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Efecto sobre el tejido óseo de la aplicación subcutánea de una nueva formulación en base a Alendronato: Efecto sobre tejido oseo del Alendronato
Aramburú,Guillermo J; Aguzzi,Alejandra C; Ricco,Verónica E; Hubert,Sergio A; Aguilar,Javier; Konigheim,Brenda; Virga,Carolina M;
Acta Odontológica Venezolana , 2008,
Abstract: previous studies have demonstrated that the bisphosphonates, as the alendronate of sodium is a powerful inhibitor of the bone resorption, it increases the mineral density of the bone and reduce the risks in fractures of postmenopausal women. the objective of this study was to develop and to investigate a new formulation on the basis of alendronate, since it does not exist in the market, to be placed in subcutaneous form in the surgical site. the pharmaceutical formula was prepared with a metering of 0.5 mg/kg of weight, him it added chloride of na and citrato of na, ph final of 5.5 in sterile means. the control was buffers without active principles. as much the drug in pure state as to the formulation cytotoxicity curves in fibroblast cell were made to him (neutral network uptake method), in order to verify that as much the pure drug as the prepared one did not produce adverse effects. the alendronate effect was evaluated in cavities made in the male tibias of rats wistar, which were divided in two groups one control and another problem. the animals were injected with buffers without drug (group control) and with 0.5 mg/kg of alendronate (experimental group) as much the alendronate as the control were administered in subcutaneous form, immediately later to the surgery, near the zone of work, in times 0, 7, 14 and 30 days. the parameters of study were rx of the zone under study to the established times. all the animals were sacrificed by overdose with ether. the statistical analysis was made with anova. the curved sample that to low concentrations the viability is greater to 98%, when increasing the concentration of the drug the cells begin to see themselves affected, but the viability never lowers of 70%, no matter how hard it is continued adding drug. the rx both shows statistically significant differences (p=0,05) between groups, being observed bone formation as far as volume. these preliminary studies suggest the alendronate placed in parenteral form could be eff
Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Viruses (VEEV) in Argentina: Serological Evidence of Human Infection
María Belén Pisano ,Griselda Oria,Geraldine Beskow,Javier Aguilar,Brenda Konigheim,María Luisa Cacace,Luis Aguirre,Marina Stein,Marta Silvia Contigiani
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002551
Abstract: Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses (VEEV) are responsible for human diseases in the Americas, producing severe or mild illness with symptoms indistinguishable from dengue and other arboviral diseases. For this reason, many cases remain without certain diagnosis. Seroprevalence studies for VEEV subtypes IAB, ID, IF (Mosso das Pedras virus; MDPV), IV (Pixuna virus; PIXV) and VI (Rio Negro virus; RNV) were conducted in persons from Northern provinces of Argentina: Salta, Chaco and Corrientes, using plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). RNV was detected in all studied provinces. Chaco presented the highest prevalence of this virus (14.1%). Antibodies against VEEV IAB and -for the first time- against MDPV and PIXV were also detected in Chaco province. In Corrientes, seroprevalence against RNV was 1.3% in the pediatric population, indicating recent infections. In Salta, this was the first investigation of VEEV members, and antibodies against RNV and PIXV were detected. These results provide evidence of circulation of many VEE viruses in Northern Argentina, showing that surveillance of these infectious agents should be intensified.
The Impact of Cattle Grazing in High Elevation Sierra Nevada Mountain Meadows over Widely Variable Annual Climatic Conditions  [PDF]
Lindsey Myers, Brenda Whited
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.328097
Abstract: The impact of summer cattle grazing on water quality during three very different climatic years in the Sierra Nevada was investigated. Water year 2009 had near normal precipitation; 2010 had late precipitation and snowmelt; and 2011 had 150% above normal precipitation. Surface waters were tested for pathogenic bacteria indicators fecal coliform, E. coli, and total coliform before and after cattle were released onto summer grazing allotments. Water samples were collected from meadow stream sites up to 6 weeks before and up to 6 weeks after cattle grazing began. Streams passing through ungrazed meadow served as controls. Eight sample sites were between 1694 m and 2273 m in elevation; one site was lower at 1145 m in elevation. Samples were transported within 6 hours to a water analysis laboratory, where samples were analyzed following standardized laboratory methods. Results showed that individual site and total mean concentrations of E. coli in surface waters were within regulatory standards before cattle arrived during each of the 3 study years. After the beginning of grazing, mean E. coli counts increased as follows: 2009 from 8 to 240 CFU/100mL, 2010 from 7 to 561 CFU/10mL; 2011 from 7 to 657 CFU/100mL (p < 0.05 all years). Total coliform bacteria and fecal coliform concentrations showed the same pattern. This study shows that cattle grazing in the high elevation Sierra Nevada results in a significant increase in indicator bacteria. This impact on the watersheds occurs despite widely variable annual climatic conditions.
Botulinum toxin type-A (BoNTA) and dynamic wrist-hand orthoses versus orthoses alone for the treatment of spastic-paretic upper extremity in chronic stroke patients  [PDF]
Sepideh Pooyania, Brenda Semenko
Open Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation (OJTR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojtr.2014.21003
Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential functional improvement of the spastic-paretic upper extremity of individuals with chronic hemiparesis when using a dynamic wrist-hand orthosis with and without concurrent botulinum toxin type-A (BoNTA) injections into the spastic upper extremity muscles. Methods: A three-year retrospective chart review was conducted on all stroke patients referred to out-patient occupational therapy for an upper extremity rehabilitation program, which included use of a dynamic wrist-hand orthosis (DWHO). Three charts documented concurrent treatment with a DWHO + BoNTA. Eleven charts documented DWHO use without concurrent BoNTA treatment. Pre- and post-intervention outcome measure scores were compared between the two groups. Pre- and post-interven- tion scores were also analyzed irrespective of treatment group. Results: Although improvement approached significance on three of the documented outcome measures when comparing the DWHO + BoNTA and DWHO groups, no statistically significant changes were found. A significant difference (p < 0.05) however, was found between the pre- and post-intervention scores irrespective of treatment group in 13 of 14 of the outcome measures documented. Conclusions: Further research with a larger sample size is suggested to assess the combined effect of using a dynamic wrist-hand orthosis and BoNTA injections into the spastic upper extremity muscles of individuals with chronic hemiparesis post stroke.
Alternative Nitrogenases in Anabaena variabilis: The Role of Molybdate and Vanadate in Nitrogenase Gene  [PDF]
Teresa Thiel, Brenda S. Pratte
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2013.36A011
Abstract: Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413 has two distinct nitrogenases that function in heterocysts, a conventional Mo-nitrogenase and an alternative V-nitrogenase. Synthesis of these two enzymes was repressed in cells growing with a source of fixed nitrogen, such as ammonium; however, the V-nitrogenase was also repressed by Mo. Expression of the V-nitrogenase which was not affected by V and expression of the Mo-nitrogenase was not affected by the presence or absence of either Mo or V. In the absence of both Mo and V in an environment lacking fixed nitrogen, cells became starved for both metals; however, low levels of nitrogen fixation and slow growth persisted. A mutant lacking the V-nitrogenase was still able to grow very slowly in Mo-and V-free medium; however, loss of the Mo-nitrogenase in a nifDK1 mutant abolished the residual growth, suggesting that only the Mo-nitrogenase functioned under these conditions to support slow growth. The addition of vanadate, molybdate, or tungstate, which is transported by the molybdate transporter, to cells starved for these metals resulted in an increase in nitrogenase activity within two hours after the addition of the metal and this increase required new protein synthesis. While tungstate functioned about as well as vanadate in supporting acetylene reduction, the cells were not able to grow any better with tungstate than with no added metal. A mutant lacking the V-nitrogenase showed no increase in nitrogenase activity upon addition of tungstate, suggesting that the V-nitrogenase was able to incorporate tungstate. Tungstate was able to substitute for molybdate in repressing transcription of a Mo-transport gene, but it did not repress transcription of the vnfH gene, which was repressed by Mo. The availability of Mo and V plays an important role in controlling whether the Mo-or the V-nitrogenase is used for nitrogen fixation.
Nintendo® Wii™ and a Physical Activity Routine: Effective Therapeutic Interventions in the Older Adult Population?  [PDF]
Elizabeth A. Fain, Brenda Kennell
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2014.48060

Occupational therapists work with individuals across the lifespan to promote health and wellness. “Occupational therapy promotes health and wellbeing through active involvement in meaningful occupations. By helping clients eliminate barriers, enhance their self-management skills, improve their performance of daily activities and adopt healthy habits and routines, occupational therapy unlocks the door to participation across the lifespan” (AOTA, 2010). In today’s world, health and wellness-related services are in demand for those aged 65 and older. As life expectancy rates continue to rise, there is an increase in concern for the field of occupational therapy to find a successful and efficient way to meet the needs of the growing number of older adults (National Center for Health Statistics, 2006). The idea that physical activity can be a beneficial occupation in the elderly has been examined and proved effective as a means of enhancing the quality of life in this population. “Although functional impairments due to the aging process seem to be inevitable, functional limitations due to an inactive lifestyle might be reversed. Indeed, it has been suggested that physically active lifestyles may contribute to improving or maintaining health and wellness” (Fletcher, Gulanick, & Braun, 2005). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of two different physical activity programs on individuals aged 65 and older. The variables that were examined were functional skills (activities of daily living), balance skills, and overall upper extremity function. This study looked at two forms of physical activity to determine their individual effects on functional skills, balance, and overall upper extremity function in this population. The two physical activity interventions were the Nintendo Wii gaming system and a videotaped exercise routine.

Alpha II Antiplasmin Deficiency Complicating Pregnancy: A Case Report
Brenda Dawley
Obstetrics and Gynecology International , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/698648
Abstract: Background. Alpha II antiplasmin is a protein involved in the inhibition of fibrinolysis. A deficiency in this protein leads to increased hemorrhage. It is inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion. Case. 30-year-old Gravida 1, Para 0, presented for prenatal care with her first and subsequently her second pregnancy. Her medical history was significant for a known deficiency in alpha II antiplasmin. Her first and second pregnancies were complicated by nonobstetrical hemorrhage requiring transfusions and severe preeclampsia requiring preterm deliveries. Conclusion. Alpha II antiplasmin deficiency resulted in multiple episodes of nonobstetrical hemorrhages requiring transfusion and ultimately preterm deliveries due to severe preeclampsia. Both infants and mother had a good outcome. The presence of this disorder may require a multidisciplinary team approach involving obstetricians, pediatricians, and hematologists. Precis. Alpha II antiplasmin deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder leading to increased fibrinolysis and hemorrhage. We present a case report of a pregnancy complicated by this disorder. 1. Introduction Alpha II antiplasmin is a glycoprotein synthesized by the liver. It is present in two distinct forms: plasminogen binding and nonplasminogen binding. 20% of the plasminogen binding form is covalently linked to fibrin clots and renders them more resistant to lyses. It is inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion. A deficiency in its production allows the fibrin clots to lyse and dissolve prematurely resulting in hemorrhage. It is also a strong inhibitor of plasmin, an enzyme directly involved in fibrinolysis [1]. Plasmin is involved in the cleavage of extracellular vascular endothelial growth factor. A deficiency in its inhibitor (alpha II antiplasmin) has been shown in vitro mice studies to increase the mortality from an acute myocardial infarction. VEGF has been shown to increase the vascular permeability in ischemic tissue; its overproduction results in pulmonary edema and increased mortality. Elevated levels of VEGF have been associated with increased incidence of preeclampsia [2]. 2. Case Our patient first presented to our service at 10-week gestation. She was a 30-year-old Caucasian female Gravida 1, Para zero. She had been diagnosed with alpha II antiplasmin deficiency with a level 50% normal due to several episodes of severe hematuria secondary to nephrolithiasis. She had received multiple blood transfusions in her adolescence due to the severity of these bleeds. Her brother had been diagnosed with alpha II antiplasmin
Fuentes y apuntes para el acontecer sociocultural y urbano de Mérida durante la segunda mitad del siglo XIX
Argos , 2009,
Abstract: for the city?s comprehensive understanding, it is of vital importance to study the social and cultural ambits, including the everyday manifestations of the urban society. in the case of merida, venezuela, along the second half of the 19th century, such historical representations can be found in writings published or printed in different journals and fliers of the period. under the denominations of chronicle, invitation, show program, sheet, advertising, official notice, gazette, circular, among others, the cultural and social events were reported for the locals, as well as the city?s transformations. as this article tries to show, those materials provide rich sources for reconstructing the history of nineteenth-century merida.
?Es etnografía? Un análisis metodológico del trabajo propio
Av?? , 2011,
Abstract: in this work i analyze a text of my authorship where i yearned to shape an ethnographic description of my object of investigation in order to reflect on that writing and the fieldwork which sustains it. with this objective, after reproducing that text, i order the article in three analytical sections. in the first i investigate the characteristics of the fieldwork that has made possible that writing and the incidence that theory and common sense had in it. after this i analyze the achievements and difficulties happened in my approach to the perspective of the actor. the third section focuses on my field experience and its impact on my investigation, text and person, as well as on the same field. to conclude, i offer general reflections on the analyzed text and bring challenges to be overcome in the next stages of my research that i detected after this reflexive exercise.
Dirigentes de migrantes andinos, empleados y funcionarios públicos ante "el Estado": Una mirada desde abajo para comprender procesos políticos locales (Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina)
Cuadernos de antropolog?-a social , 2008,
Abstract: this paper explores representations about the state, which are present among the leaders of migrants of the central andean region (bolivia, peru and northwestern argentina) residents in the city and suburbs of buenos aires, who have a history of political struggle marked by a strong interlocution to an other they understand as "the state". i am interested in investigating how these representations relate to practices that perform these leaders before the government of this city in order to achieve objectives, the meaning of is also linked with that particular image of the state. therefore i look into the meaning of state for public servants and authorities of gcba with whom these leaders interact, how that idea is linked with their daily practice within state institutions and how, ultimately, they put into action the state led by these representations, constrained by various regulations and material conditions and demanded by the social actors whose work bound them with.
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