Abstract:
We performed a cross-sectional study of 113 advertisements for antihypertensive drugs from 4 general practice-oriented Australian medical publications in 2004. Advertisements were evaluated using a quality checklist based on a review of hypertension management guidelines. Main outcome measures included: frequency with which antihypertensive classes were advertised, promotion of thiazide class drugs as first line agents, use of statistical claims in advertisements, mention of harms and prices in the advertisements, promotion of assessment and treatment of cardiovascular risk, promotion of lifestyle modification, and targeting of particular patient subgroups.Thiazides were the most frequently advertised drug class (48.7% of advertisements), but were largely promoted in combination preparations. The only thiazide advertised as a single agent was the most expensive, indapamide. No advertisement specifically promoted any thiazide as a better first-line drug. Statistics in the advertisements tended to be expressed in relative rather than absolute terms. Drug costs were often reported, but without cost comparisons between drugs. Adverse effects were usually reported but largely confined to the advertisements' small print. Other than mentioning drug interactions with alcohol and salt, no advertisements promoted lifestyle modification. Few advertisements (2.7%) promoted the assessment of cardiovascular risk.Print advertisements for antihypertensive medications in Australia provide some, but not all, of the key messages required for guideline-concordant care. These results have implications for the regulation of drug advertising and the continuing education of doctors.Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease [1] and the most common single problem managed in Australian general practice. [2] For more than a decade expensive new antihypertensive drugs have been prescribed more frequently than the older and more cost effective thiazide diuretics. [3-6] Newer

Abstract:
Background Pharmaceutical companies spent $57.5 billion on pharmaceutical promotion in the United States in 2004. The industry claims that promotion provides scientific and educational information to physicians. While some evidence indicates that promotion may adversely influence prescribing, physicians hold a wide range of views about pharmaceutical promotion. The objective of this review is to examine the relationship between exposure to information from pharmaceutical companies and the quality, quantity, and cost of physicians' prescribing. Methods and Findings We searched for studies of physicians with prescribing rights who were exposed to information from pharmaceutical companies (promotional or otherwise). Exposures included pharmaceutical sales representative visits, journal advertisements, attendance at pharmaceutical sponsored meetings, mailed information, prescribing software, and participation in sponsored clinical trials. The outcomes measured were quality, quantity, and cost of physicians' prescribing. We searched Medline (1966 to February 2008), International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1970 to February 2008), Embase (1997 to February 2008), Current Contents (2001 to 2008), and Central (The Cochrane Library Issue 3, 2007) using the search terms developed with an expert librarian. Additionally, we reviewed reference lists and contacted experts and pharmaceutical companies for information. Randomized and observational studies evaluating information from pharmaceutical companies and measures of physicians' prescribing were independently appraised for methodological quality by two authors. Studies were excluded where insufficient study information precluded appraisal. The full text of 255 articles was retrieved from electronic databases (7,185 studies) and other sources (138 studies). Articles were then excluded because they did not fulfil inclusion criteria (179) or quality appraisal criteria (18), leaving 58 included studies with 87 distinct analyses. Data were extracted independently by two authors and a narrative synthesis performed following the MOOSE guidelines. Of the set of studies examining prescribing quality outcomes, five found associations between exposure to pharmaceutical company information and lower quality prescribing, four did not detect an association, and one found associations with lower and higher quality prescribing. 38 included studies found associations between exposure and higher frequency of prescribing and 13 did not detect an association. Five included studies found evidence for association with higher costs, four

Abstract:
Comparing the Dirac Hamiltonians for a neutron subjected to either a Schwartzchild gravitational field or a uniform acceleration, we observe that the difference between the two is precisely the sort that might be eliminated by the introduction of a new quantum number. The origin of this quantum number lies in the noncommutation of an acceleration with the quark operators that constitute the neutron. We show that the term containing the new quantum number only acts on very long length scales. Furthermore, the symmetries of an acceleration prevent the effects of this term from being periodic.

Abstract:
It is shown that for $A_\R(\D)$ functions $f_1$ and $f_2$ with $$ \inf_{z\in\bar{\D}}(\abs{f_1(z)}+\abs{f_2(z)})\geq\delta>0 $$ and $f_1$ being positive on real zeros of $f_2$ then there exists $A_\R(\D)$ functions $g_2$ and $g_1,g_1^{-1}$ with and $$ g_1f_1+g_2f_2=1\quad\forall z\in\bar{\D}. $$ This result is connected to the computation of the stable rank of the algebra $A_\R(\D)$ and to Control Theory.

Abstract:
In this paper we prove the following theorem: Suppose that $f_1,f_2\in H^\infty_\R(\D)$, with $\norm{f_1}_\infty,\norm{f_2}_{\infty}\leq 1$, with $$ \inf_{z\in\D}(\abs{f_1(z)}+\abs{f_2(z)})=\delta>0. $$ Assume for some $\epsilon>0$ and small, $f_1$ is positive on the set of $x\in(-1,1)$ where $\abs{f_2(x)}<\epsilon$ for some $\epsilon>0$ sufficiently small. Then there exists $g_1, g_1^{-1}, g_2\in H^\infty_\R(\D)$ with $$ \norm{g_1}_\infty,\norm{g_2}_\infty,\norm{g_1^{-1}}_\infty\leq C(\delta,\epsilon) $$ and $$ f_1(z)g_1(z)+f_2(z)g_2(z)=1\quad\forall z\in\D. $$

Abstract:
We present a computational method to solve the magnetohydrodynamic equations in spherical geometry. The technique is fully nonlinear and wholly spectral, and uses an expansion basis that is adapted to the geometry: Chandrasekhar-Kendall vector eigenfunctions of the curl. The resulting lower spatial resolution is somewhat offset by being able to build all the boundary conditions into each of the orthogonal expansion functions and by the disappearance of any difficulties caused by singularities at the center of the sphere. The results reported here are for mechanically and magnetically isolated spheres, although different boundary conditions could be studied by adapting the same method. The intent is to be able to study the nonlinear dynamical evolution of those aspects that are peculiar to the spherical geometry at only moderate Reynolds numbers. The code is parallelized, and will preserve to high accuracy the ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) invariants of the system (global energy, magnetic helicity, cross helicity). Examples of results for selective decay and mechanically-driven dynamo simulations are discussed. In the dynamo cases, spontaneous flips of the dipole orientation are observed.

Abstract:
We present direct numerical simulations of dynamo action in a forced Roberts flow. The behavior of the dynamo is followed as the mechanical Reynolds number is increased, starting from the laminar case until a turbulent regime is reached. The critical magnetic Reynolds for dynamo action is found, and in the turbulent flow it is observed to be nearly independent on the magnetic Prandtl number in the range from 0.3 to 0.1. Also the dependence of this threshold with the amount of mechanical helicity in the flow is studied. For the different regimes found, the configuration of the magnetic and velocity fields in the saturated steady state are discussed.

Abstract:
We show that the Lusin area integral or the square function on the unit ball of $\C^n$, regarded as an operator in weighted space $L^2(w)$ has a linear bound in terms of the invariant $A_2$ characteristic of the weight. We show a dimension-free estimate for the ``area-integral'' associated to the weighted $L^2(w)$ norm of the square function. We prove the equivalence of the classical and the invariant $A_2$ classes.

Abstract:
In this paper we extend a method of Arveson and McCullough to prove a tangential interpolation theorem for subalgebras of $H^\infty$. This tangential interpolation result implies a Toelitz corona theorem. In particular, it is shown that the set of matrix positivity conditions is indexed by cyclic subspaces, which is analogous to the results obtained for the ball and the polydisk algebra by Trent-Wick and Douglas-Sarkar.

Abstract:
In this paper we study ``Bergman-type'' singular integral operators on Ahlfors regular metric spaces. The main result of the paper demonstrates that if a singular integral operator on a Ahlfors regular metric space satisfies an additional estimate, then knowing the ``T(1)'' conditions for the operator imply that the operator is bounded on $L^2$. The method of proof of the main result is an extension and another application of the work originated by Nazarov, Treil and the first author on non-homogeneous harmonic analysis.