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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 13036 matches for " Brian Albert Robson "
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The Matter-Antimatter Asymmetry Problem  [PDF]
Brian Albert Robson
Journal of High Energy Physics, Gravitation and Cosmology (JHEPGC) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jhepgc.2018.41015
Abstract: The matter-antimatter asymmetry problem, corresponding to the virtual nonexistence of antimatter in the universe, is one of the greatest mysteries of cosmology. According to the prevailing cosmological model, the universe was created in the so-called “Big Bang” from pure energy and it is generally considered that the Big Bang and its aftermath produced equal numbers of particles and antiparticles, although the universe today appears to consist almost entirely of matter rather than antimatter. This constitutes the matter-antimatter asymmetry problem: where have all the antiparticles gone? Within the framework of the Generation Model (GM) of particle physics, it is demonstrated that the asymmetry problem may be understood in terms of the composite leptons and quarks of the GM. It is concluded that there is essentially no matter-antimatter asymmetry in the present universe and that the observed hydrogen-antihydrogen asymmetry may be understood in terms of statistical fluctuations associated with the complex many-body processes involved in the formation of either a hydrogen atom or an antihydrogen atom.
Generation Model of Particle Physics with Excited Rishon States  [PDF]
Brian Albert Robson
Journal of High Energy Physics, Gravitation and Cosmology (JHEPGC) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jhepgc.2019.51006
Abstract: It is proposed that the Generation Model (GM) of particle physics, which describes the elementary particles, the six leptons, the six quarks and the three weak bosons, of the Standard Model (SM) as composite particles in terms of three kinds of rishons and their antiparticles may be mimicking a simpler model, employing only two kinds of rishons and their antiparticles.
An assessment of rate-pegging in New South Wales local government
Brian Dollery,Albert Wijeweera
Commonwealth Journal of Local Governance , 2010, DOI: 10.5130/cjlg.v0i6.1619
Abstract: Rate-pegging has been in place in NSW for more than thirty years with broad support from all sides of politics. However, in late 2008 the NSW Government commissioned IPART to report on the adequacy of rate-pegging. IPART produced a Draft Report and then a Final Report, which has not yet been released by the NSW Government. Nevertheless, the NSW Government has made some changes to local government finance by way of capping developer charges, allowing IPART to make annual rate-pegging determinations, and enabling IPART to consider special variations in rate-pegging. Against this background, this paper considers the principles and practice of rate-pegging in NSW, the rationale for rate-pegging and counter-arguments on its desirability, as well as its economic effects on NSW local government finance relative to other Australian local government jurisdictions.
Addressing Reported Pro-Apoptotic Functions of NF-κB: Targeted Inhibition of Canonical NF-κB Enhances the Apoptotic Effects of Doxorubicin
Brian K. Bednarski, Albert S. Baldwin, Hong Jin Kim
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0006992
Abstract: The ability of the transcription factor NF-κB to upregulate anti-apoptotic proteins has been linked to the chemoresistance of solid tumors to standard chemotherapy. In contrast, recent studies have proposed that, in response to doxorubicin, NF-κB can be pro-apoptotic through repression of anti-apoptotic target genes. However, there is little evidence analyzing the outcome of NF-κB inhibition on the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin in studies describing pro-apoptotic NF-κB activity. In this study, we further characterize the activation of NF-κB in response to doxorubicin and evaluate its role in chemotherapy-induced cell death in sarcoma cells where NF-κB is reported to be pro-apoptotic. Doxorubicin treatment in U2OS cells induced canonical NF-κB activity as evidenced by increased nuclear accumulation of phosphorylated p65 at serine 536 and increased DNA–binding activity. Co-treatment with a small molecule IKKβ inhibitor, Compound A, abrogated this response. RT–PCR evaluation of anti-apoptotic gene expression revealed that doxorubicin-induced transcription of cIAP2 was inhibited by Compound A, while doxorubicin-induced repression of other anti-apoptotic genes was unaffected by Compound A or siRNA to p65. Furthermore, the combination of doxorubicin and canonical NF-κB inhibition with Compound A or siRNA to p65 resulted in decreased cell viability measured by trypan blue staining and MTS assay and increased apoptosis measured by cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase and cleaved caspase 3 when compared to doxorubicin alone. Our results demonstrate that doxorubicin-induced canonical NF-κB activity associated with phosphorylated p65 is anti-apoptotic in its function and that doxorubicin-induced repression of anti-apoptotic genes occurs independent of p65. Therefore, combination therapies incorporating NF-κB inhibitors together with standard chemotherapies remains a viable method to improve the clinical outcomes in patients with advanced stage malignancies.
Stimulation of Natural Killer T Cells by Glycolipids
Brian L. Anderson,Luc Teyton,Albert Bendelac,Paul B. Savage
Molecules , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/molecules181215662
Abstract: Natural killer T (NKT) cells are a subset of T cells that recognize glycolipid antigens presented by the CD1d protein. The initial discovery of immunostimulatory glycolipids from a marine sponge and the T cells that respond to the compounds has led to extensive research by chemists and immunologists to understand how glycolipids are recognized, possible responses by NKT cells, and the structural features of glycolipids necessary for stimulatory activity. The presence of this cell type in humans and most mammals suggests that it plays critical roles in antigen recognition and the interface between innate and adaptive immunity. Both endogenous and exogenous natural antigens for NKT cells have been identified, and it is likely that glycolipid antigens remain to be discovered. Multiple series of structurally varied glycolipids have been synthesized and tested for stimulatory activity. The structural features of glycolipids necessary for NKT cell stimulation are moderately well understood, and designed compounds have proven to be much more potent antigens than their natural counterparts. Nevertheless, control over NKT cell responses by designed glycolipids has not been optimized, and further research will be required to fully reveal the therapeutic potential of this cell type.
A Cost-Utility Analysis Comparing Oncoplastic Breast Surgery to Standard Lumpectomy in Large Breasted Women  [PDF]
Abhishek Chatterjee, Anaeze C. Offodile II, Ammar Asban, Raquel A. Minasian, Albert Losken, Roger Graham, Lilian Chen, Brian J. Czerniecki, Carla Fisher
Advances in Breast Cancer Research (ABCR) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/abcr.2018.72011
Abstract: Purpose: Ablative options, beyond mastectomy, for large breasted patients with breast cancer include oncoplastic resection via reduction pattern and standard lumpectomy. Oncoplastic resection also entails a contralateral procedure for symmetry and the potential benefit of a superior cosmetic outcome. Our aim was to examine the cost-effectiveness of this treatment strategy comparing it to standard lumpectomy in treating breast cancer patients. Methods: A literature review was performed of the probabilities and outcomes related to treatment of unilateral breast cancer via oncoplastic resection or unilateral lumpectomy. Utility score surveys were used to estimate the quality adjusted life years (QALYs) associated with a successful procedure, additional margins excision and post-operative complications. A decision analysis tree was developed to highlight the more cost-effective strategy. An Incremental Cost-Utility Ratio (ICUR) was calculated. Sensitivity analysis was performed to check the robustness of our data. Results: Oncoplastic resection was associated with fewer positive margins relative to standard lumpectomy (10.0% versus 18%). In cases with positive margins, a greater percentage of oncoplastic resection patients chose a mastectomy compared to the lumpectomy patients (72% versus 19%). Utility scores for a successful operation favored oncoplastic resection (92.6 versus 86.55), but in instances of positive margins, favored the lumpectomy patients (74.2 versus 70.2). Decision tree analysis revealed that oncoplastic resection was more cost-effective with an ICUR of $2609.66/QALY gained. Conclusion: Oncoplastic resection represents a cost-effective strategy for the large breasted patient and provides the surgical team yet another reasonable option for the appropriate patient.
Inverse Problem on Heat Conduction in Heterogeneous Medium  [PDF]
Albert Schwab
American Journal of Computational Mathematics (AJCM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajcm.2014.41003

Under consideration is a nonclassical stationary problem on heat conduction in a body with the pre-set surface temperature and heat flow. The body contains inclusions at unknown locations and with unknown boundaries. The body and inclusions have different constant thermal conductivities. The author explores the possibility of locating inclusions. The article presents an integral criterion based on which a few statements on identification of inclusions in a body are proved.

Post Mid-Staffordshire Inquiries Reaction, in and about the National Health Service (NHS), England. The Missing Pieces: Organizational, Care and Virtue Ethics Perspectives  [PDF]
Albert Coleman
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2014.516131

The release of the Mid Staffordshire hospital report otherwise called the Francis report once again ignited the debate about the issue of abuse of especially vulnerable patients, while navigating the care pathway as inpatients in hospitals; within the National health service (NHS), England. Once more the official reaction from the NHS directorate is more “standards” to monitor failed standards in patient care. Of interest in the official responses so far, are the unheard voices addressing the issue of healthcare and organizational ethics concerns that need revisiting. This article seeks to revisit practice, systems and care issues leading to incidents of the type of the Staffordshire abuses, and the important but yet unheralded place of organizational and care ethics in helping to curb such abuses from re-occurring.

Road Traffic Accidents in Ghana: A Public Health Concern, and a Call for Action in Ghana, (and the Sub-Region)  [PDF]
Albert Coleman
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2014.411092
Abstract: This paper highlights the increasing problem of road traffic accident (RTA) related morbidity and mortality in Ghana, and the public health measures needed to control the problem. Descriptive data in the public domain from statutory bodies and media houses reports on country RTA information, as well as academic papers on the problem, were used as source of information about the problem. The observed trend in Ghana indicates that RTA related fatalities and injuries continue to be increasing, as morbidity and mortality factors since the year 2000. Most of the remedial measures suggested in academic papers, and state agencies measures to curb the RTA trend in Ghana to date, have discussed the problem in terms of injury and safety issues/measures. This paper suggests that the increasing RTAs with associated morbidity and mortality in Ghana need to be looked at more as a public health problem and priority that requires prompt tackling using a public health problem orientated approach and measures, than just as a safety problem due to RTAs’, as is currently done.
New Wideband Notch Antennas for Communication Systems  [PDF]
Albert Sabban
Wireless Engineering and Technology (WET) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/wet.2016.72008
Abstract: Wireless communication industry is in rapid growth in the last years. Due to the huge progress in development of communication systems in the last decade development of wideband communication systems is continuous growth. However, development of wideband efficient antennas is one of the major challenges in development of wideband wireless communication systems. Low cost compact antennas are crucial in the development of communication systems. Printed notch antennas and miniaturization techniques are employed to develop efficient compact notch antennas. Fractal technology is used to improve the electrical performance and efficiency of notch antennas. Design tradeoffs, computed and measured results of wideband notch antennas with high efficiency are presented in this paper. All antennas are analyzed by using 3D full-wave software. The paper presents new compact Ultra-Wideband notch antenna 1 GHz to 6 GHz, a wideband notch antenna 2.1 GHz to 7.8 GHz and a 5.8 GHz to 18 GHz fractal notch antenna.
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