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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 151970 matches for " Brian F. Gerke "
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Probing quintessence: reconstruction and parameter estimation from supernovae
Brian F. Gerke,G. Efstathiou
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-8711.2002.05612.x
Abstract: We explore the prospects for using future supernova observations to probe the dark energy. We focus on quintessence, an evolving scalar field that has been suggested as a candidate for the dark energy. After simulating the observations that would be expected from the proposed SuperNova / Acceleration Probe satellite (SNAP), we investigate two methods for extracting information about quintessence from such data. First, by expanding the quintessence equation of state as w_Q(z) = w_Q(0)-alpha*ln(1+z), to fit the data, it is possible to reconstruct the quintessence potential for a wide range of smoothly varying potentials. Second, it will be possible, to test the basic properties of the dark energy by constraining the parameters Omega_Q, w_Q and alpha. We show that it may be possible, for example, to distinguish between quintessence and the cosmological constant in this way. Further, when supernova data are combined with other planned cosmological observations, the precision of reconstructions and parameter constraints is significantly improved, allowing a wider range of dark energy models to be distinguished.
Chandra Observations of a 1.9 kpc Separation Double X-ray Source in a Candidate Dual AGN Galaxy at z=0.16
Julia M. Comerford,David Pooley,Brian F. Gerke,Greg M. Madejski
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/737/1/L19
Abstract: We report Chandra observations of a double X-ray source in the z=0.1569 galaxy SDSS J171544.05+600835.7. The galaxy was initially identified as a dual AGN candidate based on the double-peaked [O III] emission lines, with a line-of-sight velocity separation of 350 km/s, in its Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectrum. We used the Kast Spectrograph at Lick Observatory to obtain two longslit spectra of the galaxy at two different position angles, which reveal that the two AGN emission components have not only a velocity offset, but also a projected spatial offset of 1.9 kpc/h70 on the sky. Chandra/ACIS observations of two X-ray sources with the same spatial offset and orientation as the optical emission suggest the galaxy most likely contains Compton-thick dual AGN, although the observations could also be explained by AGN jets. Deeper X-ray observations that reveal Fe K lines, if present, would distinguish between the two scenarios. The observations of a double X-ray source in SDSS J171544.05+600835.7 are a proof of concept for a new, systematic detection method that selects promising dual AGN candidates from ground-based spectroscopy that exhibits both velocity and spatial offsets in the AGN emission features.
How Common are the Magellanic Clouds?
Lulu Liu,Brian F. Gerke,Risa H. Wechsler,Peter S. Behroozi,Michael T. Busha
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/733/1/62
Abstract: We introduce a probabilistic approach to the problem of counting dwarf satellites around host galaxies in databases with limited redshift information. This technique is used to investigate the occurrence of satellites with luminosities similar to the Magellanic Clouds around hosts with properties similar to the Milky Way in the object catalog of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Our analysis uses data from SDSS Data Release 7, selecting candidate Milky-Way-like hosts from the spectroscopic catalog and candidate analogs of the Magellanic Clouds from the photometric catalog. Our principal result is the probability for a Milky-Way-like galaxy to host N_{sat} close satellites with luminosities similar to the Magellanic Clouds. We find that 81 percent of galaxies like the Milky Way are have no such satellites within a radius of 150 kpc, 11 percent have one, and only 3.5 percent of hosts have two. The probabilities are robust to changes in host and satellite selection criteria, background-estimation technique, and survey depth. These results demonstrate that the Milky Way has significantly more satellites than a typical galaxy of its luminosity; this fact is useful for understanding the larger cosmological context of our home galaxy.
A 1.75 kpc/h Separation Dual AGN at z=0.36 in the COSMOS Field
Julia M. Comerford,Roger L. Griffith,Brian F. Gerke,Michael C. Cooper,Jeffrey A. Newman,Marc Davis,Daniel Stern
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/702/1/L82
Abstract: We present strong evidence for dual active galactic nuclei (AGN) in the z=0.36 galaxy COSMOS J100043.15+020637.2. COSMOS Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging of the galaxy shows a tidal tail, indicating that the galaxy recently underwent a merger, as well as two bright point sources near the galaxy's center. Both the luminosities of these sources (derived from the HST image) and their emission line flux ratios (derived from Keck/DEIMOS slit spectroscopy) suggest that both are AGN and not star-forming regions or supernovae. Observations from zCOSMOS, Sloan Digital Sky Survey, XMM-Newton, Very Large Array, and Spitzer fortify the evidence for AGN activity. With HST imaging we measure a projected spatial offset between the two AGN of 1.75 +- 0.03 kpc/h, and with DEIMOS we measure a 150 +- 40 km/s line-of-sight velocity offset between the two AGN. Combined, these observations provide substantial evidence that COSMOS J100043.15+020637.2 is a dual AGN in a merger-remnant galaxy.
Statistics of Satellite Galaxies Around Milky Way-Like Hosts
Michael T. Busha,Risa H. Wechsler,Peter S. Behroozi,Brian F. Gerke,Anatoly A. Klypin,Joel R. Primack
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/743/2/117
Abstract: We calculate the probability that a Milky-Way-like halo in the standard cosmological model has the observed number of Magellanic Clouds (MCs). The statistics of the number of MCs in the LCDM model are in good agreement with observations of a large sample of SDSS galaxies. Under the sub-halo abundance matching assumption of a relationship with small scatter between galaxy r-band luminosities and halo internal velocities v_max, we make detailed comparisons to similar measurements using SDSS DR7 data by Liu et al. (2010). Models and observational data give very similar probabilities for having zero, one, and two MC-like satellites. In both cases, Milky Way-luminosity hosts have just a \sim 10% chance of hosting two satellites similar to the Magellanic Clouds. In addition, we present a prediction for the probability for a host galaxy to have Nsats satellite galaxies as a function of the magnitudes of both the host and satellite. This probability and its scaling with host properties is significantly different from that of mass-selected objects because of scatter in the mass- luminosity relation and because of variations in the star formation efficiency with halo mass.
Improved Mock Galaxy Catalogs for the DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey from Subhalo Abundance and Environment Matching
Brian F. Gerke,Risa H. Wechsler,Peter S. Behroozi,Michael C. Cooper,Renbin Yan,Alison L. Coil
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/0067-0049/208/1/1
Abstract: We develop empirical methods for modeling the galaxy population and populating cosmological N-body simulations with mock galaxies according to the observed properties of galaxies in survey data. We use these techniques to produce a new set of mock catalogs for the DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey based on the output of the high-resolution Bolshoi simulation, as well as two other simulations with different cosmological parameters, all of which we release for public use. The mock-catalog creation technique uses subhalo abundance matching to assign galaxy luminosities to simulated dark-matter halos. It then adds color information to the resulting mock galaxies in a manner that depends on the local galaxy density, in order to reproduce the measured color-environment relation in the data. In the course of constructing the catalogs, we test various models for including scatter in the relation between halo mass and galaxy luminosity, within the abundance-matching framework. We find that there is no constant-scatter model that can simultaneously reproduce both the luminosity function and the autocorrelation function of DEEP2. This result has implications for galaxy-formation theory, and it restricts the range of contexts in which the mocks can be usefully applied. Nevertheless, careful comparisons show that our new mocks accurately reproduce a wide range of the other properties of the DEEP2 catalog, suggesting that they can be used to gain a detailed understanding of various selection effects in DEEP2.
Groups of Galaxies in AEGIS: The 200 ksec Chandra Extended X-ray Source catalogue
Tesla E. Jeltema,Brian F. Gerke,Elise S. Laird,Christopher N. A. Willmer,Alison L. Coil,Michael C. Cooper,Marc Davis,Kirpal Nandra,Jeffrey A. Newman
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.15377.x
Abstract: We present the discovery of seven X-ray emitting groups of galaxies selected as extended X-ray sources in the 200 ksec Chandra coverage of the All-wavelength Extended Groth Strip International Survey (AEGIS). In addition, we report on AGN activity associated to these systems. Using the DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey coverage, we identify optical counterparts and determine velocity dispersions. In particular, we find three massive high-redshift groups at z>0.7, one of which is at z=1.13, the first X-ray detections of spectroscopically selected DEEP2 groups. We also present a first look at the the L_X-T, L_X-sigma, and sigma-T scaling relations for high-redshift massive groups. We find that the properties of these X-ray selected systems agree well with the scaling relations of similar systems at low redshift, although there are X-ray undetected groups in the DEEP2 catalogue with similar velocity dispersions. The other three X-ray groups with identified redshifts are associated with lower mass groups at z~0.07 and together form part of a large structure or "supergroup" in the southern portion of the AEGIS field. All of the low-redshift systems are centred on massive elliptical galaxies, and all of the high-redshift groups have likely central galaxies or galaxy pairs. All of the central group galaxies host X-ray point sources, radio sources, and/or show optical AGN emission. Particularly interesting examples of central AGN activity include a bent-double radio source plus X-ray point source at the center of a group at z=0.74, extended radio and double X-ray point sources associated to the central galaxy in the lowest-redshift group at z=0.066, and a bright green valley galaxy (part of a pair) in the z=1.13 group which shows optical AGN emission lines.
Kiloparsec-scale Spatial Offsets in Double-peaked Narrow-line Active Galactic Nuclei. I. Markers for Selection of Compelling Dual Active Galactic Nucleus Candidates
Julia M. Comerford,Brian F. Gerke,Daniel Stern,Michael C. Cooper,Benjamin J. Weiner,Jeffrey A. Newman,Kristin Madsen,R. Scott Barrows
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/753/1/42
Abstract: Merger-remnant galaxies with kpc-scale separation dual active galactic nuclei (AGNs) should be widespread as a consequence of galaxy mergers and triggered gas accretion onto supermassive black holes, yet very few dual AGNs have been observed. Galaxies with double-peaked narrow AGN emission lines in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey are plausible dual AGN candidates, but their double-peaked profiles could also be the result of gas kinematics or AGN-driven outflows and jets on small or large scales. To help distinguish between these scenarios, we have obtained spatial profiles of the AGN emission via follow-up long-slit spectroscopy of 81 double-peaked narrow-line AGNs in SDSS at 0.03 < z < 0.36 using Lick, Palomar, and MMT Observatories. We find that all 81 systems exhibit double AGN emission components with ~kpc projected spatial separations on the sky, which suggests that they are produced by kpc-scale dual AGNs or kpc-scale outflows, jets, or rotating gaseous disks. In addition, we find that the subsample (58%) of the objects with spatially compact emission components may be preferentially produced by dual AGNs, while the subsample (42%) with spatially extended emission components may be preferentially produced by AGN outflows. We also find that for 32% of the sample the two AGN emission components are preferentially aligned with the host galaxy major axis, as expected for dual AGNs orbiting in the host galaxy potential. Our results both narrow the list of possible physical mechanisms producing the double AGN components, and suggest several observational criteria for selecting the most promising dual AGN candidates from the full sample of double-peaked narrow-line AGNs. Using these criteria, we determine the 17 most compelling dual AGN candidates in our sample.
Where do Wet, Dry, and Mixed Galaxy Mergers Occur? A Study of the Environments of Close Galaxy Pairs in the DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey
Lihwai Lin,Michael C. Cooper,Hung-Yu Jian,David C. Koo,David R. Patton,Renbin Yan,Christopher N. A. Willmer,Alison L. Coil,Tzihong Chiueh,Darren J. Croton,Brian F. Gerke,Jennifer Lotz,Puragra Guhathakurta,Jeffrey A. Newman
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/718/2/1158
Abstract: We study the environment of wet, dry, and mixed galaxy mergers at 0.75 < z < 1.2 using close pairs in the DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey. We find that the typical environment of mixed and dry merger candidates is denser than that of wet mergers, mostly due to the color-density relation. While the galaxy companion rate (Nc) is observed to increase with overdensity, using N-body simulations we find that the fraction of pairs that will eventually merge decreases with the local density, predominantly because interlopers are more common in dense environments. After taking into account the merger probability of pairs as a function of local density, we find only marginal environment dependence of the fractional merger rate for wet mergers over the redshift range we have probed. On the other hand, the fractional dry merger rate increases rapidly with local density due to the increased population of red galaxies in dense environments. We also find that the environment distribution of K+A galaxies is similar to that of wet mergers alone and of wet+mixed mergers, suggesting a possible connection between K+A galaxies and wet and/or wet+mixed mergers. We conclude that, as early as z ~ 1, high-density regions are the preferred environment in which dry mergers occur, and that present-day red-sequence galaxies in overdense environments have, on average, undergone 1.2+-0.3 dry mergers since this time, accounting for (38+-10)% of their mass accretion in the last 8 billion years. Our findings suggest that dry mergers are crucial in the mass-assembly of massive red galaxies in dense environments, such as Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCGs) in galaxy groups and clusters.
Dependence of Galaxy Quenching on Halo Mass and Distance from its Centre
Joanna Woo,Avishai Dekel,S. M. Faber,Kai Noeske,David C. Koo,Brian F. Gerke,Michael C. Cooper,Samir Salim,Aaron A. Dutton,Jeffrey Newman,Benjamin J. Weiner,Kevin Bundy,Christopher N. A. Willmer,Marc Davis,Renbin Yan
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sts274
Abstract: We study the dependence of star-formation quenching on galaxy mass and environment, in the SDSS (z~0.1) and the AEGIS (z~1). It is crucial that we define quenching by low star-formation rate rather than by red colour, given that one third of the red galaxies are star forming. We address stellar mass M*, halo mass Mh, density over the nearest N neighbours deltaN, and distance to the halo centre D. The fraction of quenched galaxies appears more strongly correlated with Mh at fixed M* than with M* at fixed Mh, while for satellites quenching also depends on D. We present the M*-Mh relation for centrals at z~1. At z~1, the dependence of quenching on M* at fixed Mh is somewhat more pronounced than at z~0, but the quenched fraction is low (10%) and the haloes are less massive. For satellites, M*-dependent quenching is noticeable at high D, suggesting a quenching dependence on sub-halo mass for recently captured satellites. At small D, where satellites likely fell in more than a few Gyr ago, quenching strongly depends on Mh, and not on M*. The Mh-dependence of quenching is consistent with theoretical wisdom where virial shock heating in massive haloes shuts down accretion and triggers ram-pressure stripping, causing quenching. The interpretation of deltaN is complicated by the fact that it depends on the number of observed group members compared to N, motivating the use of D as a better measure of local environment.
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