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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 280 matches for " Brittany Hand "
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Erratum to “Stroke Survivors Scoring Zero on the NIH Stroke Scale Score Still Exhibit Significant Motor Impairment and Functional Limitation”
Brittany Hand,Stephen J. Page,Susan White
Stroke Research and Treatment , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/542638
Stroke Survivors Scoring Zero on the NIH Stroke Scale Score Still Exhibit Significant Motor Impairment and Functional Limitation
Brittany Hand,Stephen J. Page,Susan White
Stroke Research and Treatment , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/462681
Abstract: Objective. To determine the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale’s (NIHSS’s) association with upper extremity (UE) impairment and functional outcomes. Design. Secondary, retrospective analysis of randomized controlled trial data. Setting. Not applicable. Participants. 146 subjects with stable, chronic stroke-induced hemiparesis. Intervention. The NIHSS, the UE Fugl-Meyer (FM), and the Arm Motor Ability Test (AMAT) were administered prior to their participation in a multicenter randomized controlled trial. Main Outcome Measures. The NIHSS, FM, and AMAT. Results. The association between the NIHSS and UE impairment was statistically significant but explained less than 4% of the variance among UE FM scores. The association between NIHSS total score and function as measured by the AMAT was not statistically significant . Subjects scoring a “zero” on the NIHSS exhibited discernible UE motor deficits and varied scores on the UE FM and AMAT. Conclusion. While being used in stroke trials, the NIHSS may have limited ability to discriminate between treatment responses, even when only a relatively narrow array of impairment levels exists among patients. Given these findings, NIHSS use should be restricted to acute stroke studies and clinical settings with the goal of reporting stroke severity. 1. Introduction Upper extremity (UE) hemiparesis remains one of the most frequent stroke-induced impairments [1] and considerably undermines performance of valued activities. Yet, despite weeks of rehabilitation, 50% of patients retain some degree of UE weakness [2] and up to seventy percent remain unable to functionally use their paretic UEs [3] in the months after stroke. Scores on the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale [4] (NIHSS) are associated with stroke outcomes [5–7], causing the NIHSS to be recommended for determining “appropriate treatment and predicting patient outcome” [8]. However, the “functional” measures with which the NIHSS has been associated in stroke trials [7, 9, 10] (e.g., Glasgow Coma Scale; Barthel Index) do not directly assess active UE movement or functional UE activity performance. For example, the Barthel Index ascertains the level of help that a patient requires to carry out various daily activities, but not the actual level of movement that the patient exhibits or how active movements conspire to facilitate participation in valued activities. These levels of help may be related to adaptive equipment use, available care partner support, or other factors, but do not tell the user how the client has actually responded to treatment
A picture or a 1000 words?
The Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education , 2000,
Ethical Issues in Physiatrist Practice
Hand G
Indian Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation , 2008,
Abstract: Editorial on Ethical Issues. Medical ethics is at the centre of medical practice. It isrightly gaining much needed renewed focus and attentionin the evolving scenario. The impetus for it may beattributed to the revelations that arose through Nurembergtrials, the framework elements that define research andpublications related compulsions, and indeed the contextand state of affairs of present day medical jurisprudence.The physiatrist’s practice cannot remain untouched bythe moral and ethical dilemmas faced in today’s world.Although the pillars of the specialty are grounded in the
Conditions for Existence of Dual Certificates in Rank-One Semidefinite Problems
Paul Hand
Mathematics , 2013, DOI: 10.4310/CMS.2014.v12.n7.a11
Abstract: Several signal recovery tasks can be relaxed into semidefinite programs with rank-one minimizers. A common technique for proving these programs succeed is to construct a dual certificate. Unfortunately, dual certificates may not exist under some formulations of semidefinite programs. In order to put problems into a form where dual certificate arguments are possible, it is important to develop conditions under which the certificates exist. In this paper, we provide an example where dual certificates do not exist. We then present a completeness condition under which they are guaranteed to exist. For programs that do not satisfy the completeness condition, we present a completion process which produces an equivalent program that does satisfy the condition. The important message of this paper is that dual certificates may not exist for semidefinite programs that involve orthogonal measurements with respect to positive-semidefinite matrices. Such measurements can interact with the positive-semidefinite constraint in a way that implies additional linear measurements. If these additional measurements are not included in the problem formulation, then dual certificates may fail to exist. As an illustration, we present a semidefinite relaxation for the task of finding the sparsest element in a subspace. One formulation of this program does not admit dual certificates. The completion process produces an equivalent formulation which does admit dual certificates.
PhaseLift is robust to a constant fraction of arbitrary errors
Paul Hand
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: Consider the task of recovering an unknown $n$-vector from phaseless linear measurements. This task is the phase retrieval problem. Through the technique of lifting, this nonconvex problem may be convexified into a semidefinite rank-one matrix recovery problem, known as PhaseLift. Under a linear number of exact Gaussian measurements, PhaseLift recovers the unknown vector exactly with high probability. Under noisy measurements, the solution to a variant of PhaseLift has error proportional to the $\ell_1$ norm of the noise. In the present paper, we study the robustness of this variant of PhaseLift to a case with noise and gross, arbitrary corruptions. We prove that PhaseLift can tolerate a small, fixed fraction of gross errors, even in the highly underdetermined regime where there are only $O(n)$ measurements. The lifted phase retrieval problem can be viewed as a rank-one robust Principal Component Analysis (PCA) problem under generic rank-one measurements. From this perspective, the proposed convex program is simpler that the semidefinite version of the sparse-plus-low-rank formulation standard in the robust PCA literature. Specifically, the rank penalization through a trace term is unnecessary, and the resulting optimization program has no parameters that need to be chosen. The present work also achieves the information theoretically optimal scaling of $O(n)$ measurements without the additional logarithmic factors that appear in existing general robust PCA results.
A Markov Random Field Topic Space Model for Document Retrieval
Scott Hand
Computer Science , 2011,
Abstract: This paper proposes a novel statistical approach to intelligent document retrieval. It seeks to offer a more structured and extensible mathematical approach to the term generalization done in the popular Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) approach to document indexing. A Markov Random Field (MRF) is presented that captures relationships between terms and documents as probabilistic dependence assumptions between random variables. From there, it uses the MRF-Gibbs equivalence to derive joint probabilities as well as local probabilities for document variables. A parameter learning method is proposed that utilizes rank reduction with singular value decomposition in a matter similar to LSA to reduce dimensionality of document-term relationships to that of a latent topic space. Experimental results confirm the ability of this approach to effectively and efficiently retrieve documents from substantial data sets.
Fishing Practices in the Galapagos Islands: The Local Struggle Approached Through Two Political Ecology Theses
Brittany MacGillivray
Dalhousie Journal of Interdisciplinary Management , 2011, DOI: 10.5931/djim.v7i2.76
Abstract: Overexploitation and illegal fishing continues to be a problem within the Galapagos Marine Reserve. Local compliance regarding conservation initiatives and the regulations governing the access to, and use of marine resources is exacerbating these problems. The conservation and control thesis and the degradation and marginalization thesis from political ecology were applied to the current issues in the Marine Reserve as an attempt to understand behaviour motivation. Commonalities among these theses suggest a socio-political struggle where government and international agencies are discrediting local values and livelihood, and are encouraging the overexploitation of their resources. Future management should strive to understand and address these motivations; working with and encouraging the inclusion of local communities into management regimes to ultimately ensure compliance, community empowerment, and the long-term sustainable use of marine resources and the integrity of the marine ecosystems in the Galapagos Islands.
Neurogenin2 regulates the initial axon guidance of cortical pyramidal neurons projecting medially to the corpus callosum
Randal Hand, Franck Polleux
Neural Development , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1749-8104-6-30
Abstract: The genetic loss of Ngn2 in mice results in fewer callosal axons projecting towards the midline as well as abnormal midline crossing. shRNA-mediated knockdown of Ngn2 revealed its cell-autonomous requirement for the proper projection of axons from layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons to the midline in vivo. We found that the acute loss of Ngn2 in vivo induces the axon of superficial layer 2/3 neurons to project laterally towards aberrant cortical and subcortical targets.These and previous results demonstrate that Ngn2 is required for the coordinated specification of cardinal features defining the phenotype of cortical pyramidal neurons, including their migration properties, dendritic morphology and axonal projection.The mammalian nervous system consists of a tremendous diversity of neuronal subtypes forming complex functional circuits. In the cerebral cortex, long-distance-projecting glutamatergic pyramidal neurons arise from radial glial progenitors located in the dorsal telencephalon [1]. During cortical neurogenesis in rodents, radial glial progenitors divide asymmetrically to generate another radial glial progenitor and an intermediate progenitor cell (IPC) that translocates to the subventricular zone (SVZ) [1]. These IPCs display a transient multipolar morphology characterized by the dynamic extension and retraction of immature neurites, which might sense their micro-environment and respond to cues polarizing their leading process (future apical dendrite) dorsally towards the cortical plate and their trailing process (future axon) ventrally [2,3]. During this polarization, the neuron adheres to a radial glial cell process and initiates radial migration through the cell-sparse but axon-rich intermediate zone (IZ) towards the pial surface. Upon reaching the top of the cortical plate, just below the pial surface, pyramidal neurons detach from the radial glial cell and undergo terminal translocation before elaborating both their dendritic and axonal processes. In mice, neur
The Discourse of Argumentation
Brian Hand,Emily Schoerning
Mevlana International Journal of Education , 2012,
Abstract: This study seeks to characterize the discourse of classrooms that utilize the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH), an approach to Argument Based Inquiry (ABI). Linguistic behaviors that lend themselves to inclusion in a discourse that supports argumentation are examined, such as frequency of dialog interchange and instances of student-student speech. Students and teachers in SWH classrooms utilize linguistic behaviors that support argumentation significantly more frequently than their counterparts in classrooms that utilize more traditional pedagogies. The linguistic behaviors characterized in this study allow us to more clearly describe the discourse that develops under the SWH approach. This discourse is specifically illuminated as a discourse of argumentation, in which the importance of student voice is a key underlying value.
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