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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 218516 matches for " Brian L. Cohen "
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Predictors of Response to Intradetrusor Botulinum Toxin-A Injections in Patients with Idiopathic Overactive Bladder
Brian L. Cohen,Daniel J. Caruso,Prashanth Kanagarajah,Angelo E. Gousse
Advances in Urology , 2009, DOI: 10.1155/2009/328364
Abstract: Objectives. To evaluate whether there are any demographic or urodynamic differences in patients with idiopathic overactive bladder (I-OAB) that respond and do not respond to intradetrusor injections of botulinum toxin-A (BTX-A). Methods. This represents a secondary analysis of data collected from an investigator initiated randomized trial designed to evaluate clinical differences in outcomes for 100 versus 150 U BTX-A in patients with I-OAB. Preinjection demographic and urodynamic data were collected. Patients were evaluated 12 weeks after injection and were determined to be responders or nonresponders as defined by our criteria. Statistical comparisons were made between groups. Results. In patients with overactive bladder without incontinence (OAB-Dry), there were no variables that could be used to predict response to BTX-A. On univariate analysis, younger patients with overactive bladder with incontinence (OAB-Wet) were more likely to respond to BTX-A than older patients. However, this relationship was no longer statistically significant on multivariate analysis. Conclusions. We were unable to identify any preinjection demographic or urodynamic parameters that could aid in predicting which patients will achieve clinical response to BTX-A. Future studies are necessary to further evaluate this question.
Expression profiling of the schizont and trophozoite stages of Plasmodium falciparum with a long-oligonucleotide microarray
Zbynek Bozdech, Jingchun Zhu, Marcin P Joachimiak, Fred E Cohen, Brian Pulliam, Joseph L DeRisi
Genome Biology , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2003-4-2-r9
Abstract: We developed a software package, ArrayOligoSelector, to design an open reading frame (ORF)-specific DNA microarray using the publicly available P. falciparum genome sequence. Each gene was represented by one or more long 70 mer oligonucleotides selected on the basis of uniqueness within the genome, exclusion of low-complexity sequence, balanced base composition and proximity to the 3' end. A first-generation microarray representing approximately 6,000 ORFs of the P. falciparum genome was constructed. Array performance was evaluated through the use of control oligonucleotide sets with increasing levels of introduced mutations, as well as traditional northern blotting. Using this array, we extensively characterized the gene-expression profile of the intraerythrocytic trophozoite and schizont stages of P. falciparum. The results revealed extensive transcriptional regulation of genes specialized for processes specific to these two stages.DNA microarrays based on long oligonucleotides are powerful tools for the functional annotation and exploration of the P. falciparum genome. Expression profiling of trophozoites and schizonts revealed genes associated with stage-specific processes and may serve as the basis for future drug targets and vaccine development.Plasmodium falciparum, a parasitic protozoan, is the causative agent of the most lethal form of human malaria. It is responsible for 300-500 million infections per year in some 90 countries and regions throughout the tropical and subtropical world. Of these clinical cases, approximately 2.1 million result in death annually [1]. In areas where mosquito abatement has failed, chemotherapy, consisting of a limited selection of antimalarial agents, is the only defense against this disease. The increase in drug resistance throughout the malaria endemic regions is cause for great concern and calls for the development of new antimalarial measures, which would involve a larger variety of drug targets as well as a wider array of
Globular Cluster Photometry with the Hubble Space Telescope. VI. WF/PC-I Observations of the Stellar Populations in the Core of M13 (NGC 6205)
Randi L. Cohen,Puragra Guhathakurta,Brian Yanny,Donald P. Schneider,John N. Bahcall
Physics , 1996, DOI: 10.1086/118285
Abstract: To probe the nature of stellar evolution in dense environments, we study the dense core of the globular cluster Messier 13 using pre-refurbishment Planetary Camera-I images obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope. We find 15 blue straggler star candidates and 10 other possible blue stragglers in this region of M13. Their specific frequency is in the range 0.04-0.07, comparable to what is observed near the centers of other dense clusters. A comparison between M13's observed V band stellar luminosity function and a theoretical model (Bergbusch & Vandenberg 1992) for the luminosity function of an old, metal-poor cluster shows that the model predicts too few of the brightest red giants (V~12.5-15) by a factor of two relative to subgiants/turnoff stars (> 6 sigma effect). The radial distributions of the red giants, blue stragglers, and subgiants are consistent with one another. Stars in the blue horizontal branch of M13, however, appear to be centrally depleted relative to other stellar types. We combine data from three dense `King model clusters', M13, M3, and 47 Tuc, and two post core collapse clusters, M30 and M15, and compare the distributions of various stellar types as a function of (r/r_half light) and (r/r_core). The horizontal branch stars in the combined sample appear to be centrally depleted relative to the giants (97% significance) - this depletion is only marginal (< about 1.5 sigma) in each of the clusters taken individually. The blue stragglers in the combined sample are centrally concentrated relative to the giants.
Estimating the Equity Risk Premium for Economies in the Asian Region
Michael Brian Cohen
Asian Journal of Finance & Accounting , 2009, DOI: 10.5296/ajfa.v1i1.86
Abstract: The Equity Risk Premium (ERP) is widely used in economic and financial analysis, yet it is difficult to find empirical estimates of the ERP that are generally accepted. The paucity of data in Asian economies exacerbates the problems of estimation. This study estimates the ERP for the larger market-orientated Asian economies and compares the estimates with those of the United States. Surprisingly, of the seven economies examined, the ERP of four cannot be statistically differentiated from that of the United States.
Rhesus Monkeys' Valuation of Vocalizations during a Free-Choice Task
Brian E. Russ,Yale E. Cohen
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0007834
Abstract: Adaptive behavior requires that animals integrate current and past information with their decision-making. One important type of information is auditory-communication signals (i.e., species-specific vocalizations). Here, we tested how rhesus monkeys incorporate the opportunity to listen to different species-specific vocalizations into their decision-making processes. In particular, we tested how monkeys value these vocalizations relative to the opportunity to get a juice reward. To test this hypothesis, monkeys chose one of two targets to get a varying juice reward; at one of those targets, in addition to the juice reward, a vocalization was presented. By titrating the juice amounts at the two targets, we quantified the relationship between the monkeys' juice choices relative to the opportunity to listen to a vocalization. We found that, rhesus were not willing to give up a large juice reward to listen to vocalizations indicating that, relative to a juice reward, listening to vocalizations has a low value.
The new politics of consumption: promoting sustainability in the American marketplace
Maurie J. Cohen,Aaron Comrov,Brian Hoffner
Sustainability : Science, Practice and Policy , 2005,
Abstract: While mainstream policymakers in the United States have to date evinced little interest in sustainable consumption, this does not mean that a political agenda designed to highlight the adverse impacts of consumerism has failed to take root in the country. In fact, a considerable number of activities are occurring that are broadly consistent with the aims of sustainable consumption. Inchoate though these efforts may be, there are indications that some proponents are beginning to link up and to forge a more readily definable social movement. The following discussion considers these multifarious expressions in accordance with a tripartite typology: social and political protest campaigns, lifestyle reinventions, and public policy initiatives. Of notable interest is that efforts to problematize consumerism do not stem from environmental concerns, but instead evolve out of public unease regarding such issues as working hours, leisure time, and family life. This situation raises questions about whether the common range of concepts associated with sustainable consumption accurately captures political initiatives in the United States to forge a link between declining well-being and mass consumption.
The Extended Environment of M17: A Star Formation History
Matthew S. Povich,Ed Churchwell,John H. Bieging,Miju Kang,Barbara A. Whitney,Crystal L. Brogan,Craig A. Kulesa,Martin Cohen,Brian L. Babler,Remy Indebetouw,Marilyn R. Meade,Thomas P. Robitaille
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/696/2/1278
Abstract: M17 is one of the youngest and most massive nearby star-formation regions in the Galaxy. It features a bright H II region erupting as a blister from the side of a giant molecular cloud (GMC). Combining photometry from the Spitzer GLIMPSE survey with complementary infrared (IR) surveys, we identify candidate young stellar objects (YSOs) throughout a 1.5 deg x 1 deg field that includes the M17 complex. The long sightline through the Galaxy behind M17 creates significant contamination in our YSO sample from unassociated sources with similar IR colors. Removing contaminants, we produce a highly-reliable catalog of 96 candidate YSOs with a high probability of association with the M17 complex. We fit model spectral energy distributions to these sources and constrain their physical properties. Extrapolating the mass function of 62 intermediate-mass YSOs (M >3 Msun), we estimate that >1000 stars are in the process of forming in the extended outer regions of M17. From IR survey images from IRAS and GLIMPSE, we find that M17 lies on the rim of a large shell structure ~0.5 deg in diameter (~20 pc at 2.1 kpc). We present new maps of CO and 13CO (J=2-1) emission, which show that the shell is a coherent, kinematic structure associated with M17 at v = 19 km/s. The shell is an extended bubble outlining the photodissociation region of a faint, diffuse H II region several Myr old. We provide evidence that massive star formation has been triggered by the expansion of the bubble. The formation of the massive cluster ionizing the M17 H II region itself may have been similarly triggered. We conclude that the star formation history in the extended environment of M17 has been punctuated by successive waves of massive star formation propagating through a GMC complex.
RTS,S/AS02A Malaria Vaccine Does Not Induce Parasite CSP T Cell Epitope Selection and Reduces Multiplicity of Infection
Sonia Enosse, Carlota Doba?o, Diana Quelhas, John J Aponte, Marc Lievens, Amanda Leach, Jahit Sacarlal, Brian Greenwood, Jessica Milman, Filip Dubovsky, Joe Cohen, Ricardo Thompson, W. Ripley Ballou, Pedro L Alonso, David J Conway, Colin J Sutherland
PLOS ONE , 2006, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pctr.0010005
Abstract: Objective The candidate malaria vaccine RTS,S/AS02A is a recombinant protein containing part of the circumsporozoite protein (CSP) sequence of Plasmodium falciparum, linked to the hepatitis B surface antigen and formulated in the proprietary adjuvant system AS02A. In a recent trial conducted in children younger than age five in southern Mozambique, the vaccine demonstrated significant and sustained efficacy against both infection and clinical disease. In a follow-up study to the main trial, breakthrough infections identified in the trial were examined to determine whether the distribution of csp sequences was affected by the vaccine and to measure the multiplicity of infecting parasite genotypes. Design P. falciparum DNA from isolates collected during the trial was used for genotype studies. Setting The main trial was carried out in the Manhi?a district, Maputo province, Mozambique, between April 2003 and May 2004. Participants Children from the two cohorts of the main trial provided parasite isolates as follows: children from Cohort 1 who were admitted to hospital with clinical malaria; children from Cohort 1 who were parasite-positive in a cross-sectional survey at study month 8.5; children from Cohort 2 identified as parasite-positive during follow-up by active detection of infection. Outcome Divergence of DNA sequence encoding the CSP T cell–epitope region sequence from that of the vaccine sequence was measured in 521 isolates. The number of distinct P. falciparum genotypes was also determined. Results We found no evidence that parasite genotypes from children in the RTS,S/AS02A arm were more divergent than those receiving control vaccines. For Cohort 1 (survey at study month 8.5) and Cohort 2, infections in the vaccine group contained significantly fewer genotypes than those in the control group, (p = 0.035, p = 0.006), respectively, for the two cohorts. This was not the case for children in Cohort 1 who were admitted to hospital (p = 0.478). Conclusions RTS,S/AS02A did not select for genotypes encoding divergent T cell epitopes in the C-terminal region of CSP in this trial. In both cohorts, there was a modest reduction in the mean number of parasite genotypes harboured by vaccinated children compared with controls, but only among those with asymptomatic infections. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00197041
Sociedade civil e globaliza??o: repensando categorias
Cohen, Jean L.;
Dados , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0011-52582003000300001
Abstract: the discourse of civil society has gone global. once again theorists of democracy are placing their bets on civil society to generate solidarity, publicity, civicness, awareness of new forms of injustice, and democracy vis-à-vis the new world order. yet too many analysts are na?vely optimistic or ideological about global civil society's democratizing role. in order to visualize the proper role of civil society in the global context, careful systematic analysis is needed concerning the ways in which globalization has transformed the key parameters of civil society and how such changes recursively affect how civil society impacts national, regional, transnational, and supranational bodies. there can be no vital democracy without civil society, but civil society cannot replace constitutional democracy or the rule of law at any level of government.
Repensando a privacidade: autonomia, identidade e a controvérsia sobre o aborto
Cohen, Jean L.;
Revista Brasileira de Ciência Política , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-33522012000100009
Abstract: in a dialogue with feminist criticism to public-private dichotomies, the author defines limits and outlines of the right to privacy, considered as a core aspect of autonomy and the right to the body. communitarianism and feminist streams that advocate overcoming boundaries between what is public and private are criticized for their inability to guarantee respect for individual's autonomous decisions, especially regarding their bodies, their affective lives, and relevant aspects of their identities. guarantee of privacy is seen as necessary to ascertain individual identities and protect individuals from majority values and practices within the communities they are part of. the right to abortion constitutes the right to privacy, thus defined.
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