factors that play a contributing role, tbis paper studies the response of the epicuticular wax structures and the stomata in ten broadleaf species and one conifer to fog-like treatments with acids andlor surfactants and to severe water stress. The main results are that wax structure alterations vary in intensity in the different species studied and that the microstructural alterations observed in field conditions cannot be attributed only to severe drought. since sample trccs put through water stress simulations do nol differ significantly from controls. In the artificial surfactant treatment, a positive relationship between structural damage to tbe stomata and transpiration suggests possible synergies between the effects of drought and those of pollutants in inducing stress conditions in Mediterranean vegetation.
The MoVIN server for the analysis of protein interaction networks
Marcatili Paolo,Bussotti Giovanni,Tramontano Anna
BMC Bioinformatics , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2105-9-s2-s11
Abstract: Background Protein-protein interactions are at the basis of most cellular processes and crucial for many bio-technological applications. During the last few years the development of high-throughput technologies has produced several large-scale protein-protein interaction data sets for various organisms. It is important to develop tools for dissecting their content and analyse the information they embed by data-integration and computational methods. Results Interactions can be mediated by the presence of specific features, such as motifs, surface patches and domains. The co-occurrence of these features on proteins interacting with the same protein can indicate mutually exclusive interactions and, therefore, can be used for inferring the involvement of the proteins in common biological processes. We present here a publicly available server that allows the user to investigate protein interaction data in light of other biological information, such as their sequences, presence of specific domains, process and component ontologies. The server can be effectively used to construct a high-confidence set of mutually exclusive interactions by identifying similar features in groups of proteins sharing a common interaction partner. As an example, we describe here the identification of common motifs, function, cellular localization and domains in different datasets of yeast interactions. Conclusions The server can be used to analyse user-supplied datasets, it contains pre-processed data for four yeast Protein Protein interaction datasets and the results of their statistical analysis. These show that the presence of common motifs in proteins interacting with the same partner is a valuable source of information, it can be used to investigate the properties of the interacting proteins and provides information that can be effectively integrated with other sources. As more experimental interaction data become available, this tool will become more and more useful to gain a more detailed picture of the interactome.
Detecting and Comparing Non-Coding RNAs in the High-Throughput Era
Giovanni Bussotti,Cedric Notredame,Anton J. Enright
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/ijms140815423
Abstract: In recent years there has been a growing interest in the field of non-coding RNA. This surge is a direct consequence of the discovery of a huge number of new non-coding genes and of the finding that many of these transcripts are involved in key cellular functions. In this context, accurately detecting and comparing RNA sequences has become important. Aligning nucleotide sequences is a key requisite when searching for homologous genes. Accurate alignments reveal evolutionary relationships, conserved regions and more generally any biologically relevant pattern. Comparing RNA molecules is, however, a challenging task. The nucleotide alphabet is simpler and therefore less informative than that of amino-acids. Moreover for many non-coding RNAs, evolution is likely to be mostly constrained at the structural level and not at the sequence level. This results in very poor sequence conservation impeding comparison of these molecules. These difficulties define a context where new methods are urgently needed in order to exploit experimental results to their full potential. This review focuses on the comparative genomics of non-coding RNAs in the context of new sequencing technologies and especially dealing with two extremely important and timely research aspects: the development of new methods to align RNAs and the analysis of high-throughput data.
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