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Modeling of Quaternary Groundwater Pollution Risk by GIS and Multicriteria Analysis in the Southern Part of Abidjan District (Côte d’Ivoire)  [PDF]
Innocent Kouassi Kouame, Aristide Gount?h Douagui, Kouadio Koffi, Brou Dibi, Lazare Kouakou Kouassi, Issiaka Savane
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.411139

The pollution generated by human activities in the area “Vridi canal-Grand Bassam” puts more at risk the quaternary groundwater that supplies water to a large part of the population of the southern part of Abidjan city. This paper deals with the combined approach of geographic information systems and multicriteria analysis to delineate areas at risk of pollution of groundwater in the study area. The multicriteria analysis also incorporated the statistical and geostatistical techniques for defining the factor ratings and weightings of all the parameters under a GIS environment. The criterion for these factor ratings and weightings was the correlation coefficient of each parameter with the nitrates concentration in groundwater. Two indicators were combined for creating situations of pollution risks according to their importance: the intrinsic vulnerability indicators which combined the depth to groundwater, the net recharge, the slope, the soil media, the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity and extrinsic vulnerability characterized by the land use. The results showed that all to the site presents nitrate pollution risks with 50.7% of moderate risk, and 49.3% of high and very high risks. The areas which present the highest risks of pollution are the densely urbanized communes of Treichville, Marcory, Koumasi, Port-Bouet and Grand-Bassam. The sensitivity analysis indicates that parameters causing high sensitivity on the nitrate pollution risks map are the depth to groundwater and the recharge. The errors committed on the maps establishment are ±0.15%, ±0.40% and ±6% respectively for IV map, EV map and pollution risk map.

Characterization of the Origin of Pollutants in Groundwater from Biostatistical Tests: The Case of Catchment Ehania, South-Eastern Côte d’Ivoire  [PDF]
Brou Dibi, Arthur Brice Konan-Waidhet, Felix Koffi Konan, Charles Sagne Yao, Alex Kouadio Zilé, Issiaka Savané, Dago Gnakri
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2013.512125

The threat of agro-industrial exploitations on the quality of groundwater resources has become a major concern for the worlds population, mainly in agricultural areas. To solve this problem, several methods such as vulnerability to pollutants and statistics methods, have been adopted to protect these groundwaters. In this study, statistical tests were used to determine the likely source of pollutants in the groundwater resources. First, we made a comparative analysis and then analyzed pollutants parameters using Kohonen self-organizing map (SOM) which allows basic on the similarity to help out any correlation between the physic-chemical parameters. To validate these results, a land use map was developed to identify the sources of pollutants in production functions of different activities taking place on the catchment area. The results indicate very high levels of certain pollutants such as NO3-, Cl- and SO42- with generally higher than World Health Organization (WHO) standards values. These high levels observed could be attributed to the generally free nature of aquifers alteration and sedimentary formations in areas of high agro-industrial production. The analysis of the data from SOM method reveals a strong correlation between pollutants (NO3-, SO42-,

Prospects for Minimizing the Potential Environmental Impacts of the Hydro-Agricultural Dam of M’Bahiakro (Côte d’Ivoire)  [PDF]
Lazare Kouakou Kouassi, Innocent Kouassi Kouamé, Séraphin Kouakou Konan, Brou Dibi, Soumahoro Moussa, Diakaria Koné, Dago Gnakri
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2013.59085

This study aims at characterizing the physical environment and suggesting solutions for a better management of the hydro-agricultural dam of M’Bahiakro which is being constructed over the N’Zi River and is the first inflatable dam in Cote d’Ivoire. In this survey, data related to hydrology, characteristics of the dam and the irrigated rice production area were obtained with the Water Resources Agency and the National Office of Rice Development of Cote d’Ivoire. Physicochemical parameters of the N’Zi River were collected seasonally at three monitoring stations. Results showed that the N’Zi River is characterized by a high water level period from April to November and a low water level period from November to April. The gap between the low flows and the high flows is important (about 206 m3/s on average). The annual average flow is 40 m3/s with a standard deviation of 32.52 m3/s and a variation coefficient of 0.88. The SAR average value (1.63) and the average conductivity (78.44 μS/cm) showed that waters of

Potential Groundwater Pollution Risks by Heavy Metals from Agricultural Soil in Songon Area (Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire)  [PDF]
Innocent K. Kouamé, Lazare K. Kouassi, Brou Dibi, Kouamé M. Adou, Ioan D. Rascanu, Gheorghe Romanescu, Issiaka Savané, Ion Sandu
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.412165

The soil samples were collected taking into account the land use in Songon area. The hydraulic conductivity (K) of soils was characterized in-situ when specific yield (Sy), pHw and concentrations of Cooper, Iron, Zinc, Cadmium, Chromium and Lead were measured in the laboratory. Pollution load indices (PLI) were calculated to evaluate the soil contamination levels. The soils were neutral and alkaline (6.7≤ pH ≤ 9.20), permeable (1.9 í 10-5 m·s-1 ≤ K ≤ 8.2 í 10-4 m·s-1), with a high specific yield (13.33% ≤ Sy ≤ 33.33%) which can favor the pollutants transfer. The heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr and Pb) have very high concentrations in soils. The integrated pollution indices (PLI) indicate that almost 70% of Songon soils are moderately contaminated by the investigated heavy metals, with windows presenting high indices of pollution related to the intensive use of fertilizers and pesticides. The establishment of new boreholes in the Songon area should consider these heavy metals, so as to avoid the risk of groundwater pollution due to the physical properties of soils.

Statistical Approach of Assessing Horizontal Mobility of Heavy Metals in the Soil of Akouedo Landfill Nearby Ebrie Lagoon (Abidjan-Cote D'Ivoire)
Innocent Kouassi KOUAME,Brou DIBI,Kouadio KOFFI,Issiaka SAVANE
International Journal of Conservation Science , 2010,
Abstract: The present study aim to quantify heavy metals in the Akouedo landfill soil and evaluate the extent of their contamination, to better understand the horizontal migration of these pollutants towards the Ebrie lagoon located downstream. Horizontal mobility of heavy metals in soil was performed by the Kruskal-Wallis test which was used to evaluate the heavy metals concentrations according to the upstream downstream disposition of soil sample sites. Then the Mann-Whitney test was applied to find if variances between upgradient and downgradient parameters concentrations in the soil sample sites were homogenous. The results show that the soil is rich in organic matter (organic carbon and organic nitrogen) with a basic pH (7.94 Keywords landfill --- heavy metals --- soil --- horizontal mobility --- Ebrie lagoon --- Abidjan --- C te d'Ivoire
Assessment of Wells Water Quality and their Suitability for Drinking in M'Bahiakro City (C te d'Ivoire)
Kouassi Innocent KOUAME,Kouakou Séraphin KONAN,Kouakou Lazare KOUASSI,Brou DIBI
International Journal of Conservation Science , 2012,
Abstract: The present study was carried out to assess the quality and the suitability of the well waters for drinking in M’bahiakro city (centre-east of C te d’Ivoire). The work was performed on 71 wells in February 2012 (dry season) and June 2012 (rainy season). Groundwater levels and physico-chemical parameters (pH, temperature, electrical conductivity, redox potential (Eh), Total Dissolved Solid (TDS) and Salinity) were measured to assess the water table fluctuation and the groundwater quality. Standardized Principal Component Analysis (SPCA) was calculated to group the well waters and to evaluate their suitability for drinking according to different classes. Water table varies between 125 and 135 m during the dry season and between 127 and 136 m during the rainy season with a West-Est flow direction. The recharge values ranged between 0.57 m and 5.57 m. Wells waters are generally acidic (pH<6.5), high mineralized with conductivities and Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) respectively above 600 μS/cm and 300 mg/l. Well water salinity values ranged between 0.30 and 0.5%. The Standardized Principal Component Analysis (SPCA) allowed distinguishing three important groups of water within M’bahiakro area: the first group of wells with high mineralized water, the second group of wells with high potential redox (Eh) and the third group of wells with pH closer to neutral. The first and second groups are not very suitable for drinking because they are suspected of being contaminated by anthropogenic sources such as septic tanks and wild dump. Waters of these wells need to be treated before any domestic use.
Competitiveness Evaluation of West Africa Coastal Countries Ports: Structure Conduct Performance Approch  [PDF]
Brou Mathias Allate
Open Journal of Applied Sciences (OJAppS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2018.89029
Abstract: The purpose of this article is to evaluate the competitiveness of West Africa coastal countries (WACC) Ports using market structure-conduct-performance(SCP) framework drawn from the Industrial Organization (IO) concept. Market structure is evaluated through an analysis of market concentration using four different techniques namely the K-firm concentration ratio (K-CR), the Hirshman-Herfindahl Index (HHI), the Gini Coefficient (GC) and the Shannon Entropy Index (EI). Then market conduct is assessed by adopting Shift-Share Analysis.The results reveal that the WACC’s ports market exhibits a tendency toward deconcentration over the study period (2005-2014). This can clearly be noticed from the analysis of the K-CR and HHI. The K-CR analysis indicates that the market shares of the top four ports in the defined market have reduced over the study period. In the same way, the HHI value also reduced in the same period. Regarding the inequality assessment, the decrease in the value of Gini coefficients as well as the increase in Entropy indices for the WACC port market suggests a deconcentration trend within the period considered in this study. Regarding market conduct analysis, the shift-share analysis applied to the defined market over the period of study, demonstrates thatthe level of?port concentration in the WACC port market decreased within the period of study.
A Novel Neural Network-Based Technique for Smart Gas Sensors Operating in a Dynamic Environment
Hakim Baha,Zohir Dibi
Sensors , 2009, DOI: 10.3390/s91108944
Abstract: Thanks to their high sensitivity and low-cost, metal oxide gas sensors (MOX) are widely used in gas detection, although they present well-known problems (lack of selectivity and environmental effects…). We present in this paper a novel neural network- based technique to remedy these problems. The idea is to create intelligent models; the first one, called corrector, can automatically linearize a sensor’s response characteristics and eliminate its dependency on the environmental parameters. The corrector’s responses are processed with the second intelligent model which has the role of discriminating exactly the detected gas (nature and concentration). The gas sensors used are industrial resistive kind (TGS8xx, by Figaro Engineering). The MATLAB environment is used during the design phase and optimization. The sensor models, the corrector, and the selective model were implemented and tested in the PSPICE simulator. The sensor model accurately expresses the nonlinear character of the response and the dependence on temperature and relative humidity in addition to their gas nature dependency. The corrector linearizes and compensates the sensor’s responses. The method discriminates qualitatively and quantitatively between seven gases. The advantage of the method is that it uses a small representative database so we can easily implement the model in an electrical simulator. This method can be extended to other sensors.
Priscila Dibi Schvarcz
Revista Eletr?nica do Curso de Direito da UFSM , 2008, DOI: 10.5902/198136946857
Abstract: 1. Direitos reais de garantia. 2. Penhor. 3. Penhor rural. 4. Penhor rural como garantia nos contratos de arrendamento rural
Ubiquitinations in the Notch Signaling Pathway
Julien Moretti,Christel Brou
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/ijms14036359
Abstract: The very conserved Notch pathway is used iteratively during development and adulthood to regulate cell fates. Notch activation relies on interactions between neighboring cells, through the binding of Notch receptors to their ligands, both transmembrane molecules. This inter-cellular contact initiates a cascade of events eventually transforming the cell surface receptor into a nuclear factor acting on the transcription of specific target genes. This review highlights how the various processes undergone by Notch receptors and ligands that regulate the pathway are linked to ubiquitination events.
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