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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 68 matches for " Bronislaw Cymborowski "
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Effects of 5,7-dihydroxytriptamine (5,7-DHT) on circadian locomotor activity of the blow fly, Calliphora vicina
Bronislaw Cymborowski
Journal of Insect Science , 2003,
Abstract: The biogenic amine serotonin (5-HT) is a neuromodulator in both vertebrates and invertebrates. It has been shown that serotonin, apart from its distinct effects on behavior, also plays a morphoregulatory role during the ontogeny of the insect's nervous system. The role of serotonin in modulating circadian locomotor activity of the blow fly, Calliphora vicina was explored. Injection of a specific neurotoxin, 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT), into the hemolymph appeared to significantly reduced the level of locomotor activity and lengthened the period (tau) of circadian rhythmicity. After drug injection in constant darkness flies continued with their free-running rhythm of a locomotor activity, depending on the time of 5,7-DHT injection. This compound causes phase delay when administered in the early subjective day, and phase advance in the late subjective day. This effect is the opposite of the phase response curve obtained for 5-HT injections. This suggests that 5-HT might act as an entraining agent via the output pathway by feedback to clock neurons in the brain. Some of the injected insects regained their normal level of activity after a few days. These findings suggest a potential role for serotonin as modulator of circadian rhythms in insect including regulation of the level of locomotor activity.
Cytosolic phospholipase A2 S-nitrosylation in ghrelin protection against detrimental effect of ethanol cytotoxicity on gastric mucin synthesis ——Ghrelin in gastric mucosal protection  [PDF]
Bronislaw L. Slomiany, Amalia Slomiany
Health (Health) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/health.2010.29152
Abstract: Ghrelin, a peptide hormone produced mainly in the stomach, has emerged recently as an important regulator of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme systems, the products of which play direct cytoprotective function in the maintenance of gastric mucosal integrity. In this study, using gastric mucosal cells, we report on the role of ghrelin in countering the cytotoxic effect of ethanol on mucin synthesis. We show that the countering effect of ghrelin on mucin synthesis was associated with the increase in NO and PGE2 production, and characterized by a marked up-regulation in cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) activity. The ghrelin-induced up-regulation in mucin synthesis, like that of cPLA2 activity, was subject to suppression by Src inhibitor, PP2 and ERK inhibitor, PD98059, as well as ascorbate. Moreover, the loss in countering effect of ghrelin on the ethanol cytotoxicity and mucin synthesis was attained with cNOS inhibitor, L-NAME as well as COX-1 inhibitor SC-560. The effect of L-NAME was reflected in the inhibition of ghrelin-induced mucosal cell capacity for NO production, cPLA2 S-nitrosylation and PGE2 generation, whereas COX-1 inhibitor caused only the inhibition in PGE2 generation. Our findings suggest that the activation of gastric mucosal cPLA2 through cNOS-induced S-nitrosylation plays an essential role in the countering effect of ghrelin on the disturbances in gastric mucin synthesis caused by ethanol cytotoxicity.
Role of ghrelin in modulation of s-nitrosylation-Dependent akt inactivation induced in salivary gland acinar cells by porphyromonas gingivalis  [PDF]
Bronislaw L. Slomiany, Amalia Slomiany
Health (Health) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/health.2010.212215
Abstract: Ghrelin, a peptide hormone, newly identified in oral mucosal tissue, has emerged re-cently as a principal modulator of the in-flammatory responses to bacterial infection through the regulation of nitric oxide syn-thase system. In this study, using rat sub-lingual salivary gland acinar cells, we report that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of periodon-topathic bacterium, P. gingivalis- induced enhancement in the activity of inducible ni-tric oxide synthase (iNOS) was associated with the suppression in Akt kinase activity and the impairment in constitutive (c) cNOS phosphorylation. Further, we show that the detrimental effect of the LPS on Akt activa-tion, manifested in the kinase protein S-nitrosylation and a decrease in its phos-phorylation at Ser473, was susceptible to suppression by iNOS inhibitor, 1400W. Moreover, we demonstrate that a peptide hormone, ghrelin, countered the LPS- induced changes in Akt activity and NOS system. This effect of ghrelin was reflected in the decreased in Akt S-nitrosylation and the increase in its phosphorylation at Ser473, as well as cNOS activation through phos-phorylation. Our findings suggest that P. gingivalis-induced up-regulation in iNOS leads to Akt kinase inactivation through S-nitrosylation that impacts cNOS activation through phosphorylation. We also show that the countering effect of ghrelin on P. gingivalis-induced disturbances in Akt ac-tivation are manifested in a decrease in the kinase S-nitrosylation and the increase in its phosphorylation.
Cell membranes composition is defined in ER and their restitution proceed by en bloc fusion of ER generated transport vesicles  [PDF]
Amalia Slomiany, Bronislaw L. Slomiany
Health (Health) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/health.2010.212214
Abstract: The synthesis of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-derived transport vesicles is dictated by the contents and derivation of the cellular cytosol. The ER transport vesicles synthesized in the presence of gastric epithelial cells cytosol are destined for en bloc fusion with apical epithelial membrane, whereas those generated in hepa-tocytes-derived cytosol are destined for en bloc fusion with basolateral membrane. Moreover, during assembly of the dominant fraction of the apical or basolateral transport vesicles, a sub-stantial fraction of the vesicles is produced that fuses with endosomes, and the vesicles with still unknown destination that remain in cytosol. The process of ER vesicles synthesis is blocked by RNase treatment, whereas Golgi vesicles as-sembly is not affected. The experiments indicate that transport vesicles’ membrane composition and fidelity of its construction is defined in ER. The process involves synchronous membrane lipid synthesis, cotranslational intercalation of integral membrane proteins and containment of the vesicular cargo.
Transformations of phosphatidylinositol phosphates in the outer and inner nuclear membrane are linked to synthesis and restitution of cellular membranes  [PDF]
Amalia Slomiany, Bronislaw L. Slomiany
Health (Health) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/health.2011.34035
Abstract: The ultimate goal in phosphoinositides cellular metabolism is to decipher their global functional organization and coordination of the com- partmentalized signaling processes. In this report we present evidence linking nuclear phos- phoinositides cycle with endoplasmic reticulum synthesis and function. The rapid transformation of [3H]inositol-labeled phosphoinositides in the intact nuclei (IN) was captured in chase studies for 0-5 min, followed by examination of phosphatidylinositides in the inner nuclear me- mbrane (INM), the outer nuclear membrane (ONM) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We revealed that synthesis of phosphatidylinositol phosphates (PIPs) occurs in ONM and the de- phosphorylation takes place in the INM. The rapid transformation of the radiolabeled PIPs in ONM reverberated in their appearance and successive transformation in INM, and in the 5min chased nuclei was tracked to ONM as the re- emerging radiolabeled phosphatidylinositol (PI). These chase-uncovered changes in ONM and INM PIPs profiles allow us to conclude that the observed conversions in the nuclear membrane continuum are induced by the lateral movement of the membrane and its transit from the cytosolic to nuclear and back to cytosolic environment. The suggested membrane synthesisinduced movement provides the means to transport the membrane- and the membrane lipid ligand-associated cytosolic proteins to the intranuclear spaces and renewal of INM. Export of the nuclear components interacting with the modified INM, by exiting from nuclear to cytosolic site, endows ER with a steady influx of the membrane that is conditioned to generate vesicles according to the nucleus delivered templates.
Ghrelin-induced cSrc activation through constitutive nitric oxide synthase-dependent S-nitrosylation in modulation of salivary gland acinar cell inflammatory responses to Porphyromonas gingivalis  [PDF]
Bronislaw L. Slomiany, Amalia Slomiany
American Journal of Molecular Biology (AJMB) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ajmb.2011.12006
Abstract: A peptide hormone, ghrelin, recognized for its role in the regulation of nitric oxide production has emerged as an important modulator of oral mucosal inflammatory responses to periodontopathic bacterium, P. gingivalis. As cSrc kinase plays a major role in controlling the activity of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) system, in this study we investigated the influence of P. gingivalis LPS on the processes of Src activation in rat sublingual gland acinar cells. The LPS-induced enhancement in the activity of inducible (i) iNOS and the impairment in constitutive (c) cNOS were reflected in the suppression in cSrc activity and the extent of its phosphorylation at Tyr416. Further, we show that the countering effect of ghrelin on the LPS-induced changes in cSrc activity and the extent of its phosphorylation was accompanied by a marked reduction in iNOS and the increase in cNOS activation through phosphorylation at Ser1179. Moreover, the effect of ghrelin on cSrc activation was associated with the kinase S-nitrosylation that was susceptible to the blockage by cNOS inhibition. Our findings suggest that P. gingivalis-induced up-regulation in iNOS leads to disturbances in cNOS phosphorylation that exerts the detrimental effect on the processes of cSrc activation through cNOS mediated S-nitrosylation. We also show that the effect of ghrelin on P. gingivalis-induced inflammatory changes are manifested in the enhancement in cSrc activation through S-nitrosylation and the increase in its phosphorylation at Tyr416.
Cyclooxygenase-2 S-nitrosylation in salivary gland acinar cell inflammatory responses to Porphyromonas gingivalis: modulatory effect of ghrelin  [PDF]
Bronislaw L. Slomiany, Amalia Slomiany
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2011.26064
Abstract: Disturbances in nitric oxide synthase (NOS) system and the excessive prostaglandin (PGE2) generation are well-recognized features of oral mucosal inflammatory responses to periodontopathic bacterium, P. gingivalis. Employing rat sublingual gland acinar cells, we show that P. gingivalis LPS-induced up-regulation in PGE2 generation and the enhancement in inducible (i) iNOS activity was associated with COX-2 activation through S-nitrosylation, and accompanied by the suppression in cSrc activity and the impairment in constitutive (c) cNOS phosphorylation. Further, we demonstrate that the countering effect of peptide hormone, ghrelin, on the LPS-induced changes was reflected in the increased cNOS activation through phosphorylation, repression in iNOS induction, and the reduction in PGE2 generation associated with the loss of COX-2 protein S-nitrosylation. Moreover, the effect of ghrelin on cNOS phosphorylation and the LPS-induced COX-2 S-nitrosylation was susceptible to the blockage by cSrc inhibition. Our findings suggest that P. gingivalis-induced up-regulation in iNOS leads to COX-2 S-nitrosylation and up-regulation in PGE2 generation, and that the countering effect of ghrelin is mediated through Src-dependent cNOS activation that is obligatory for the maintenance of iNOS gene suppression.
Role of constitutive nitric oxide synthase in regulation of Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric mucosal cyclooxygenase-2 ac-tivation through S-nitrosylation: mechanism of ghrelin action  [PDF]
Bronislaw L. Slomiany, Amalia Slomiany
Open Journal of Gastroenterology (OJGas) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojgas.2011.12003
Abstract: Gastric mucosal inflammatory responses to H. pylori lipopolysaccharide (LPS), are characterized by the excessive NO and prostaglandin (PGE2) generation due to the disturbances in nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX) systems. Here, we report that the LPS-induced enhancement in gastric mucosal inducible (i) iNOS) activity and up-regulation in PGE2 production was associated with the suppression in Akt kinase activity and the impairment in constitutive (c) cNOS activation. The stimulatory effect of the LPS on PGE2 production, furthermore, was susceptible to suppression by COX-2 inhibitor, NS-398, and iNOS inhibitor, 1400 W. Further, we show that the countering effect of peptide hormone, ghrelin, on the LPS-induced changes was reflected in up-regu- lation in Akt activity and the increase in cNOS activation through phosphorylation, and accompanied by the suppression in iNOS expression and the reduction in COX-2 activity associated with the loss in COX-2 protein S-nitrosylation. Moreover, the effect of ghre-lin on the LPS-induced COX-2 S-nitrosylation was subject to repression by Akt inhibition. Our findings demonstrate that induction in iNOS with H. pylori in- fection leads to COX-2 activation through S-nitro- sylation and up-regulation in PGE2 generation, and that ghrelin counters these untoward consequences of the LPS through Akt-mediated up-regulation in cNO- S activation required for the iNOS gene repression.
Ghrelin Suppression of Helicobacter pylori-Induced Gastric Mucosal Expression of iNOS is Mediated through the Inhibition of IKK-β Activation by cNOS-Dependent S-Nitrosylation  [PDF]
Bronislaw L. Slomiany, Amalia Slomiany
Open Journal of Cell Biology (OJCB) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojcb.2011.11001
Abstract: Excessive nitric oxide generation, caused by the disturbances in nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isozyme system, plays a key role in defining the extent of gastric mucosal inflammatory response to H. Pylori infection. Here, we report that H. Pylori LPS-induced enhancement in gastric mucosal inducible (i) iNOS expression and the impairment in constitutive (c) cNOS activity was associated with up-regulation in the inhibitory kB kinase-β (IKKβ) activation through phosphorylation, rise in IκB-α degradation, and the increase in the transcriptional factor, NF-κB, nuclear translocation. Further, we show that the countering effect of peptide hormone, ghrelin, on the LPS-induced disturbances in NOS isozyme system was reflected in the increase in Src/Akt-dependent cNOS activation through phosphorylation and the suppression of IKK-β activity through cNOSmediated IKK-β protein S-nitrosylation. As a consequence, ghrelin exerted the inhibitory effect on the LPS-induced rise in IκB-α degradation and NF-κB nuclear translocation, thus leading to iNOS gene suppression and the repression of iNOS induction. These results point to a central role of cNOS activation in controlling the signaling pathways of the LPS-triggered iNOS gene induction. Moreover, our findings suggest a molecular mechanism by which ghrelin suppresses the gastric mucosal proinflammatory consequences of H. Pylori infection.
Phosphatidylglycerol-containing ER-transport vesicles built and restore outer mitochondrial membrane and deliver nuclear DNA translation products to generate cardiolipin in the inner mitochondrial membrane  [PDF]
Amalia Slomiany, Bronislaw L. Slomiany
Advances in Biological Chemistry (ABC) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/abc.2012.22016
Abstract: Phosphatidylglycerol (PG) an important membrane phospholipid required for the synthesis of diphos-phatidylglycerol (DPG) commonly known as cardiolipin (CL) was identified in the fraction of endo-plasmic reticulum (ER)-derived transport vesicles which had no affinity for Golgi. The vesicles were produced in the presence of Brefeldin A (BFA), the agent known to inhibit ER-Golgi transport, and found to display affinity to mitochondria. The analysis revealed that their cargo was not containing proteins that are transported to Golgi, and that their membrane was free of phosphatidylinositol (PI) and ceramides (Cer). The incubation of PG-containing transport vesicles with mitochondria afforded incorporation of their membrane into the Outer Mito-chondrial Membrane (OMM) and formation of lyso-phosphatidylglycerol (LPG). In turn, upon further incubation with fresh transport active cytosol, the mitochondrial LPG was converted to PG. The results of analysis of the OMM, Inner Mitochondrial Mem-brane (IMM) and Inner Mitochondrial Space Components (IMSC) strongly suggest that PG-containing transport vesicles deliver nuclear DNA translation products to the IMSC and thus facilitate CL synthesis in the IMM. In summary, our studies provide evidence that ER-generated PG-enriched transport vesicles represent the general pathway for restitution of mitochondrial membranes and the delivery of nuclear DNA translation products that generate CL, and thus sustain the mitochondrial matrix CL-dependent metabolic reactions.
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