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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 5337 matches for " Bruce Neal "
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Quantifying the Importance of Interleukin-6 for Coronary Heart Disease
Bruce Neal
PLOS Medicine , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0050084
Methodological trends in studies based on verbal autopsies before and after published guidelines
Joshi,Rohina; Kengne,Andre Pascal; Neal,Bruce;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862009000900011
Abstract: objective: to report on the uptake of guidelines published in the early 1990s with specific recommendations about the design of future studies based on verbal autopsy conducted for mortality surveillance. methods: we conducted a systematic literature search of all verbal autopsy studies published before january 2006 and extracted from the studies a standard set of data. we then compared studies designed before and after the recommendations were issued in terms of seven key methodological indicators. findings: we found 102 studies conducted in 39 countries; 60 were designed before and 42 after the guidelines were issued. the methods used in these 102 studies varied considerably. while some encouraging trends were noted, there is no evidence that the design recommendations have been systematically implemented. specifically, there was no clear increase in the proportion of studies with a combined questionnaire (63% before recommendations versus 74% after; p = 0.3), a trained interviewer (70% versus 70%; p = 1.0), a suitable respondent (98% versus 100%; p = 1.0), an optimal recall period (84% versus 97%; p = 0.2), predefined algorithms (28% versus 38%; p = 0.4), an option for assigning multiple causes of death (30% versus 38%; p = 0.3), or a follow-up validation study (83% versus 72%; p = 0.7). conclusion: expert recommendations for optimal design of verbal autopsy studies have been incompletely implemented to date. better uptake of design recommendations through enhanced collaboration between research teams is likely to produce better mortality statistics from an increasing number of verbal autopsy studies.
Effects on the estimated cause-specific mortality fraction of providing physician reviewers with different formats of verbal autopsy data
Rohina Joshi, Devarsetty Praveen, Clara Chow, Bruce Neal
Population Health Metrics , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1478-7954-9-33
Abstract: Verbal autopsies were done by primary health care workers for all deaths between October 2006 and September 2007 in a community in rural Andhra Pradesh, India (total population about 180,162). Each questionnaire had a structured section, composed of a series of check boxes, and a free-text section, in which a narrative description of the events leading to death was recorded. For each death, a physician coder was presented first with one section and then the other in random order with a 20- to 40-day interval between. A cause of death was recorded for each data format at the level of ICD 10 chapter headings or else the death was documented as unclassified. After another 20- to 40-day interval, both the structured and free-text sections of the questionnaire were presented together and an index cause of death was assigned.In all, 1,407 verbal autopsies were available for analysis, representing 94% of all deaths recorded in the population that year. An index cause of death was assigned using the combined data for 1,190 with the other 217 remaining unclassified. The observed cause-specific mortality fractions were the same regardless of whether the structured, free-text or combined data sources were used. At the individual level, the assignments made using the structured format matched the index in 1,012 (72%) of cases with a kappa statistic of 0.66. For the free-text format, the corresponding figures were 989 (70%) and 0.64.The format of the verbal autopsy data used to assign a cause of death did not substantively influence the pattern of mortality estimated. Substantially abbreviated and simplified verbal autopsy questionnaires might provide robust information about high-level mortality patterns.Verbal autopsy methods have their origins in the 17th century lay-reporting systems developed for monitoring epidemics [1]. Those early "death searches" centered upon an interview of the family of the deceased person with the goal of establishing whether the cause of death was
Discharge β-Blocker Use and Race after Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting
Wesley T. O’Neal,Jimmy T. Efird,Stephen W. Davies,Jason B. O’Neal,T. Bruce Ferguson,Alan P. Kypson
Frontiers in Public Health , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2014.00094
Abstract: Introduction: The use of discharge β-blockers after cardiac surgery is associated with a long-term mortality benefit. β-Blockers have been suggested to be less effective in black cardiovascular patients compared with whites. To date, racial differences in the long-term survival of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) patients who receive β-blockers at discharge have not been examined.
Severe aberrant glenohumeral motor patterns in a young female rower: A case report
Timothy W Stark, Jessica Seebauer, Bruce Walker, Neal McGurk, Jeff Cooley
Chiropractic & Manual Therapies , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1746-1340-15-17
Abstract: Conventional approaches to shoulder examination include range of motion, orthopaedic tests and manual resistance tests. We also assessed the patient's cognitive ability to coordinate muscle function. With this type of assessment we found that co-contraction of local muscle groups seemed to initially improve the patients abnormal shoulder motion. With this information a rehabilitation method was instituted with a goal to maintain the improvement.An 18-year-old female with no history of trauma, presented with painless kinesiopathology of the left shoulder (in abduction) consisting of dysrhythmia of the glenohumeral joint and early lateral rotation of the scapula. Examination also showed associated muscle atrophy of the lower trapezius and surrounding general muscle weakness. We used an untested functional assessment method in addition to more conventional methods.Exercise rehabilitation interventions were subsequently prescribed and graduated in accordance with what is known as the General Physical Rehabilitation Pyramid.This paper presents an unusual case of aberrant shoulder movement. It highlights the need for careful examination and thought regarding the anatomical structures and normal motor patterns associated with the manoeuvre being tested. It also emphasised the use of co-contraction during examination in an attempt to immediately improve a regional dysrythmia if there is suspicion of a regional aberrant motor pattern. Further research may be warranted to test this approach.This case reports findings in an 18-year-old female who presented with motion aberration (kinesiopathology) of the left shoulder consisting of dysrhythmia of the glenohumeral joint and early lateral rotation of the scapula. To ascertain what is known about this type of condition a literature search was conducted via the database PubMed using the keywords "nontraumatic glenohumeral", "scapulohumeral", "subscapularis", "motor engram", and "glenohumeral instability", with the limits: All Adul
Internet-based treatment for older adults with depression and co-morbid cardiovascular disease: protocol for a randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled trial
Nicole L Cockayne, Nick Glozier, Sharon L Naismith, Helen Christensen, Bruce Neal, Ian B Hickie
BMC Psychiatry , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-244x-11-10
Abstract: This study is an internet-based, double-blind, parallel group randomised controlled trial. The trial will compare the effectiveness of online cognitive behavioural therapy with an online attention control placebo. The trial will consist of a 12-week intervention phase with a 40-week follow-up. It will be conducted in urban and rural New South Wales, Australia and will recruit a community-based sample of adults aged 45 to 75 years. Recruitment, intervention, cognitive testing and follow-up data collection will all be internet-based and automated. The primary outcome is a change in severity of depressive symptoms from baseline to three-months. Secondary outcomes are changes in cognitive function and adherence to treatment for CVD from baseline to three, six and 12-months.Prior studies of depression amongst patients with CVD have targeted those with previous vascular events and major depression. The potential for intervening earlier in these disease states appears to have significant potential and has yet to be tested. Scalable psychological programs using web-based interventions could deliver care to large numbers in a cost effective way if efficacy were proved. This study will determine the effects of a web-based intervention on depressive symptoms and adherence to treatment among patients at risk of CVD. In addition it will also precisely and reliably define the effects of the intervention upon aspects of cognitive function that are likely to be affected early in at risk individuals, using sensitive and responsive measures.Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR): ACTRN12610000085077Ischaemic heart disease and major depression are the two leading causes of disease burden as measured using disability-adjusted life years in OECD countries, contributing 9.0% and 6.8% of the total burden respectively. The associated conditions of stroke, diabetes and alcohol abuse are also among the top ten causes of disease burden [1]. Dementia contributes a further 2.9
Verbal autopsy coding: are multiple coders better than one?
Joshi,Rohina; Lopez,Alan D; MacMahon,Stephen; Reddy,Srinath; Dandona,Rakhi; Dandona,Lalit; Neal,Bruce;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862009000100013
Abstract: objective: to assess the impact on the reported cause-of-death patterns of a verbal autopsy coding strategy based on a review of every death by multiple coders versus a single coder. methods: deaths in 45 villages (total population 180 162) in southern india were documented during 12 months in 2003-2004, and a standard verbal autopsy questionnaire was completed for each death. two physician coders, each unaware of the other's decisions, assigned an underlying cause of death in accordance with the causes listed in the chapter headings of the international classification of diseases and related health problems, 10th revision (icd-10). for the three chapter headings that applied to more than 100 of the deaths, agreement for subsets of causes of death within the chapter was also analysed. in the event of discrepancies, a third coder was used to finalize a cause of death. cohen's kappa statistic (k) was used to measure levels of agreement between the two physician coders. findings: in total, 1354 deaths were documented, and a verbal autopsy was completed for 1329 (98%) of them. at the chapter heading level of the icd-10, physician coders assigned the same cause to 1255 deaths (94%) (k = 0.93; 95% confidence interval: 0.92-0.94). the patterns of death derived from the causes assigned by each physician were all very similar to the patterns obtained through the consensus process, with the rank order of the 10 leading causes of death being the same for all three coding methods. conclusion: duplicate coding of verbal autopsy results has little advantage over a single-coder system for mortality surveillance or for identifying population patterns of death. resources could be better diverted to other parts of the mortality surveillance process, such as validation.
Internet-Delivered Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Adults with Mild to Moderate Depression and High Cardiovascular Disease Risks: A Randomised Attention-Controlled Trial
Nicholas Glozier, Helen Christensen, Sharon Naismith, Nicole Cockayne, Liesje Donkin, Bruce Neal, Andrew Mackinnon, Ian Hickie
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0059139
Abstract: Background and Aim Mild to moderate depression is common in those with cardiovascular disease and undertreated. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of internet-delivered Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (iCBT) on depressive symptom severity and adherence to medical advice and lifestyle interventions in adults with mild to moderate depression and high cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks. Methods Randomised double-blind, 12 week attention-controlled trial comparing an iCBT programme (E-couch) with an internet-delivered attention control health information package (HealthWatch, n = 282). The primary outcome was depression symptom level on the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) (trial registration: ACTRN12610000085077). Results 487/562 (88%) participants completed the endpoint assessment. 383/562 (70%) were currently treated for cardiovascular disease and 314/562 (56%) had at least one other comorbid condition. In ITT analysis of 562 participants iCBT produced a greater decline in the mean PHQ-9 score compared to the attention control of 1.06 (95% CI: 0.23–1.89) points, with differences between the two arms increasing over the intervention period (time by treatment effect interaction p = .012). There were also larger improvements in adherence (2.16 points; 95% CI: 0.33–3.99), reductions in anxiety (0.96 points; 95% CI: 0.19–1.73), and a greater proportion engaging in beneficial physical activity (Odds Ratio 1.91, 95%CI: 1.01–3.61) in the iCBT participants but no effect upon disability, or walking time/day. There were no withdrawals due to study related adverse events. Conclusions In people with mild to moderate depression and high levels of CVD risk factors, a freely accessible iCBT programme (http://www.ecouch.anu.edu.au) produced a small, but robust, improvement in depressive symptoms, adherence and some health behaviours. Trial Registration Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12610000085077
The Effects on Saturated Fat Purchases of Providing Internet Shoppers with Purchase- Specific Dietary Advice: A Randomised Trial
Amy Huang, Federica Barzi, Rachel Huxley, Gareth Denyer, Beth Rohrlach, Kathy Jayne, Bruce Neal
PLOS ONE , 2006, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pctr.0010022
Abstract: Objectives The supermarket industry now services many customers through online food shopping over the Internet. The Internet shopping process offers a novel opportunity for the modification of dietary patterns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects on consumers' purchases of saturated fat of a fully automated computerised system that provided real-time advice tailored to the consumers' specific purchases recommending foods lower in saturated fat. Design This study was a blinded, randomised controlled trial. Setting The study was conducted in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Participants The participants were consumers using a commercial online Internet shopping site between February and June 2004. Interventions Individuals assigned to intervention received fully automated advice that recommended specific switches from selected products higher in saturated fat to alternate similar products lower in saturated fat. Participants assigned to control received general non-specific advice about how to eat a diet lower in saturated fat. Outcome Measures The outcome measure was the difference in saturated fat (grams per 100 g of food) in shopping baskets between the intervention and control groups. Results There were 497 randomised participants, mean age 40 y, each shopping for an average of about three people. The amount of saturated fat in the foods purchased by the intervention group was 0.66% lower (95% confidence interval 0.48–0.84, p < 0.001) than in the control group. The effects of the intervention were sustained over consecutive shopping episodes, and there was no difference in the average cost of the food bought by each group. Conclusions Fully automated, purchase-specific dietary advice offered to customers during Internet shopping can bring about changes in food purchasing habits that are likely to have significant public health implications. Because implementation is simple to initiate and maintain, this strategy would likely be highly cost-effective. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00352508
Bowen Ratio Energy Balance Measurement of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Fluxes of No-Till and Conventional Tillage Agriculture in Lesotho  [PDF]
Deb O’Dell, Thomas J. Sauer, Bruce B. Hicks, Dayton M. Lambert, David R. Smith, Wendy Bruns, August Basson, Makoala V. Marake, Forbes Walker, Michael D. Wilcox Jr., Neal Samuel Eash
Open Journal of Soil Science (OJSS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojss.2014.43012

Global food demand requires that soils be used intensively for agriculture, but how these soils are managed greatly impacts soil fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2). Soil management practices can cause carbon to be either sequestered or emitted, with corresponding uncertain influence on atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The situation is further complicated by the lack of CO2 flux measurements for African subsistence farms. For widespread application in remote areas, a simple experimental methodology is desired. As a first step, the present study investigated the use of Bowen Ratio Energy Balance (BREB) instrumentation to measure the energy balance and CO2 fluxes of two contrasting crop management systems, till and no-till, in the lowlands within the mountains of Lesotho. Two BREB micrometeorological systems were established on 100-m by 100-m sites, both planted with maize (Zea mays) but under either conventional (plow, disk-disk) or no-till soil mangement systems. The results demonstrate that with careful maintenance of the instruments by appropriately trained local personnel, the BREB approach offers substantial benefits in measuring real time changes in agroecosystem CO2 flux. The periods where the two treatments could be compared indicated greater CO2 sequestration over the no-till treatments during both the growing and non-growing seasons.

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