Abstract:
Rinderpest is one of the few diseases which have changed the course of world history. Originally an Asian disease, for centuries it had a devastating impact in Europe when introduced by returning and marauding armies accompanied by cattle as well as by cattle trade. Nowhere was its impact more dramatically expressed than in Africa where the sequel to its introduction into the Horn of Africa was a devastating panzootic throughout sub-Saharan Africa during the last decade of the 19th century extending into the 20th century. Massive deaths of livestock, wild animals and the people dependent on them led to widespread human misery and changed the face of the African continent forever.

Abstract:
Transmission of infectious agents from livestock reservoirs has been hypothesized to cause respiratory disease outbreaks in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), and land management policies intended to limit this transmission have proven controversial. This cross-sectional study compares the infectious agents present in multiple populations of bighorn sheep near to and distant from their interface with domestic sheep (O. aries) and domestic goat (Capra hircus) and provides critical baseline information needed for interpretations of cross-species transmission risks. Bighorn sheep and livestock shared exposure to Pasteurellaceae, viral, and endoparasite agents. In contrast, although the impact is uncertain, Mycoplasma sp. was isolated from livestock but not bighorn sheep. These results may be the result of historic cross-species transmission of agents that has resulted in a mosaic of endemic and exotic agents. Future work using longitudinal and multiple population comparisons is needed to rigorously establish the risk of outbreaks from cross-species transmission of infectious agents. 1. Introduction Bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) experienced substantial decreases in population numbers and range in the 19th and the early 20th centuries, and subsequent recovery efforts have often been limited by large-scale die-offs [1–3]. These initial population declines were associated with settlement of western North America and were attributed to unregulated hunting, competition for forage with domestic sheep (O. aries) and other livestock, and disruption of historic bighorn sheep migration patterns due to development. Clinical disease was apparently unimportant or was underreported in these early declines, though die-offs of bighorn sheep associated with sheep scab (Psoroptes sp.) were reported following settlement [4, 5]. Bighorn sheep die-offs associated with pneumonia were reported in the 1920s and 1930s [6–10]. These early reports and subsequent work largely focused on lungworm (Protostrongylus sp.) as the primary infectious agent, although the involvement of Pasteurella sp., Corynebacterium pyogenes (currently Arcanobacterium pyogenes), and other host and environmental determinants were also noted as potential causes of respiratory disease. Subsequently, inconsistent association of lungworm with respiratory disease in bighorn sheep, as well as further evidence for Pasteurella sp. as the cause of pneumonia, led to a focus on pasteurellosis as a cause of respiratory disease outbreaks [11–14]. This research included evidence that Pasteurella sp. strains from clinically

Abstract:
Ectopic activation of the IMD-pathway within the salivary gland cells is able to induce an immune response, indicating that the salivary glands are indeed immune competent. This reaction is characterized by the concurrent expression of numerous antimicrobial peptide genes. In addition, ectopic activation of the salivary gland's immune response induces morphological changes such as dwarfism throughout all developmental stages and a significantly decreased length of the salivary glands themselves. DNA-microarray analyses of the reaction revealed a complex pattern of up- and downregulated genes. Gene ontology analyses of regulated genes revealed a significant increase in genes associated with ribosomal and proteasomal function. On the other hand, genes coding for peptide receptors and some potassium channels are downregulated. In addition, the comparison of the transcriptional events induced following IMD-activation in the trachea and the salivary glands shows also only a small overlap, indicating that the general IMD-activated core transcriptome is rather small and that the tissue specific component of this response is dominating. Among the regulated genes, those that code for signaling associated protease activity are significantly modulated.The salivary glands are immune-competent and they contribute to the overall intestinal immune system. Although they produce antimicrobial peptides, their overall response is highly tissue-specific. Our analysis indicates that chronic activation of the salivary gland's immune system is costly, as it induces severe reduction in growth throughout development. The IMD-regulated increase in expression levels of the fly's presenilin representatives opens the opportunity to use the salivary glands for studying the physiological and pathophysiological role of these genes in a simple but functional environment.The immune system is indispensable for multicellular organisms to cope with different pathogens such as bacteria, viruses or fungi

Abstract:
We derive the amino acid assignment to one codon representation (typical 64-dimensional irreducible representation) of the basic classical Lie superalgebra osp(5|2) from biochemical arguments. We motivate the approach of mathematical symmetries to the classification of the building constituents of the biosphere by analogy of its success in particle physics and chemistry. The model enables to calculate polarity and molecular volume of amino acids to a good approximation.

Abstract:
We demonstrate how to construct three-dimensional compact hyperbolic polyhedra using Newton's Method. Under the restriction that the dihedral angles are non-obtuse, Andreev's Theorem provides as necessary and sufficient conditions five classes of linear inequalities for the dihedral angles of a compact hyperbolic polyhedron realizing a given combinatorial structure $C$. Andreev's Theorem also shows that the resulting polyhedron is unique, up to hyperbolic isometry. Our construction uses Newton's method and a homotopy to explicitly follow the existence proof presented by Andreev, providing both a very clear illustration of proof of Andreev's Theorem as well as a convenient way to construct three-dimensional compact hyperbolic polyhedra having non-obtuse dihedral angles. As an application, we construct compact hyperbolic polyhedra having dihedral angles that are (proper) integer sub-multiples of $\pi$, so that the group $\Gamma$ generated by reflections in the faces is a discrete group of isometries of hyperbolic space. The quotient $\mathbb{H}^3/\Gamma$ is hence a compact hyperbolic 3-orbifold, of which we study the hyperbolic volume and spectrum of closed geodesic lengths using SnapPea. One consequence is a volume estimate for a ``hyperelliptic'' manifold considered by Mednykh and Vesnin (see references).

Abstract:
The power of multiple testing procedures can be increased by using weighted p-values (Genovese, Roeder and Wasserman 2005). We derive the optimal weights and we show that the power is remarkably robust to misspecification of these weights. We consider two methods for choosing weights in practice. The first, external weighting, is based on prior information. The second, estimated weighting, uses the data to choose weights.

Abstract:
We use intuitive results from algebraic topology and intersection theory to clarify the pullback action on cohomology by compositions of rational maps. We use these techniques to prove a simple sufficient criterion for functoriality of a composition of two rational maps on all degrees of cohomology and we then reprove the criteria of Diller-Favre, Bedford-Kim, and Dinh-Sibony. We conclude with a cautionary example.

Abstract:
This paper explores the following question: what kind of statistical guarantees can be given when doing variable selection in high-dimensional models? In particular, we look at the error rates and power of some multi-stage regression methods. In the first stage we fit a set of candidate models. In the second stage we select one model by cross-validation. In the third stage we use hypothesis testing to eliminate some variables. We refer to the first two stages as "screening" and the last stage as "cleaning." We consider three screening methods: the lasso, marginal regression, and forward stepwise regression. Our method gives consistent variable selection under certain conditions.

Abstract:
Given a combinatorial description $C$ of a polyhedron having $E$ edges, the space of dihedral angles of all compact hyperbolic polyhedra that realize $C$ is generally not a convex subset of $\mathbb{R}^E$ \cite{DIAZ}. If $C$ has five or more faces, Andreev's Theorem states that the corresponding space of dihedral angles $A_C$ obtained by restricting to {\em non-obtuse} angles is a convex polytope. In this paper we explain why Andreev did not consider tetrahedra, the only polyhedra having fewer than five faces, by demonstrating that the space of dihedral angles of compact hyperbolic tetrahedra, after restricting to non-obtuse angles, is non-convex. Our proof provides a simple example of the ``method of continuity'', the technique used in classification theorems on polyhedra by Alexandrow \cite{ALEX}, Andreev \cite{AND}, and Rivin-Hodgson \cite{RH}.

Abstract:
Errors are found in example problems from Henri Poincar\'e's paper ``M\'emoire sur les courbes d\'efinies par une \'equation diff\'erentielle.'' Examples four and five from chapter seven and examples one, two, and three from chapter nine do not have the limit cycles at infinity predicted by Poincar\'e. Instead they have fixed points at every point at infinity. In order to understand the errors made by Poincar\'e, examples four and five are studied at length. Replacement equations for the fourth and fifth examples are suggested based on the supposition that terms were omitted from Poincar\'e's equations.