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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 171217 matches for " Bruce E. Wexler "
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Increasing Readiness to Learn: Benefits of Executive Function Training in Kindergarten Carry over to First Grade  [PDF]
Ahmet Esat Imal, Bruce E. Wexler
Creative Education (CE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2018.916201
Executive Function skills such as focused attention, inhibition or self-control, and working memory in preschool and kindergarten predict reading and math achievement in elementary school and beyond. A growing body of research indicates that these skills can be improved by repetitive practice of progressively more difficult tasks that require Executive Function. We report that children who participated in an integrated program of computer presented and physical exercises to improve Executive Function when in kindergarten then entered first grade with greater attention and self-control skills than their first grade classmates who had not participated in the program.
Factor Structure of Social Cognition in Schizophrenia: Is Empathy Preserved?
Silvia Corbera,Bruce E. Wexler,Satoru Ikezawa,Morris D. Bell
Schizophrenia Research and Treatment , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/409205
Abstract: Social cognitive impairments are core features of schizophrenia and are closely associated with poor functional outcome. This study sought to identify specific aspects of social cognition and their relationships to measures of social function, quality of life, and neurocognition. Principal component analysis was performed using social cognitive measures in patients with schizophrenia and healthy matched controls and revealed three factors: Interpersonal Discomfort, Basic Social Cognition, and Empathy. Patients had higher scores on Interpersonal Discomfort and lower scores on Basic Social Cognition than controls, but the two groups were the same on Empathy. Lower social performance was significantly correlated with poor Basic Social Cognition in patients and with high Interpersonal Discomfort in controls. While neurocognition was significantly associated with Basic Social Cognition in both groups, it was not associated with Empathy. Social cognitive interventions should emphasize improving basic social cognitive processing deficits, managing Interpersonal Discomfort, and utilizing preserved capacity for empathy as a potential strength in social interactions. 1. Introduction Patients with schizophrenia have poor social cognitive skills, and these deficits greatly impact their daily functioning [1]. Additionally, social cognition has been found to mediate the relationship between neurocognition and social functioning [2, 3]. Treatment interventions have proliferated to address deficits in social cognition as ways to improve social functioning and several meta-analyses strongly support the efficacy of the interventions [4–6]. However, social cognition and social function are two broad multidimensional constructs and relatively little is known about the relationships among more specific aspects of each, either within or across the two broader spheres, or what aspects of each are most responsive to current treatments. One recent meta-analysis by Kurtz and Richardson [6] compared treatment effects on various measures of social cognition and found the greatest effects on facial affect recognition and lesser effects on measures of other aspects of social cognition. More work is needed to clarify which social cognitive constructs most directly influence social functioning [3] and which are more or less amenable to existing treatments. Understanding the social cognitive constructs that most relate to social functioning would help identify targets to treat in social cognitive interventions. Some studies have attempted to study the relationships between selected
Anatomical Abnormalities in Gray and White Matter of the Cortical Surface in Persons with Schizophrenia
Tiziano Colibazzi, Bruce E. Wexler, Ravi Bansal, Xuejun Hao, Jun Liu, Juan Sanchez-Pe?a, Cheryl Corcoran, Jeffrey A. Lieberman, Bradley S. Peterson
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0055783
Abstract: Background Although schizophrenia has been associated with abnormalities in brain anatomy, imaging studies have not fully determined the nature and relative contributions of gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) disturbances underlying these findings. We sought to determine the pattern and distribution of these GM and WM abnormalities. Furthermore, we aimed to clarify the contribution of abnormalities in cortical thickness and cortical surface area to the reduced GM volumes reported in schizophrenia. Methods We recruited 76 persons with schizophrenia and 57 healthy controls from the community and obtained measures of cortical and WM surface areas, of local volumes along the brain and WM surfaces, and of cortical thickness. Results We detected reduced local volumes in patients along corresponding locations of the brain and WM surfaces in addition to bilateral greater thickness of perisylvian cortices and thinner cortex in the superior frontal and cingulate gyri. Total cortical and WM surface areas were reduced. Patients with worse performance on the serial-position task, a measure of working memory, had a higher burden of WM abnormalities. Conclusions Reduced local volumes along the surface of the brain mirrored the locations of abnormalities along the surface of the underlying WM, rather than of abnormalities of cortical thickness. Moreover, anatomical features of white matter, but not cortical thickness, correlated with measures of working memory. We propose that reductions in WM and smaller total cortical surface area could be central anatomical abnormalities in schizophrenia, driving, at least partially, the reduced regional GM volumes often observed in this illness.
Improvements to a Novel Device Simulating Pneumatic Intussusception Reduction  [PDF]
Steffan K. Soosman, Joseph C. Li, Glade E. Roper, Anthony S. Wexler, Rebecca Stein-Wexler, Thomas Ray Sanchez
Open Journal of Radiology (OJRad) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojrad.2013.32011

Objectives: Intussusception, an uncommon but important cause of acute abdomen during infancy and early childhood, can be safely and effectively treated by fluoroscopic air reduction. Although pediatric radiology fellows report ample opportunity to practice intussusception reduction, radiology residents report few opportunities to participate in this procedure. Adequate training to reduce intussusception is essential, as successful reduction obviates the need for surgery. A teaching device that simulates intussusception reduction could help radiology residents develop the skills necessary to perform this procedure. Materials and Methods: We report on improvements made to a training device developed in 2010 by Stein-Wexler et al. Since then we have simplified the manufacturing process, added several unique patient cases, improved the software so that adding patient scenarios is easier, and improved the graphic interface to make the simulation more realistic and facilitate feedback. Results: The simulator is now a customizable and robust standalone package. A thorough instructor’s manual and improvements to the graphic design-such as embedded checklists, built-in feedback mechanisms, and a more intuitive interface-make the simulator easier to use. Conclusion: We have improved our previously-reported teaching device for intussusception reduction and produced a robust simulator. We plan to make this device available to programs that train physicians in pneumatic intussusception reduction.

Crown Ratio and Relative Spacing Relationships for Loblolly Pine Plantations  [PDF]
Dehai Zhao, Michael Kane, Bruce E. Borders
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2012.23014
Abstract: Two loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) culture/density studies were established in 1995-1998 across the Lower Coastal Plain and Upper Coastal Plain/Piedmont regions of the southern USA. Each installation contains 12 plots of loblolly pine planted at six levels of density from 741 to 4448 trees/ha in combination with two levels of cultural intensity, operational and intensive. The data from 37 viable installations were used to evaluate the crown ratio and relative spacing relationship of loblolly pine plantations. The effects of planting density, site quality, and cultural intensity on the relationship were investigated with a nonlinear mixed-effects modeling approach. The crown ratio and relative spacing relationship is exceedingly predictable. When loblolly pine plantation stands reached the average live crown ratio of 0.40, a critical point representing a generally acceptable level of tree vigor, the corresponding relative spacing index ranged from 0.11 to 0.20, mainly depending on initial planting density. The information about the crown ratio and relative spacing relationship would be useful for selecting the best intensity and timing of thinning.
El currículum en la sociedad cerrada
Philip Wexler
Temps d'Educació , 1989,
El currículum en la societat tancada
Philip Wexler
Temps d'Educació , 1989,
Mystical Jewish Sociology
Philip Wexler
Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies , 2007,
Abstract: The paper begins by engaging Mircea Eliade’s undervaluation of the importance of classical sociology of religion, namely, Durkheim and Weber, and goes on to show how much they share with him, particularly with regard to a critique of modern European civilization, and of the foundational importance of religion in society. This “other”, non-positivist, non-reductionist face of Durkheim and Weber is elaborated by showing their religious, even “primordial” approaches to the religious bases of society and culture. Eliade’s criticism of sociology is further misplaced, given the decline of the sociological regime of knowledge, and the accuracy of Eliade’s prescient expectation of a cosmic rather than historical orientation, and the current importance of religion and “spirituality” for socio-cultural life, generally. The displacement of secular social theory by social and psychological understanding explicitly based in religious thought is explored in several domains and religious traditions. The paper emphasizes, however, a sociology created from within the streams of Jewish mysticism, and examples are offered. The line of Romanian scholars of religion, including Eliade, Idel and Culiano, is seen as less than apparently dissonant with both the sociology of religious experience, and the post-sociological turn to creating social theory from within religious, and particularly, mystical traditions.
From Trees to Galaxies: The Potts Model on a Random Surface
Mark Wexler
Physics , 1994, DOI: 10.1016/0550-3213(95)94690-A
Abstract: The matrix model of random surfaces with c = inf. has recently been solved and found to be identical to a random surface coupled to a q-states Potts model with q = inf. The mean field-like solution exhibits a novel type of tree structure. The natural question is, down to which--if any--finite values of c and q does this behavior persist? In this work we develop, for the Potts model, an expansion in the fluctuations about the q = inf. mean field solution. In the lowest--cubic--non-trivial order in this expansion the corrections to mean field theory can be given a nice interpretation in terms of structures (trees and ``galaxies'') of spin clusters. When q drops below a finite q_c, the galaxies overwhelm the trees at all temperatures, thus suppressing mean field behavior. Thereafter the phase diagram resembles that of the Ising model, q=2.
Magnus and Iordanskii Forces in Superfluids
C. Wexler
Physics , 1996, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.79.1321
Abstract: The total transverse force acting on a quantized vortex in a superfluid is a problem that has eluded a complete understanding for more than three decades. In this letter I propose a remarkably simple argument, somewhat reminiscent of Laughlin's beautiful argument for the quantization of conductance in the quantum Hall effect, to define the superfluid velocity part of the transverse force. This term is found to be $- \rho_s {\kappa}_s \times {v}_s$. Although this result does not seem to be overly controversial, this thermodynamic argument based only on macroscopic properties of the superfluid does offer a robust derivation. A recent publication by Thouless, Ao and Niu has demonstrated that the vortex velocity part of the transverse force in a homogeneous neutral superfluid is given by the usual form $\rho_s {\kappa}_s \times {v}_V$. A combination of these two independent results and the required Galilean invariance yields that there cannot be any transverse force proportional to the normal fluid velocity, in apparent conflict with Iordanskii's theory of the transverse force due to phonon scattering by the vortex.
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