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The better understanding of the mechanism in which
the immune system responds to the developing cancer provided the outcome in a
new era in cancer immunotherapy. The tumor suppressive effect on the immune
system is caused by negative T cell receptor signaling that abrogate immunity
against the cancer cells. Novel monoclonal antibodies that target co-inhibitory
receptors on T cells block the tumor induced inhibition of the immune system
and enable the immune system to eradicate the tumors. The development of
such antibodies started twenty years ago by the preparation of a monoclonal
antibody termed BAT. A single administration of the antibody to tumor bearing
mice resulted in striking anti tumor activity that was mediated by the
lymphocytes. These studies provided a basis for the new era of cancer immunotherapy. The present review summarizes twenty
years to the discovery of monoclonal antibodies harnessing the immune system
to eradicate tumors.
Differential equations to describe elasticity are derived without the use of stress or strain. The points within the body are the independent parameters instead of strain and surface forces replace stress tensors. These differential equations are a continuous analytical model that can then be solved using any of the standard techniques of differential equations. Although the equations do not require the definition stress or strain, these quantities can be calculated as dependent parameters. This approach to elasticity is simple, which avoids the need for multiple definitions of stress and strain, and provides a simple experimental procedure to find scalar representations of material properties in terms of the energy of deformation. The derived differential equations describe both infinitesimal and finite deformations.