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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 304824 matches for " Brian J. Morris "
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Male Circumcision Does Not Reduce Sexual Function, Sensitivity or Satisfaction  [PDF]
Brian J. Morris, John N. Krieger
Advances in Sexual Medicine (ASM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/asm.2015.53007
Abstract: We disagree with Boyle’s recent article questioning our systematic review in Journal of Sexual Medicine in 2013 (Volume 10, pages 2644-2657). In particular, he disputed the quality ranking we assigned to 7 of the 36 articles that met our inclusion criteria. These had been ranked for quality by the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) grading system. We found that, “the highest-quality studies suggest that medical male circumcision has no adverse effect on sexual function, sensitivity, sexual sensation or satisfaction.” This conclusion was supported by two randomized controlled trials, regarded as high-quality (1++) evidence and the majority of surveys and studies involving physiological measurements comparing uncircumcised and circumcised men. Here we explain why the 2 randomized controlled trials merit a 1++ ranking and why 4 reports that Boyle believes merit a higher ranking only meet the criteria set down for low quality (2?) evidence according to the SIGN system. We therefore stand by our conclusions. These are supported by a meta-analysis of sexual dysfunctions and by a recent detailed systematic review of the histological correlates of male sexual sensation.
Resveratrol in prevention and treatment of common clinical conditions of aging
M Andrea Markus,Brian J Morris
Clinical Interventions in Aging , 2008,
Abstract: M Andrea Markus, Brian J MorrisSchool of Medical Sciences and Bosch Institute, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, AustraliaAbstract: Resveratrol is a potent member of the class of natural, plant-derived chemicals known as polyphenols. These help explain in part why a diet high in fruit and vegetables confers health benefits and are associated with reduced risk of common complex conditions such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, and Alzheimer’s disease. We present the latest molecular findings that account for the beneficial actions of resveratrol. The intracellular pathways activated are crucial for anti-oxidant defence, regulation of the cell cycle, mitochondrial energy production, vascular tone, oncogene suppression, and many other phenomena which if unchecked lead to morbidity and mortality from onset and progression of these various diseases. While a healthy diet and lifestyle is strongly recommended in prevention of such conditions, the future bodes well for the use of resveratrol and analogues of higher potency than the natural form for treatment of diseases that afflict humans, particularly as they age.Keywords: resveratrol, longevity, SIRT, wine, aging, cancer
Expertise and Ideology in Statistical Evaluation of Circumcision for Protection against HIV Infection  [PDF]
Brian J. Morris, Gia Barboza, Richard G. Wamai, John N. Krieger
World Journal of AIDS (WJA) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/wja.2017.73015
Abstract: Aim: To critically evaluate data and arguments by Van Howe defending his stance opposing male circumcision (MC), in particular his meta-regression analyses evaluating the ability of MC to reduce HIV infection risk in heterosexual populations within and outside Africa. Methods: We performed metaregression analysis of log odds of HIV infection between uncircumcised and circumcised men using a single covariate (MC prevalence) in the meta-regression model involving the metareg package in STATA 13 for 103 populations worldwide and for populations within Africa. The meta-regression of log odds and MC prevalence was fitted to a line, as were empirical Bayes estimates resulting from post-estimation. Results: Our critical evaluation of Van Howe’s arguments attempting to undermine the scientific evidence in support of the benefits of MC in protection of men against HIV during heterosexual intercourse, as well as other infections and conditions, together with his use of statistics to support his beliefs, revealed serious flaws, obfuscation and missing data. We therefore performed our own meta-regression analysis using a trivariate model. Doing so revealed that for MC prevalences of 50%, 75% and 100% for general populations within Africa, odds ratios for HIV risk in uncircumcised vs. circumcised men were 1.35, 1.58 and 1.85, respectively. Our meta-regression analysis of data for all countries yielded similar findings. For a general population outside Africa with 100% MC prevalence, OR was 1.5. Van Howe failed to acknowledge that since MC prevalence in US whites (91%) and blacks (76%) exceeds 75% his results support MC having a protective effect in those population groups. Conclusions: The protective effect of MC against HIV infection during heterosexual intercourse applies to populations both within and outside Africa. The debate engineered by MC opponents, and led by Van Howe, now appears to have run its course. The scientific evidence has prevailed.
Sphere Culture of Murine Lung Cancer Cell Lines Are Enriched with Cancer Initiating Cells
Brian J. Morrison, Jason C. Steel, John C. Morris
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0049752
Abstract: Cancer initiating cells (CICs) represent a unique cell population essential for the maintenance and growth of tumors. Most in vivo studies of CICs utilize human tumor xenografts in immunodeficient mice. These models provide limited information on the interaction of CICs with the host immune system and are of limited value in assessing therapies targeting CICs, especially immune-based therapies. To assess this, a syngeneic cancer model is needed. We examined the sphere-forming capacity of thirteen murine lung cancer cell lines and identified TC-1 and a metastatic subclone of Lewis lung carcinoma (HM-LLC) as cell lines that readily formed and maintained spheres over multiple passages. TC-1 tumorspheres were not enriched for expression of CD133 or CD44, putative CIC markers, nor did they demonstrate Hoechst 33342 side population staining or Aldefluor activity compared to adherent TC-1 cells. However, in tumorsphere culture, these cells exhibited self-renewal and long-term symmetric division capacity and expressed more Oct-4 compared to adherent cells. HM-LLC sphere-derived cells exhibited increased Oct-4, CD133, and CD44 expression, demonstrated a Hoechst 33342 side population and Aldefluor activity compared to adherent cells or a low metastatic subclone of LLC (LM-LLC). In syngeneic mice, HM-LLC sphere-derived cells required fewer cells to initiate tumorigenesis compared to adherent or LM-LLC cells. Similarly TC-1 sphere-derived cells were more tumorigenic than adherent cells in syngeneic mice. In contrast, in immunocompromised mice, less than 500 sphere or adherent TC-1 cells and less than 1,000 sphere or adherent LLC cells were required to initiate a tumor. We suggest that no single phenotypic marker can identify CICs in murine lung cancer cell lines. Tumorsphere culture may provide an alternative approach to identify and enrich for murine lung CICs. Furthermore, we propose that assessing tumorigenicity of murine lung CICs in syngeneic mice better models the interaction of CICs with the host immune system.
Resveratrol, by Modulating RNA Processing Factor Levels, Can Influence the Alternative Splicing of Pre-mRNAs
M. Andrea Markus, Francine Z. Marques, Brian J. Morris
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0028926
Abstract: Alternative pre-mRNA splicing defects can contribute to, or result from, various diseases, including cancer. Aberrant mRNAs, splicing factors and other RNA processing factors have therefore become targets for new therapeutic interventions. Here we report that the natural polyphenol resveratrol can modulate alternative splicing in a target-specific manner. We transfected minigenes of several alternatively spliceable primary mRNAs into HEK293 cells in the presence or absence of 1, 5, 20 and 50 μM resveratrol and measured exon levels by semi-quantitative PCR after separation by agarose gel electrophoresis. We found that 20 μg/ml and 50 μg/ml of resveratrol affected exon inclusion of SRp20 and SMN2 pre-mRNAs, but not CD44v5 or tau pre-mRNAs. By Western blotting and immunofluorescence we showed that this effect may be due to the ability of resveratrol to change the protein level but not the localization of several RNA processing factors. The processing factors that increased significantly were ASF/SF2, hnRNPA1 and HuR, but resveratrol did not change the levels of RBM4, PTBP1 and U2AF35. By means of siRNA-mediated knockdown we depleted cells of SIRT1, regarded as a major target of resveratrol, and showed that the effect on splicing was not dependent on SIRT1. Our results suggest that resveratrol might be an attractive small molecule to treat diseases in which aberrant splicing has been implicated, and justify more extensive research on the effects of resveratrol on the splicing machinery.
Self-Assembly of Microscale Parts through Magnetic and Capillary Interactions
Christopher J. Morris,Brian Isaacson,Michael D. Grapes,Madan Dubey
Micromachines , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/mi2010069
Abstract: Self-assembly is a promising technique to overcome fundamental limitations with integrating, packaging, and general handling of individual electronic-related components with characteristic lengths significantly smaller than 1?mm. Here we describe the use of magnetic and capillary forces to self-assemble 280?μm sized silicon building blocks into interconnected structures which approach a three-dimensional crystalline configuration. Integrated permanent magnet microstructures provided magnetic forces, while a low-melting-point solder alloy provided capillary forces. A finite element model of forces between the magnetic features demonstrated the utility of magnetic forces at this size scale. Despite a slight departure from designed dimensions in the actual fabricated parts, the combination of magnetic and capillary forces improved the assembly yield to 8%, over approximately 0.1% achieved previously with capillary forces alone.
Critical Evaluation of a Survey Claiming “Long-Term Adverse Outcomes from Neonatal Circumcision”*  [PDF]
Stefan A. Bailis, Stephen Moreton, Brian J. Morris
Advances in Sexual Medicine (ASM) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/asm.2019.94006
Abstract: We critically evaluate an online “Global survey of circumcision harm” that gauged beliefs of men who thought that their neonatal circumcision had harmed them. Sequential evaluation of the survey data and claims reveal numerous serious flaws that are at odds with strong scientific evidence. Moreover, the one-sided study design and “loaded” survey title meant the findings were not representative of the general population of circumcised males. None of the participants’ claimed physical problems were confirmed by a health practitioner. Belief in this seriously flawed survey has potential to cause psychological harm to vulnerable men influenced by anti-circumcision claims, and as such has serious detrimental implications for male sexual health. The survey appears driven less by empiricism and more by psychological forces, as we show in de-tail. The overwhelming body of high quality medical scientific evidence finds no adverse effect of male circumcision on sexual function and pleasure, but strong evidence for a wide array of lifetime benefits in protection against infections, dermatological problems, and genital cancers. Consistent with the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, children are entitled to low risk procedures that are beneficial to their health. In conclusion, the survey and its uncritical presentation do a disservice to evidence-based medicine, sexual health, mental health, public health, human rights, and pediatric policy development. It should therefore be dismissed as unreliable.
Pseudoseptic Arthritis: A Case Series and Review of the Literature
Brian P. Oppermann,Jonida K. Cote,Stephanie J. Morris,Thomas Harrington
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/942023
Abstract: Purpose. Pseudoseptic arthritis is an acute inflammatory monoarthritis with a sterile synovial gram stain and culture. Pseudoseptic arthritis has been previously described in the literature in a variety of settings including rheumatoid arthritis and microcrystalline disease. Despite pseudoseptic arthritis being a described entity, there is little published data on this topic with no published reports since 1992. Methods. This paper was a retrospective chart review over a 20-year period that identified all rheumatology inpatient consultations at our tertiary rural hospital for pseudoseptic arthritis. Results. We identified 10 patients with pseudoseptic arthritis and presented 5 of those cases in this paper. Majority of these patients had known autoimmune inflammatory arthritis or microcrystalline inflammatory arthritis. Conclusion. Pseudoseptic arthritis is a syndrome that should be in the differential diagnosis with patients with long standing inflammatory condition who present with an acute monoarthritis with no known bacterial source for septic arthritis.
Exposé of fallacious claims that male circumcision will increase HIV infections in Africa
Brian J. Morris,Jake H. Waskett,Ronald H. Gray,Daniel T. Halperin
Journal of Public Health in Africa , 2011, DOI: 10.4081/jphia.2011.e28
Abstract: Despite over two decades of extensive research showing that male circumcision protects against heterosexual acquisition of HIV in men, and that includes findings from large randomized controlled trials leading to acceptance by the WHO/UNAIDS and the Cochrane Committee, opponents of circumcision continue to generate specious arguments to the contrary. In a recent issue of the Journal of Public Health in Africa, Van Howe and Storms claim that male circumcision will increase HIV infections in Africa. Here we review the statements they use in support of their thesis and show that there is no scientific basis to such an assertion. We also evaluate the statistics used and show that when these data are properly analyzed the results lead to a contrary conclusion affirming the major role of male circumcision in protecting against HIV infection in Africa. Researchers, policy makers and the wider community should rely on balanced scholarship when assessing scientific evidence. We trust that our assessment may help refute the claims by Van Howe and Storms, and provide reassurance on the importance of circumcision for HIV prevention.
Male circumcision for HIV prevention: current evidence and implementation in sub-Saharan Africa
Wamai Richard G,Morris Brian J,Bailis Stefan A,Sokal David
Journal of the International AIDS Society , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1758-2652-14-49
Abstract: Heterosexual exposure accounts for most HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa, and this mode, as a proportion of new infections, is escalating globally. The scientific evidence accumulated over more than 20 years shows that among the strategies advocated during this period for HIV prevention, male circumcision is one of, if not, the most efficacious epidemiologically, as well as cost-wise. Despite this, and recommendation of the procedure by global policy makers, national implementation has been slow. Additionally, some are not convinced of the protective effect of male circumcision and there are also reports, unsupported by evidence, that non-sex-related drivers play a major role in HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa. Here, we provide a critical evaluation of the state of the current evidence for male circumcision in reducing HIV infection in light of established transmission drivers, provide an update on programmes now in place in this region, and explain why policies based on established scientific evidence should be prioritized. We conclude that the evidence supports the need to accelerate the implementation of medical male circumcision programmes for HIV prevention in generalized heterosexual epidemics, as well as in countering the growing heterosexual transmission in countries where HIV prevalence is presently low.
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