Publish in OALib Journal

ISSN: 2333-9721

APC: Only $99


Any time

2020 ( 31 )

2019 ( 263 )

2018 ( 303 )

2017 ( 326 )

Custom range...

Search Results: 1 - 10 of 146596 matches for " Brian K Reuter "
All listed articles are free for downloading (OA Articles)
Page 1 /146596
Display every page Item
Therapeutic utility of aspirin in the ApcMin/+ murine model of colon carcinogenesis
Brian K Reuter, Xiao-Jing Zhang, Mark JS Miller
BMC Cancer , 2002, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-2-19
Abstract: Min/+ mice with established polyposis were treated orally once daily from 12–16 weeks of age with either drug vehicle or aspirin (25 mg/kg). Upon completion of treatment, the number, location and size of intestinal tumours was determined. Additional variables examined were the number of apoptotic cells within tumours and COX activity.Administration of aspirin for 4 weeks to Min/+ mice produce no effect on tumour number compared to vehicle-treated Min/+ mice (65 ± 8 vs. 63 ± 9, respectively). In addition, aspirin had no effect on tumour size or location. However, aspirin treatment produced a greater than 2-fold (p < 0.05) increase in the number of apoptotic positive cells within tumours and significantly decreased hepatic PGE2 content.Aspirin was found to have no effect on tumour number and size when administered to Min/+ mice with established polyposis. The findings in the present study call in to question the utility of aspirin as a stand-alone treatment for established GI cancer. However, aspirin's ability to significantly promote apoptosis may render it suitable for use in combinatorial chemotherapy.Despite continuing decreases in incidence and mortality rates, cancers of the colon and rectum remain the third leading cause of cancer deaths in the North America [1,2]. The decline in incidence, and hence mortality, from colorectal cancers is most likely attributable to an increase in recommendations to perform routine screening on average risk individuals and to improved screening techniques [2]. In addition, there is ever advancing knowledge into the pathogenic mechanism of cancer and resulting strides in the development of more efficacious therapies.In recent years it has become evident that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) represent a potential class of cancer chemotherapeutic agents. The utility of NSAIDs, in particular aspirin, in the treatment of colon cancer has stemmed from studies conducted both in animals [3-11] and humans [12-15]. Evidence f
Dietary antioxidants protect gut epithelial cells from oxidant-induced apoptosis
Mark JS Miller, Fausto M Angeles, Brian K Reuter, Paul Bobrowski, Manuel Sandoval
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2001, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-1-11
Abstract: Cultured human gastric epithelial cells (AGS) or murine small intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-18) were exposed to oxidants – DPPH (3 μM), H2O2 (50 μM), peroxynitrite (300 μM) – followed by incubation for 24 hours, with antioxidants (10 μg/ml) administered as a 1 hour pretreatment. Cell number (MTT assay) and death via apoptosis or necrosis (ELISA, LDH release) was determined. The direct interactions between antioxidants and DPPH (100 μM) or H2O2 (50 μM) were evaluated by spectroscopy.The decoctions did not interact with H2O2, but quenched DPPH although less effectively than vitamin C. In contrast, vitamin C was significantly less effective in protecting human gastric epithelial cells (AGS) from apoptosis induced by DPPH, peroxynitrite and H2O2 (P < 0.001). Green tea and cat's claw were equally protective against peroxynitrite and H2O2, but green tea was more effective than cat's claw in reducing DPPH-induced apoptosis (P < 0.01). Necrotic cell death was marginally evident at these low concentrations of peroxynitrite and H2O2, and was attenuated both by cat's claw and green tea (P < 0.01). In IEC-18 cells, all antioxidants were equally effective as anti-apoptotic agents.These results indicate that dietary antioxidants can limit epithelial cell death in response to oxidant stress. In the case of green tea and cat's claw, the cytoprotective response exceed their inherent ability to interact with the injurious oxidant, suggestive of actions on intracellular pathways regulating cell death.Epithelial apoptosis in the gastro-intestinal tract is normally restricted to superficial cells but in pathological states of inflammation or infection, apoptotic cell death can be far more expansive. Under these conditions apoptosis may result from the production of cytokines [1], cell activation [2-4], infective agents [5] and adverse responses to pharmaceuticals [6,7]. Depending on the agonist or eliciting milieu, apoptotic cell death is accompanied by the activation of various cell
A unique therapeutic approach to emesis and itch with a proanthocyanidin-rich genonutrient
Mark JS Miller, Brian K Reuter, John L Wallace, Keith A Sharkey
Journal of Translational Medicine , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5876-6-3
Abstract: Emesis was induced in ferrets with morphine-6-glucuronide (0.05 mg/kg sc) in the presence of Zangrado (3 mg/kg, ip) and the cannabinoid receptor 1 antagonist, AM 251 (5 mg/kg, ip). Topical Zangrado (1%) was assessed for anti-pruretic actions in the 5-HT-induced scratching model in rats and evaluated in capsaicin-induced gastric hyperemia as measured by laser doppler flow. In the ApcMinmouse model of precancerous adenomatosis polyposis, mice received Zangrado (100 μg/ml in drinking water) from the age of 6 – 16 weeks for effects on polyp number. In RAW 264.7 cells Zangrado was examined for effects on lipopolysaccharide-induced nitrite production.Zangrado was a highly effective anti-emetic, reducing morphine-induced vomiting and retching by 77%. These benefits were not associated with sedation or hypothermia and were not reversed by cannabinoid receptor antagonism. Itch responses were blocked in both the morphine and 5-HT models. Zangrado did not exacerbate the ApcMincondition rather health was improved. Capsaicin-induced hyperemia was blocked by Zangrado, which also attenuated the production of nitric oxide by activated macrophages.Zangrado is an effective anti-emetic and anti-itch therapy that is devoid of common side-effects, cannabinoid-independent and broadly suppresses sensory afferent nerve activation. This complementary medicine represents a promising new approach to the management of nausea, itch and irritable bowel syndrome.The latex of the Amazonian traditional medicine Croton palanostigma and related Croton species is traditionally used in the treatment of inflammation, pain, itch, and a number of gastrointestinal afflictions that are common in the rainforest [1]. This traditional medicine is derived from a fast growing tree that is known by different names in various countries: in Peru it is called sangre de grado and in Ecuador, sangre de drago. We have found substantial scientific support for a number of these ethnomedical applications [2-4]. A central
Differentiation of Material Temperature through the Application of Increased Localized Dissolution via Heat Transfer  [PDF]
Brian K. Chen
Journal of Analytical Sciences, Methods and Instrumentation (JASMI) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jasmi.2015.53005
Abstract: Increased temperature of a solution increases its solubility, allowing for a greater level of dissolution of the solute. A greater level of dissolution will result in a change in the density of the solution. When a localized area of the solution is of a different temperature, this will affect the localized density. Density is one of the factors affecting rate of sinking and the difference in temperature will lead to a change in the rate of sinking. Thus, when an object is at different temperatures, it will transfer heat to or from the solution in different manners and the rate of sinking will be different. This study tested whether sinking rate in a solution with excess solute could be used to judge the temperature of an object and the effect was confirmed with impure Graphite blocks in a Potassium Iodide solution.
Exactly Solvable Models: The Road towards a Rigorous Treatment of Phase Transitions in Finite Nuclear Systems
K. A. Bugaev,P. T. Reuter
Physics , 2010,
Abstract: We discuss exact analytical solutions of a variety of statistical models recently obtained for finite systems by a novel powerful mathematical method, the Laplace-Fourier transform. Among them are a constrained version of the statistical multifragmentation model, the Gas of Bags Model and the Hills and Dales Model of surface partition. Thus, the Laplace-Fourier transform allows one to study the nuclear matter equation of state, the equation of state of hadronic and quark gluon matter and surface partitions on the same footing. A complete analysis of the isobaric partition singularities of these models is done for finite systems. The developed formalism allows us, for the first time, to exactly define the finite volume analogs of gaseous, liquid and mixed phases of these models from the first principles of statistical mechanics and demonstrate the pitfalls of earlier works. The found solutions may be used for building up a new theoretical apparatus to rigorously study phase transitions in finite systems. The strategic directions of future research opened by these exact results are also discussed.
kmos: A lattice kinetic Monte Carlo framework
M. J. Hoffmann,S. Matera,K. Reuter
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1016/j.cpc.2014.04.003
Abstract: Kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) simulations have emerged as a key tool for microkinetic modeling in heterogeneous catalysis and other materials applications. Systems, where site-specificity of all elementary reactions allows a mapping onto a lattice of discrete active sites, can be addressed within the particularly efficient lattice kMC approach. To this end we describe the versatile kmos software package, which offers a most user-friendly implementation, execution, and evaluation of lattice kMC models of arbitrary complexity in one- to three-dimensional lattice systems, involving multiple active sites in periodic or aperiodic arrangements, as well as site-resolved pairwise and higher-order lateral interactions. Conceptually, kmos achieves a maximum runtime performance which is essentially independent of lattice size by generating code for the efficiency-determining local update of available events that is optimized for a defined kMC model. For this model definition and the control of all runtime and evaluation aspects kmos offers a high-level application programming interface. Usage proceeds interactively, via scripts, or a graphical user interface, which visualizes the model geometry, the lattice occupations and rates of selected elementary reactions, while allowing on-the-fly changes of simulation parameters. We demonstrate the performance and scaling of kmos with the application to kMC models for surface catalytic processes, where for given operation conditions (temperature and partial pressures of all reactants) central simulation outcomes are catalytic activity and selectivities, surface composition, and mechanistic insight into the occurrence of individual elementary processes in the reaction network.
Critical Exponents of the Statistical Multifragmentation Model
P. T. Reuter,K. A. Bugaev
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1016/S0370-2693(01)00996-0
Abstract: For the statistical multifragmentation model the critical indices $\alpha^\prime, \beta, \gamma^\prime, \delta$ are calculated as functions of the Fisher parameter $\tau$. It is found that these indices have different values than in Fisher's droplet model. Some peculiarities of the scaling relations are discussed. The basic model predicts for the index $\tau$ a narrow range of values, $1.799< \tau < 1.846$, which is consistent with two experiments on nuclear multifragmentation.
IL-10 Inhibits LPS-Induced Expression of miR-147 in Murine Macrophages  [PDF]
Leah N. Cardwell, Brian K. Weaver
Advances in Biological Chemistry (ABC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/abc.2014.44032
Abstract: Interleukin-10 (IL-10) mediates an anti-inflammatory response that constrains immune responses and limits inflammation-associated pathology. IL-10 does so, in part, by selectively inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine expression induced in macrophages in response to Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling. The IL-10-mediated anti-inflammatory response is executed through the activation of STAT3 leading to induction of target genes referred to as IL-10-induced genes. As miRNAs have emerged as important negative regulators of gene expression in various systems, we sought to address whether the IL-10-mediated anti-inflammatory response acts through regulated expression of miRNA genes. Using quantitative PCR-based arrays, we examined 140 miRNA genes with putative roles in inflammation for changes in expression in response to IL-10 and lipopoly-saccharide (LPS) in primary mouse macrophages. IL-10 stimulation resulted in the inhibition of miR-147 expression induced in response to LPS, while having a potentiating effect on the induction of miR-455. miR-147 is the second TLR-induced miRNA, in addition to miR-155, identified to be counter-regulated by IL-10. Its suppression by IL-10 suggests that miR-147 may have an unknown pro-inflammatory function in TLR-triggered macrophages. The results extend the notion that IL-10 selectively regulates expression of miRNA genes, and that miRNA-mediated pathways are a component of the IL-10-mediated anti-inflammatory response.
Dendritic development of Drosophila high order visual system neurons is independent of sensory experience
Ethan K Scott, John E Reuter, Liqun Luo
BMC Neuroscience , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2202-4-14
Abstract: We find that the dendrites of VS1 neurons are unchanged in dark-reared flies as compared to control flies raised on a 12 hour light, 12 hour dark cycle. The dendrites of these flies show no differences from control in dendrite complexity, spine number, spine density, or axon complexity. Flies with genetically ablated eyes show a slight but significant reduction in the complexity and overall length of VS1 dendrites, although this effect may be due to a reduction in the overall size of the dendritic field in these flies.Overall, our results indicate no role for visual experience in the development of VS dendrites, while spontaneous activity from photoreceptors may play at most a subtle role in the formation of fully complex dendrites in these high-order visual processing neurons.The mechanisms that underlie the development of the nervous system are numerous and diverse. Over the past several decades, research has begun to give us a sense of the importance of both preprogrammed, invariant mechanisms for neural development, and also programs for development that depend on experience and the electrical activity of the developing neurons themselves. The fact that certain types of neurons develop their basic morphologies even when isolated in culture from other cells provides a simple but powerful argument for the importance of cell autonomous mechanisms in the establishment of neuronal structure [1,2]. These and numerous other experiments have provided overwhelming evidence that neurons possess endogenous, activity independent programs that account for important aspects of their development.On the other hand, neurons deprived of contact with or activity from their normal synaptic partners seldom attain a fully mature structure. For example, Purkinje cells deprived of their efferent projections in Weaver mice have dendritic arborizations that do not extend normally [3]. Additionally, the structures of neurons can be affected by an absence of activity from their efferent pa
Pinning down the Invisible Sneutrino
Kalinowski, J.;Kilian, W.;Reuter, J.;Robens, T.;Rolbiecki, K.
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology , 2008, DOI: 10.1088/1126-6708/2008/10/090
Abstract: For points in SUSY parameter space where the sneutrino is lighter than the lightest chargino and next-to-lightest neutralino, its direct mass determination from sneutrino pair production process at e+e- collider is impossible since it decays invisibly. In such a scenario the sneutrino can be discovered and its mass determined from measurements of two-body decays of charginos produced in pairs at the ILC. Using the event generator WHIZARD we study the prospects of measuring sneutrino properties in a realistic ILC environment. In our analysis we include beamstrahlung, initial state radiation, a complete account of reducible backgrounds from SM and SUSY processes, and a complete matrix-element calculation of the SUSY signal which encompasses all irreducible background and interference contributions. We also simulate photon induced background processes using exact matrix elements. Radiation effects and the cuts to reduce background strongly modify the edges of the lepton energy spectra from which the sneutrino and chargino mass are determined. We discuss possible approaches to measure the sneutrino mass with optimal precision.
Page 1 /146596
Display every page Item

Copyright © 2008-2017 Open Access Library. All rights reserved.