Abstract:
this article examines the trust established during the first federal republic (1824-1834) from the perspective of the debates that surrounded it and prevented reaching a solution whereby the mexican government would act as owner of the church. the polemic over the trust had ecclesiastic, political and diplomatic aspects. it showed that mexico was inserted in a complex national and international dynamic that would end up preventing the signing of a concordat.

Abstract:
Este artículo aborda el patronato durante la primera república federal (1824-1834) desde la perspectiva de los debates que lo rodearon y dificultaron una solución por la cual el gobierno mexicano ejerciera los derechos de patrono de la Iglesia. La polémica sobre el patronato tuvo aspectos eclesiológicos, políticos y diplomáticos. Permite ver que México estaba inserto en una compleja dinámica nacional e internacional que acabaría frustrando la firma de un concordato. This article examines the trust established during the first federal republic (1824-1834) from the perspective of the debates that surrounded it and prevented reaching a solution whereby the Mexican government would act as owner of the Church. The polemic over the trust had ecclesiastic, political and diplomatic aspects. It showed that Mexico was inserted in a complex national and international dynamic that would end up preventing the signing of a concordat.

Abstract:
William Taylor. Magistraíes of the Sacred, Parish Priests and Indian Parishioners in Eighteenth-Century New Spain. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1995.

Abstract:
We show that the isotropic 3-wave kinetic equation is equivalent to the mean field rate equations for an aggregation-fragmentation problem with an unusual fragmentation mechanism. This analogy is used to write the theory of 3-wave turbulence almost entirely in terms of a single scaling parameter. A new numerical method for solving the kinetic equation over a large range of frequencies is developed by extending Lee's method for solving aggregation equations. The new algorithm is validated against some analytic calculations of the Kolmogorov-Zakharov constant for some families of model interaction coefficients. The algorithm is then applied to study some wave turbulence problems in which the finiteness of the dissipation scale is an essential feature. Firstly, it is shown that for finite capacity cascades, the dissipation of energy becomes independent of the cut-off frequency as this cut-off is taken to infinity. This is an explicit indication of the presence of a dissipative anomaly. Secondly, a preliminary numerical study is presented of the so-called bottleneck effect in a wave turbulence context. It is found that the structure of the bottleneck depends non-trivially on the interaction coefficient. Finally some results are presented on the complementary phenomenon of thermalisation in closed wave systems which demonstrates explicitly for the first time the existence of so-called mixed solutions of the kinetic equation which exhibit aspects of both Kolmogorov-Zakharov and equilibrium equipartition spectra.

Abstract:
I discuss in this paper the phenomenon of post-burst emission in BATSE gamma-ray bursts at energies traditionally associated with prompt emission. By summing the background-subtracted signals from hundreds of bursts, I find that tails out to hundreds of seconds after the trigger may be a common feature of long events (duration greater than 2s), and perhaps of the shorter bursts at a lower and shorter-lived level. The tail component appears independent of both the duration (within the long GRB sample) and brightness of the prompt burst emission, and may be softer. Some individual bursts have visible tails at gamma-ray energies and the spectrum in at least a few cases is different from that of the prompt emission.

Abstract:
The CTA (Cherenkov Telescope Array) is the next generation ground-based experiment for very high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray observations. It will integrate several tens of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) with different apertures into a single astronomical instrument. The US part of the CTA collaboration has proposed and is developing a novel IACT design with a Schwarzschild-Couder (SC) aplanatic two mirror optical system. In comparison with the traditional single mirror Davies-Cotton IACT the SC telescope, by design, can accommodate a wide field-of-view, with significantly improved imaging resolution. In addition, the reduced plate scale of an SC telescope makes it compatible with highly integrated cameras assembled from silicon photo multipliers. In this submission we report on the status of the development of the SC optical system, which is part of the effort to construct a full-scale prototype telescope of this type at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory in southern Arizona.

Abstract:
The first gravitational-wave (GW) observations will greatly benefit from the detection of coincident electromagnetic counterparts. Electromagnetic follow-ups will nevertheless be challenging for GWs with poorly reconstructed directions. GW source localization can be inefficient (i) if only two GW observatories are in operation; (ii) if the detectors' sensitivities are highly non-uniform; (iii) for events near the detectors' horizon distance. For these events, follow-up observations will need to cover 100-1000 square degrees of the sky over a limited period of time, reducing the list of suitable telescopes. We demonstrate that the Cherenkov Telescope Array will be capable of following up GW event candidates over the required large sky area with sufficient sensitivity to detect short gamma-ray bursts, which are thought to originate from compact binary mergers, out to the horizon distance of advanced LIGO/Virgo. CTA can therefore be invaluable starting with the first multimessenger detections, even with poorly reconstructed GW source directions. This scenario also provides a further scientific incentive for GW observatories to further decrease the delay of their event reconstruction.

Abstract:
A phenomenological turbulence model in which the energy spectrum obeys a nonlinear diffusion equation is presented. This equation respects the scaling properties of the original Navier-Stokes equations and it has the Kolmogorov -5/3 cascade and the thermodynamic equilibrium spectra as exact steady state solutions. The general steady state in this model contains a nonlinear mixture of the constant-flux and thermodynamic components. Such "warm cascade" solutions describe the bottleneck phenomenon of spectrum stagnation near the dissipative scale. Self-similar solutions describing a finite-time formation of steady cascades are analysed and found to exhibit nontrivial scaling behaviour.

Abstract:
We examine the probability distribution function (pdf) of energy injection rate (power) in numerical simulations of stationary two--dimensional (2D) turbulence in the Lagrangian frame. The simulation is designed to mimic an electromagnetically driven fluid layer, a well-documented system for generating two--dimensional turbulence in the laboratory. In our simulations, the forcing and velocity fields are close to Gaussian. On the other hand, the measured PDF of injected power is very sharply peaked at zero, suggestive of a singularity there, with tails which are exponential but asymmetric. Large positive fluctuations are more probable than large negative fluctuations. It is this asymmetry of the tails, which leads to a net positive mean value for the energy input despite the most probable value being zero. The main features of the power distribution are well described by Craig's XY distribution for the PDF of the product of two correlated normal variables. We show that the power distribution should exhibit a logarithmic singularity at zero and decay exponentially for large absolute values of the power. We calculate the asymptotic behavior and express the asymmetry of the tails in terms of the correlation coefficient of the force and velocity. We compare the measured pdfs with the theoretical calculations and briefly discuss how the power pdf might change with other forcing mechanisms.

Abstract:
We present a study of the scaling properties of cluster-cluster aggregation with a source of monomers in the stationary state when the spatial transport of particles occurs by Levy flights. We show that the transition from mean-field statistics to fluctuation-dominated statistics which, for the more commonly considered case of diffusive transport, occurs as the spatial dimension of the system is tuned through two from above, can be mimicked even in one dimension by varying the characteristic exponent, beta, of the the Levy jump length distribution. We also show that the two-point mass correlation function, responsible for the flux of mass in the stationary state, is strongly universal: its scaling exponent is given by the mean field value independent of the spatial dimension and independent of the value of beta. Finally we study numerically the two point spatial correlation function which characterises the structure of the depletion zone around heavy particles in the diffusion limited regime. We find that this correlation function vanishes with a non-trivial fractional power of the separation between particles as this separation goes to zero. We provide a scaling argument for the value of this exponent which is in reasonable agreement with the numerical measurements.