Abstract:
Exact one-dimensional solutions to the equations of fluid dynamics are derived in the large-Pr and small-Pr limits (where Pr is the Prandtl number). The solutions are analogous to the Pr = 3/4 solution discovered by Becker and analytically capture the profile of shock fronts in ideal gases. The large-Pr solution is very similar to Becker's solution, differing only by a scale factor. The small-Pr solution is qualitatively different, with an embedded isothermal shock occurring above a critical Mach number. Solutions are derived for constant viscosity and conductivity as well as for the case in which conduction is provided by a radiation field. For a completely general density- and temperature-dependent viscosity and conductivity, the system of equations in all three limits can be reduced to quadrature. The maximum error in the analytical solutions when compared to a numerical integration of the finite-Pr equations is O(1/Pr) for large Pr and O(Pr) for small Pr.

Abstract:
I consider the hydrodynamic stability of imploding gases as a model for inertial confinement fusion capsules, sonoluminescent bubbles and the gravitational collapse of astrophysical gases. For oblate modes under a homologous flow, a monatomic gas is governed by the Schwarzschild criterion for buoyant stability. Under buoyantly unstable conditions, fluctuations experience power-law growth in time, with a growth rate that depends upon mean flow gradients and is independent of mode number. If the flow accelerates throughout the implosion, oblate modes amplify by a factor (2C)^(|N0| ti)$, where C is the convergence ratio of the implosion, N0 is the initial buoyancy frequency and ti is the implosion time scale. If, instead, the implosion consists of a coasting phase followed by stagnation, oblate modes amplify by a factor exp(pi |N0| ts), where N0 is the buoyancy frequency at stagnation and ts is the stagnation time scale. Even under stable conditions, vorticity fluctuations grow due to the conservation of angular momentum as the gas is compressed. For non-monatomic gases, this results in weak oscillatory growth under conditions that would otherwise be buoyantly stable; this over-stability is consistent with the conservation of wave action in the fluid frame. By evolving the complete set of linear equations, it is demonstrated that oblate modes are the fastest-growing modes and that high mode numbers are required to reach this limit (Legendre mode l > 100 for spherical flows). Finally, comparisons are made with a Lagrangian hydrodynamics code, and it is found that a numerical resolution of ~30 zones per wavelength is required to capture these solutions accurately. This translates to an angular resolution of ~(12/l) degrees, or < 0.1 degree to resolve the fastest-growing modes.

Abstract:
The modeling of turbulence, whether it be numerical or analytical, is a difficult challenge. Turbulence is amenable to analysis with linear theory if it is subject to rapid distortions, i.e., motions occurring on a time scale that is short compared to the time scale for non-linear interactions. Such an approach could prove useful for understanding aspects of astrophysical turbulence, which is often subject to rapid distortions, such as supernova explosions or the free-fall associated with gravitational instability. As a proof of principle, a particularly simple problem is considered here: the evolution of vorticity due to a planar rarefaction in an ideal gas. Vorticity can either grow or decay in the wake of a rarefaction front, and there are two competing effects that determine which outcome occurs: entropy fluctuations couple to the mean pressure gradient to produce vorticity via baroclinic effects, whereas vorticity is damped due to the conservation of angular momentum as the fluid expands. In the limit of purely entropic fluctuations in the ambient fluid, a strong rarefaction generates vorticity with a turbulent Mach number on the order of the root-mean square of the ambient entropy fluctuations. The analytical results are shown to compare well with results from two- and three-dimensional numerical simulations. Analytical solutions are also derived in the linear regime of Reynolds-averaged turbulence models. This highlights an inconsistency in standard turbulence models that prevents them from accurately capturing the physics of rarefaction-turbulence interaction. Finally, dimensional analysis of the equations indicates that rapid distortion of turbulence can give rise to two distinct regimes in the turbulent spectrum: a distortion range at large scales where linear distortion effects dominate, and an inertial range at small scales where non-linear effects dominate.

Abstract:
It is shown here that a subset of the implicit analytical shock solutions discovered by Becker and by Johnson can be inverted, yielding several exact closed-form solutions of the one-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations for an ideal gas. For a constant dynamic viscosity and thermal conductivity, and at particular values of the shock Mach number, the velocity can be expressed in terms of a polynomial root. For a constant kinematic viscosity, independent of Mach number, the velocity can be expressed in terms of a hyperbolic tangent function. The remaining fluid variables are related to the velocity through simple algebraic expressions. The solutions derived here make excellent verification tests for numerical algorithms, since no source terms in the evolution equations are approximated, and the closed-form expressions are straightforward to implement. The solutions are also of some academic interest as they may provide insight into the non-linear character of the Navier-Stokes equations and may stimulate further analytical developments.

Abstract:
We discuss the properties of an analytical solution for waves in radiating fluids, with a view towards its implementation as a quantitative test of radiation hydrodynamics codes. A homogeneous radiating fluid in local thermodynamic equilibrium is periodically driven at the boundary of a one-dimensional domain, and the solution describes the propagation of the waves thus excited. Two modes are excited for a given driving frequency, generally referred to as a radiative acoustic wave and a radiative diffusion wave. While the analytical solution is well known, several features are highlighted here that require care during its numerical implementation. We compare the solution in a wide range of parameter space to a numerical integration with a Lagrangian radiation hydrodynamics code. Our most significant observation is that flux-limited diffusion does not preserve causality for waves on a homogeneous background.

Abstract:
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal disease of deer, elk, and moose transmitted through direct, animal-to-animal contact, and indirectly, via environmental contamination. Considerable attention has been paid to modeling direct transmission, but despite the fact that CWD prions can remain infectious in the environment for years, relatively little information exists about the potential effects of indirect transmission on CWD dynamics. In the present study, we use simulation models to demonstrate how indirect transmission and the duration of environmental prion persistence may affect epidemics of CWD and populations of North American deer. Existing data from Colorado, Wyoming, and Wisconsin's CWD epidemics were used to define plausible short-term outcomes and associated parameter spaces. Resulting long-term outcomes range from relatively low disease prevalence and limited host-population decline to host-population collapse and extinction. Our models suggest that disease prevalence and the severity of population decline is driven by the duration that prions remain infectious in the environment. Despite relatively low epidemic growth rates, the basic reproductive number, R0, may be much larger than expected under the direct-transmission paradigm because the infectious period can vastly exceed the host's life span. High prion persistence is expected to lead to an increasing environmental pool of prions during the early phases (i.e. approximately during the first 50 years) of the epidemic. As a consequence, over this period of time, disease dynamics will become more heavily influenced by indirect transmission, which may explain some of the observed regional differences in age and sex-specific disease patterns. This suggests management interventions, such as culling or vaccination, will become increasingly less effective as CWD epidemics progress.

Abstract:
We numerically evolve turbulence driven by the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in a 3D, unstratified shearing box and study its structure using two-point correlation functions. We confirm Fromang and Papaloizou's result that shearing box models with zero net magnetic flux are not converged; the dimensionless shear stress $\alpha$ is proportional to the grid scale. We find that the two-point correlation of the magnetic field shows that it is composed of narrow filaments that are swept back by differential rotation into a trailing spiral. The correlation lengths along each of the correlation function principal axes decrease monotonically with the grid scale. For mean azimuthal field models, which we argue are more relevant to astrophysical disks than the zero net field models, we find that: $\alpha$ increases weakly with increasing resolution at fixed box size; $\alpha$ increases slightly as the box size is increased; $\alpha$ increases linearly with net field strength, confirming earlier results; the two-point correlation function of the magnetic field is resolved and converged, and is composed of narrow filaments swept back by the shear; the major axis of the two-point increases slightly as the box size is increased; these results are code independent, based on a comparison of ATHENA and ZEUS runs. The velocity, density, and magnetic fields decorrelate over scales larger than $\sim H$, as do the dynamical terms in the magnetic energy evolution equations. We conclude that MHD turbulence in disks is localized, subject to the limitations imposed by the absence of vertical stratification, the use of an isothermal equation of state, finite box size, finite run time, and finite resolution

Abstract:
this paper examines how exchange rate policies and imf stand-by arrangements affect debt crises using econometrics and a comparison between argentina and brazil. it refines an existing diagram outlining crisis development to propose crisis prevention strategies. flexible exchange rate policies reduce a country's probability of default by over 4%, but stand-by arrangements increase it by an inconsequential percentage. unlike argentina, brazil avoided a default via a freely-floating exchange rate system, fiscal deficit reduction, and a cooperative and coordinated relationship with the imf. the results provide policymakers from developing countries with lessons to manage their countries' default risks more effectively.

Abstract:
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary malignant brain tumor in adults and is uniformly lethal. T-cell-based immunotherapy offers a promising platform for treatment given its potential to specifically target tumor tissue while sparing the normal brain. However, the diffuse and infiltrative nature of these tumors in the brain parenchyma may pose an exceptional hurdle to successful immunotherapy in patients. Areas of invasive tumor are thought to reside behind an intact blood brain barrier, isolating them from effective immunosurveillance and thereby predisposing the development of "immunologically silent" tumor peninsulas. Therefore, it remains unclear if adoptively transferred T cells can migrate to and mediate regression in areas of invasive GBM. One barrier has been the lack of a preclinical mouse model that accurately recapitulates the growth patterns of human GBM in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that D-270 MG xenografts exhibit the classical features of GBM and produce the diffuse and invasive tumors seen in patients. Using this model, we designed experiments to assess whether T cells expressing third-generation chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) targeting the tumor-specific mutation of the epidermal growth factor receptor, EGFRvIII, would localize to and treat invasive intracerebral GBM. EGFRvIII-targeted CAR (EGFRvIII+ CAR) T cells demonstrated in vitro EGFRvIII antigen-specific recognition and reactivity to the D-270 MG cell line, which naturally expresses EGFRvIII. Moreover, when administered systemically, EGFRvIII+ CAR T cells localized to areas of invasive tumor, suppressed tumor growth, and enhanced survival of mice with established intracranial D-270 MG tumors. Together, these data demonstrate that systemically administered T cells are capable of migrating to the invasive edges of GBM to mediate antitumor efficacy and tumor regression.

Abstract:
We discuss the design and measured performance of a titanium nitride (TiN) mesh absorber we are developing for controlling optical crosstalk in horn-coupled lumped-element kinetic inductance detector arrays for millimeter-wavelengths. This absorber was added to the fused silica anti-reflection coating attached to previously-characterized, 20-element prototype arrays of LEKIDs fabricated from thin-film aluminum on silicon substrates. To test the TiN crosstalk absorber, we compared the measured response and noise properties of LEKID arrays with and without the TiN mesh. For this test, the LEKIDs were illuminated with an adjustable, incoherent electronic millimeter-wave source. Our measurements show that the optical crosstalk in the LEKID array with the TiN absorber is reduced by 66\% on average, so the approach is effective and a viable candidate for future kilo-pixel arrays.