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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 8172 matches for " Bruno Lashermes "
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Estimating Intermittency Exponent in Neutrally Stratified Atmospheric Surface Layer Flows: A Robust Framework based on Magnitude Cumulant and Surrogate Analyses
Sukanta Basu,Efi Foufoula-Georgiou,Bruno Lashermes,Alain Arneodo
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1063/1.2786001
Abstract: This study proposes a novel framework based on magnitude cumulant and surrogate analyses to reliably detect and estimate the intermittency coefficient from short-length coarse-resolution turbulent time series. Intermittency coefficients estimated from a large number of neutrally stratified atmospheric surface layer turbulent series from various field campaigns are shown to remarkably concur with well-known laboratory experimental results. In addition, surrogate-based hypothesis testing significantly reduces the likelihood of detecting a spurious non-zero intermittency coefficient from non-intermittent series. The discriminatory power of the proposed framework is promising for addressing the unresolved question of how atmospheric stability affects the intermittency properties of boundary layer turbulence.
Organization and molecular evolution of a disease-resistance gene cluster in coffee trees
Alessandra F Ribas, Alberto Cenci, Marie-Christine Combes, Hervé Etienne, Philippe Lashermes
BMC Genomics , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-12-240
Abstract: Sequence analysis of the SH3 region in three coffee genomes, Ea and Ca subgenomes from the allotetraploid C. arabica and Cc genome from the diploid C. canephora, revealed the presence of 5, 3 and 4 R genes in Ea, Ca, and Cc genomes, respectively. All these R-gene sequences appeared to be members of a CC-NBS-LRR (CNL) gene family that was only found at the SH3 locus in C. arabica. Furthermore, while homologs were found in several dicot species, comparative genomic analysis failed to find any CNL R-gene in the orthologous regions of other eudicot species. The orthology relationship among the SH3-CNL copies in the three analyzed genomes was determined and the duplication/deletion events that shaped the SH3 locus were traced back. Gene conversion events were detected between paralogs in all three genomes and also between the two sub-genomes of C. arabica. Significant positive selection was detected in the solvent-exposed residues of the SH3-CNL copies.The ancestral SH3-CNL copy was inserted in the SH3 locus after the divergence between Solanales and Rubiales lineages. Moreover, the origin of most of the SH3-CNL copies predates the divergence between Coffea species. The SH3-CNL family appeared to evolve following the birth-and-death model, since duplications and deletions were inferred in the evolution of the SH3 locus. Gene conversion between paralog members, inter-subgenome sequence exchanges and positive selection appear to be the major forces acting on the evolution of SH3-CNL in coffee trees.In their natural environment, plants encounter a vast array of pathogenic microorganisms such as viruses, bacteria, oomycetes, fungi and nematodes. To defend themselves against infection by these pathogens, plants employ a network of intertwined mechanisms. One such line of defense is based on dominant disease resistance (R) genes that mediate resistance to pathogens possessing corresponding avirulence (Avr) genes [1]. The largest class of known R genes includes those that encod
SNiPloid: A Utility to Exploit High-Throughput SNP Data Derived from RNA-Seq in Allopolyploid Species
Marine Peralta,Marie-Christine Combes,Alberto Cenci,Philippe Lashermes,Alexis Dereeper
International Journal of Plant Genomics , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/890123
Abstract: High-throughput sequencing is a common approach to discover SNP variants, especially in plant species. However, methods to analyze predicted SNPs are often optimized for diploid plant species whereas many crop species are allopolyploids and combine related but divergent subgenomes (homoeologous chromosome sets). We created a software tool, SNiPloid, that exploits and interprets putative SNPs in the context of allopolyploidy by comparing SNPs from an allopolyploid with those obtained in its modern-day diploid progenitors. SNiPloid can compare SNPs obtained from a sample to estimate the subgenome contribution to the transcriptome or SNPs obtained from two polyploid accessions to search for SNP divergence. 1. Introduction The advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies is revolutionizing our ability to discover and exploit single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Polyploidy occurs in many animals and plants but is particularly widespread in flowering plants, including many major crops. However, most methods used to discover and validate predicted SNPs are optimized for diploid species, so specific challenges related to polyploidy remain to be addressed. Many polyploid plants including coffee (Coffea arabica), wheat (Triticum durum Desf.), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) are allopolyploids and contain two or more distinct genomes (homoeologous chromosomes) after interspecific hybridization between related diploid species and chromosome doubling. As a consequence, allopolyploid genomes hold different copies of the most of their genes and genomic merger and doubling leads to an extensive array of genomic effects, including alterations in the expression of these duplicate genes (“homoeologs”). In an allopolyploid, the chromosomes derived from different parental species do not pair at meiosis and the gene copies, “homoeoalleles” or “homoeologs,” derived from different parental species have no allelic relationships and can consequently be distinguished from true alleles. In other words, sequence variation between subgenomes coexists with allelic variation within subgenomes. Accurate identification of homoeoSNPs (i.e., polymorphisms that occurred in only one of the subgenomes) in tetraploid sequence data is a challenge due to the coassembly of homoeologs. In a co-assembly, single nucleotide differences between the two subgenomes could be confused with SNP at a single locus. The sequencing of transcripts using high-throughput sequencing methods (RNA-Seq) can provide fresh insights into polyploid biology [1]. Typically, the
Harmonizing Budgeting and Accounting: The Case of Italy  [PDF]
Adriana Bruno
Open Journal of Accounting (OJAcct) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojacct.2014.31005
Abstract: Many reforms have been undertaken in recent years; indeed, scholars have concentrated their attention on ac-counting techniques, financial management, and the potential for adding tools to support managerial reform agendas [1-3]. This paper extends prior research by focusing on the manner of diffusion ongoing reform process, through the adoption of the new version of Financial Management Reform process model [3]. The objective of this research is to investigate how a new accounting system has been introduced in the public sector in a processual and outcome-oriented analysis [4]. The study setting for this research is the Italian government, specifically the intermediate or regional level government, Campania Region, where a trial period is underway. The objective is to discover what obstacles and difficulties might exist when implementing a harmonized accounting and budgeting system while moving toward an accrual accounting system. The study reveals the main paradox in the implementation of the reform. This kind of study could add fresh knowledge to the literature and highlight common problems encountered when implementing accounting reforms. Additionally it could help set a standard to assist public entities in developing and implementing accounting guidelines.
A Few Reflections on the Reasons Why Cooperative Firms Have Failed to Gain a Firm Foothold  [PDF]
Bruno Jossa
Open Journal of Business and Management (OJBM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojbm.2015.33027
Abstract: After the inception of the cooperative movement in the mid-19th century, it was widely held that capitalistic businesses would soon be replaced by a system of worker-controlled firms and a wealth of policy proposals called for a major impulse to cooperation in later years also. But cooperation has not met with the hoped-for success. How do we account for this? To our day, employee management specialists have been unable to provide a satisfactory explanation for the fact that the policy proposal to introduce democratic firm control still carries little consensus despite the collapse of the Soviet model of communism. In this paper, we give some answers to the question and emphasise the idea that progress in the direction of a generalised system of cooperative firms would amount to a considerable improvement over capitalism, but will hardly be made without the effective contribution of intellectuals and political parties.
Competition in a Democratic Firm System: Failures and Constraints  [PDF]
Bruno Jossa
Modern Economy (ME) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/me.2017.811092
Abstract: Considering that businesses face bankruptcy when their aggregate costs exceed their revenues, the cancellation of the largest production cost item—wages and salaries—in an employee-managed firm system is an effective safeguard against bankruptcy. For this and other reasons, the author argues that risks of insolvency are unlikely to scare democratic firms into accepting the capitalistic logic of cut-throat competition.
The True Strong Point of Democratic Firm Management  [PDF]
Bruno Jossa
Modern Economy (ME) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/me.2018.910101
Abstract: According to the author, the benefits society would derive from the transfer of corporate decision powers to workers upon the establishment of a democratic firm system include both the disempowerment of capitalists and, most importantly, a powerful impetus in the direction of full democracy. Capitalism is a despotic system enabling capitalists to impose their laws not only on workers, but even on politics and culture has been gaining wide currency. Therefore, one major advantage of democratic firm management is the enforcement of the “one head, one vote” principle in lieu of the “one share, one vote” criterion.
Effects of omacor® on left ventricular remodelling consecutive to post myocardial infarction special issue-myocardial infarction  [PDF]
Bruno Le Grand
World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases (WJCD) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/wjcd.2013.35A007
Abstract: Ventricular remodelling is the main trigger of the development of heart failure. Therefore, the reduction of structural remodelling is known to prevent the development of heart failure. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of OMACOR?, a well known mixture of EPA and DHA in an experimental model of heart failure induced by occlusion of left descending coronary artery and the reperfusion within 2 months. After a long term treatment of 2 months; OMACOR? (100 mg/kg) statistically significantly reduced the expansion of infarcted zone (35% ± 4%, P < 0.05, n = 9, versus 45% ± 3% in the vehicle group). The phosphorylation of Cx43 as biomarker of the cardiac remodelling was visualised by immunofluorescence in rat’s heart at the end of the study. In the vehicle-infarcted group, a significant de-phosphorylation of Cx43 was observed (8.2 ± 1.0 u.a, n = 8 compared to 11.8 ± 1.3 u.a in the sham group, n = 9) confirming a remodelling process in the infarcted group. In the group treated with OMACOR?,the de-phosphorylation of Cx43 was no longer observed compared to the sham group (16.4 ± 2.9 u.a, n = 9, NS). The present results demonstrate that a long term treatment with OMA-COR? reduced the infarcted size in experimental models of heart failure and that these anti-remodelling effects are due at least in part by resynchronizing the gap junction activity.

World Trade Logics and Measure of Global Inequality: Regional Pattern and Globalization Evolution between 2003-2012  [PDF]
Bruno G. Rüttimann
Open Journal of Applied Sciences (OJAppS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2014.44019
Abstract: The economy is globalizing. But how are the different economic world regions performing regarding globalization of trade flows? Why are they performing differently? Globalization is not only the increase of international trade between certain preferential geographic areas of economy, but also the resulting increase of interweavement of trade flows between different geographical areas, independent of the amount of trade. This paper is a revised and expanded version of the paper entitled “World Trade and Associated Systems Risk of Global Inequality: Empiric Study of Globalization Evolution between 2003-2011 and Regional Pattern Analysis” presented at International Conference on Applied Economics (ICOAE2013), Istanbul, 27-29 June, 2013. This paper analyzes the evolution of world trade flows between 2003-2012 and performs a cross-section analysis of the year 2012. The economic interweavement will be measured by an inequality risk metric applied to the supply-demand matrix. This risk indicator is based on the concept of statistical entropy resulting in an inequality risk measure, giving an indication for the degree of economic globalization and the evolution of globalization in different geographical regions. In addition, it analyses the governing rational of globalization evolution. The result of this research shows that economic trade flows are globalizing, but with clear different regional patterns, not only between globalizing and de-globalizing regions, but also within the globalizing and de-globalizing regions itself. The emerging economies such as China or the Middle East are globalizing whereas mature economies such as North America and Europe are de-globalizing, confirming for globalization of the inverse Kuznets evolution. The different patterns between the different economic world regions can be explained by using the Globalization Type’s Model as well as the Central Theorem of Globalization.
Discourse about Linear Programming and Lean Manufacturing: Two Different Approaches with a Similar, Converging Rational  [PDF]
Bruno G. Rüttimann
Journal of Service Science and Management (JSSM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2015.81010
Abstract: In recent years, the Toyota Production System has also assumed in western manufacturing plants a predominant position. Lean Manufacturing, as it is usually called in the occidental world, aims at a “Single-piece-flow” job handling and has its advantages compared to the classic “Batch and Queue” job handling. On the other hand, mathematical Linear Programming optimization techniques have passed into oblivion, having obtained the feel to be inappropriate for production planning. Although the two approaches have different aims and application, they give particular attention to scarce resources. The concepts of “bottleneck” in Lean Manufacturing and “shadow price” in Linear Programming are complementary. The paper shows the different focus of the two approaches and crystallizes their synergic values.
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