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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 221945 matches for " Brian K. Chen "
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Differentiation of Material Temperature through the Application of Increased Localized Dissolution via Heat Transfer  [PDF]
Brian K. Chen
Journal of Analytical Sciences, Methods and Instrumentation (JASMI) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jasmi.2015.53005
Abstract: Increased temperature of a solution increases its solubility, allowing for a greater level of dissolution of the solute. A greater level of dissolution will result in a change in the density of the solution. When a localized area of the solution is of a different temperature, this will affect the localized density. Density is one of the factors affecting rate of sinking and the difference in temperature will lead to a change in the rate of sinking. Thus, when an object is at different temperatures, it will transfer heat to or from the solution in different manners and the rate of sinking will be different. This study tested whether sinking rate in a solution with excess solute could be used to judge the temperature of an object and the effect was confirmed with impure Graphite blocks in a Potassium Iodide solution.
Decreased Proliferation Kinetics of Mouse Myoblasts Overexpressing FRG1
Steven C. Chen,Ellie Frett,Joseph Marx,Darko Bosnakovski,Xylena Reed,Michael Kyba,Brian K. Kennedy
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0019780
Abstract: Although recent publications have linked the molecular events driving facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) to expression of the double homeobox transcription factor DUX4, overexpression of FRG1 has been proposed as one alternative causal agent as mice overexpressing FRG1 present with muscular dystrophy. Here, we characterize proliferative defects in two independent myoblast lines overexpressing FRG1. Myoblasts isolated from thigh muscle of FRG1 transgenic mice, an affected dystrophic muscle, exhibit delayed proliferation as measured by decreased clone size, whereas myoblasts isolated from the unaffected diaphragm muscle proliferated normally. To confirm the observation that overexpression of FRG1 could impair myoblast proliferation, we examined C2C12 myoblasts with inducible overexpression of FRG1, finding increased doubling time and G1-phase cells in mass culture after induction of FRG1 and decreased levels of pRb phosphorylation. We propose that depressed myoblast proliferation may contribute to the pathology of mice overexpressing FRG1 and may play a part in FSHD.
Multi-Country analysis of palm oil consumption and cardiovascular disease mortality for countries at different stages of economic development: 1980-1997
Brian K Chen, Benjamin Seligman, John W Farquhar, Jeremy D Goldhaber-Fiebert
Globalization and Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1744-8603-7-45
Abstract: The study analyzed country-level data from 1980-1997 derived from the World Health Organization's Mortality Database, U.S. Department of Agriculture international estimates, and the World Bank (234 annual observations; 23 countries). Outcomes included mortality from IHD and stroke for adults aged 50 and older. Predictors included per-capita consumption of palm oil and cigarettes and per-capita Gross Domestic Product as well as time trends and an interaction between palm oil consumption and country economic development level. Analyses examined changes in country-level outcomes over time employing linear panel regressions with country-level fixed effects, population weighting, and robust standard errors clustered by country. Sensitivity analyses included further adjustment for other major dietary sources of saturated fat.In developing countries, for every additional kilogram of palm oil consumed per-capita annually, IHD mortality rates increased by 68 deaths per 100,000 (95% CI [21-115]), whereas, in similar settings, stroke mortality rates increased by 19 deaths per 100,000 (95% CI [-12-49]) but were not significant. For historically high-income countries, changes in IHD and stroke mortality rates from palm oil consumption were smaller (IHD: 17 deaths per 100,000 (95% CI [5.3-29]); stroke: 5.1 deaths per 100,000 (95% CI [-1.2-11.0])). Inclusion of other major saturated fat sources including beef, pork, chicken, coconut oil, milk cheese, and butter did not substantially change the differentially higher relationship between palm oil and IHD mortality in developing countries.Increased palm oil consumption is related to higher IHD mortality rates in developing countries. Palm oil consumption represents a saturated fat source relevant for policies aimed at reducing cardiovascular disease burdens.The production and human consumption of palm oil, a tropical vegetable oil rich in saturated fats, have risen substantially in recent years, increasing by 40% from 1990 to 2007 in
Microstructural Evolution in Materials during Thermal Processing
Joseph K. L. Lai,Brian Ralph,Zhiwen Chen,Kin Ho Lo
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/302478
Microstructural Evolution in Materials during Thermal Processing
Joseph K. L. Lai,Brian Ralph,Zhiwen Chen,Kin Ho Lo
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/302478
Peanut gene expression profiling in developing seeds at different reproduction stages during Aspergillus parasiticus infection
Baozhu Guo, Xiaoping Chen, Phat Dang, Brian T Scully, Xuanqiang Liang, C Corley Holbrook, Jiujiang Yu, Albert K Culbreath
BMC Developmental Biology , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-213x-8-12
Abstract: We constructed six different cDNA libraries derived from developing peanut seeds at three reproduction stages (R5, R6 and R7) from a resistant and a susceptible cultivated peanut genotypes, 'Tifrunner' (susceptible to Aspergillus infection with higher aflatoxin contamination and resistant to TSWV) and 'GT-C20' (resistant to Aspergillus with reduced aflatoxin contamination and susceptible to TSWV). The developing peanut seed tissues were challenged by A. parasiticus and drought stress in the field. A total of 24,192 randomly selected cDNA clones from six libraries were sequenced. After removing vector sequences and quality trimming, 21,777 high-quality EST sequences were generated. Sequence clustering and assembling resulted in 8,689 unique EST sequences with 1,741 tentative consensus EST sequences (TCs) and 6,948 singleton ESTs. Functional classification was performed according to MIPS functional catalogue criteria. The unique EST sequences were divided into twenty-two categories. A similarity search against the non-redundant protein database available from NCBI indicated that 84.78% of total ESTs showed significant similarity to known proteins, of which 165 genes had been previously reported in peanuts. There were differences in overall expression patterns in different libraries and genotypes. A number of sequences were expressed throughout all of the libraries, representing constitutive expressed sequences. In order to identify resistance-related genes with significantly differential expression, a statistical analysis to estimate the relative abundance (R) was used to compare the relative abundance of each gene transcripts in each cDNA library. Thirty six and forty seven unique EST sequences with threshold of R > 4 from libraries of 'GT-C20' and 'Tifrunner', respectively, were selected for examination of temporal gene expression patterns according to EST frequencies. Nine and eight resistance-related genes with significant up-regulation were obtained in 'GT-C20' a
IL-10 Inhibits LPS-Induced Expression of miR-147 in Murine Macrophages  [PDF]
Leah N. Cardwell, Brian K. Weaver
Advances in Biological Chemistry (ABC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/abc.2014.44032
Abstract: Interleukin-10 (IL-10) mediates an anti-inflammatory response that constrains immune responses and limits inflammation-associated pathology. IL-10 does so, in part, by selectively inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine expression induced in macrophages in response to Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling. The IL-10-mediated anti-inflammatory response is executed through the activation of STAT3 leading to induction of target genes referred to as IL-10-induced genes. As miRNAs have emerged as important negative regulators of gene expression in various systems, we sought to address whether the IL-10-mediated anti-inflammatory response acts through regulated expression of miRNA genes. Using quantitative PCR-based arrays, we examined 140 miRNA genes with putative roles in inflammation for changes in expression in response to IL-10 and lipopoly-saccharide (LPS) in primary mouse macrophages. IL-10 stimulation resulted in the inhibition of miR-147 expression induced in response to LPS, while having a potentiating effect on the induction of miR-455. miR-147 is the second TLR-induced miRNA, in addition to miR-155, identified to be counter-regulated by IL-10. Its suppression by IL-10 suggests that miR-147 may have an unknown pro-inflammatory function in TLR-triggered macrophages. The results extend the notion that IL-10 selectively regulates expression of miRNA genes, and that miRNA-mediated pathways are a component of the IL-10-mediated anti-inflammatory response.
VASP-E: Specificity Annotation with a Volumetric Analysis of Electrostatic Isopotentials
Brian Y. Chen
PLOS Computational Biology , 2014, DOI: doi/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003792
Abstract: Algorithms for comparing protein structure are frequently used for function annotation. By searching for subtle similarities among very different proteins, these algorithms can identify remote homologs with similar biological functions. In contrast, few comparison algorithms focus on specificity annotation, where the identification of subtle differences among very similar proteins can assist in finding small structural variations that create differences in binding specificity. Few specificity annotation methods consider electrostatic fields, which play a critical role in molecular recognition. To fill this gap, this paper describes VASP-E (Volumetric Analysis of Surface Properties with Electrostatics), a novel volumetric comparison tool based on the electrostatic comparison of protein-ligand and protein-protein binding sites. VASP-E exploits the central observation that three dimensional solids can be used to fully represent and compare both electrostatic isopotentials and molecular surfaces. With this integrated representation, VASP-E is able to dissect the electrostatic environments of protein-ligand and protein-protein binding interfaces, identifying individual amino acids that have an electrostatic influence on binding specificity. VASP-E was used to examine a nonredundant subset of the serine and cysteine proteases as well as the barnase-barstar and Rap1a-raf complexes. Based on amino acids established by various experimental studies to have an electrostatic influence on binding specificity, VASP-E identified electrostatically influential amino acids with 100% precision and 83.3% recall. We also show that VASP-E can accurately classify closely related ligand binding cavities into groups with different binding preferences. These results suggest that VASP-E should prove a useful tool for the characterization of specific binding and the engineering of binding preferences in proteins.
Residual Velocities in Steady Free Boundary Value Problems of Vector Laplacian Type
Wan Chen,Brian Wetton
Mathematics , 2007,
Abstract: This paper describes a technique to determine the linear well-posedness of a general class of vector elliptic problems that include a steady interface, to be determined as part of the problem, that separates two subdomains. The interface satisfies mixed Dirichlet and Neumann conditions. We consider ``2+2'' models, meaning two independent variables respectively on each subdomain. The governing equations are taken to be vector Laplacian, to be able to make analytic progress. The interface conditions can be classified into four large categories, and we concentrate on the one with most physical interest. The well-posedness criteria in this case are particularly clear. In many physical cases, the movement of the interface in time-dependent situations can be reduced to a normal motion proportional to the residual in one of the steady state interface conditions (the elliptic interior problems and the other interface conditions are satisfied at each time). If only the steady state is of interest, one can consider using other residuals for the normal velocity. Our analysis can be extended to give insight into choosing residual velocities that have superior numerical properties. Hence, in the second part, we discuss an iterative method to solve free boundary problems. The advantages of the correctly chosen, non-physical residual velocities are demonstrated in a numerical example, based on a simplified model of two-phase flow with phase change in porous media.
Moduli spaces of critical Riemannian metrics with L^{n/2} norm curvature bounds
Xiuxiong Chen,Brian Weber
Mathematics , 2007,
Abstract: We consider the moduli space of the extremal K\"ahler metrics on compact manifolds. We show that under the conditions of two-sided total volume bounds, $L^{n\over2}$-norm bounds on $\Riem$, and Sobolev constant bounds, this Moduli space can be compactified by including (reduced) orbifolds with finitely many singularities. Most of our results go through for certain other classes of critical Riemannian metrics.
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