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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 11512 matches for " Breast carcinoma "
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Determinants of Malignant Transformation in Fibrocystic Disease of Breast  [PDF]
Ketan Vagholkar
Advances in Breast Cancer Research (ABCR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/abcr.2014.32008

Background: Fibrocystic disease of the breast in one of the commonest diseases in women above 30 years of age. The assumption of it being innocuous and benign is questionable with increased incidence of malignancies developing in these women. Introduction: Understanding the pathophysiology of fibrocystic disease is essential for identifying determinants of malignant change. Case Report: A case of carcinoma of breast developing in a longstanding and recurrent fibrocystic disease is reported. Discussion: The pathological changes including the influence of hormones on the natural history of the disease arediscussed to identify the determinants of malignant transformation. Conclusion: Breast cyst fluid, patterns of cellular lining of the cysts, multiplicity, recurrence and patterns of cellular morphology are important determinants of malignant change.

Coexistence of Carcinoma and Tuberculosis in the Breast: A Rarity  [PDF]
Ketan Vagholkar, Abhijit Budhkar, Indumati Gopinathan
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine (CRCM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/crcm.2015.41004
Background: Malignancy of the breast is one of the commonest lesions of the breast. Amongst the infective lesions tuberculosis has now become a common occurrence especially in the developing world. However, co-existence of the two in the same breast is extremely rare. Introduction: Since both of these lesions have a different natural history, co-existence of tuberculosis and malignancy poses a diagnostic dilemma to both the surgeon and the pathologist. Awareness of the co-existence of the two lesions in the same patient is pivotal for early diagnosis and planning the management. Case Report: In view of its rarity, a case of coexistence of the two diseases in the same beast is reported in order to create an awareness of their co-existence. Discussion: The diagnostic implications and management are discussed. Conclusion: Awareness of the co-existence of these divergent pathological conditions is essential for early diagnosis and planning of an accurate treatment protocol.
Chemotherapy Induced Amenorrhea in Women Treated with Chemotherapy for Breast Carcinoma in Yalgado Ouédraogo Teaching Hospital in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso  [PDF]
Augustin Tozoula Bambara, Hyacinthe Zamané, Yobi Alexis Sawadogo, Hierrhum Aboubacar Bambara, Awa Mien, Nayi Zongo, Abdoul Azize Diallo, Ali Ouédraogo, Si Simon Traoré
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2017.71014
Abstract: Background: We conducted this study to identify factors associated with the onset and reversibility of chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea in Yalgado Ouédraogo Teaching Hospital of Ouagadougou. Methods: A historical cohort study was performed and covered the period from 1 January 2014 to 31 July 2015. No menopausal patients managed for a histologically confirmed breast carcinoma and having benefited from chemotherapy were included in the study. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated with the occurrence of chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea as well as its reversibility. Results: Seventy patients were included. The mean age was 38.5 years. Thirteen patients were obese and 19 (40.4%) had their menarche after age of 15 years. Adjuvant chemotherapy was administered to 31 patients while 12 had received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Sequential chemotherapy with an anthracycline and a taxanetherapeutic protocol was the most used. Forty-seven patients had a chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea. The risk of having a chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea increases by 25% for each additional year of age at diagnosis of cancer (p = 0.0001). Obesity and menarche after age 15 were found to be protective factors. After adjusting these variables together, age, obesity, and age at menarche were factors independently associated with the occurrence of the chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea. The reversibility was effective in 11 cases (37.9%) and especially concerned patients younger than 40 years (p = 0.03). Conclusion: Age is the primary risk factor. Reliable markers of ovarian function need to be developed to better select fertility conservation protocols.
Clinicopathological Study of Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Breast  [PDF]
Masahiro Kitada, Shunsuke Yasuda, Masahiro Abe, Nana Takahashi, Satoshi Okazaki, Kei Ishibashi, Satoshi Hayashi
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2017.88069
Abstract: Introduction: Neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) occurs mostly in the digestive organs, such as the pancreas and gastrointestinal tract, and the lungs. Primary NEC of the breast is a rare entity. There are not many studies on this disease, and this study was carried out in order to know the clinical pathology of this disease. Methods: Of 2354 patients who underwent surgery for breast cancer in our hospital during the period from January 2000 to July 2015, 8 (0.34%) were pathologically diagnosed with NEC of the breast. This study is retrospectively registered. Result: The histological types were small cell carcinoma in one patient and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) with neuroendocrine differentiation in the remaining 7. The mean patient age was slightly higher than that of patients with usual IDC. On pathological examination, the NEC tumors were more hormone dependent and often HER2 negative, as compared to usual IDC, though there was no significant difference in nuclear grade. The patients with NEC of the breast showed positivity for neuroendocrine markers on immunohistological staining, and had favorable outcomes. Conclusion: NEC of the breast is rare, and there is no established consensus regarding the pathological significance, prognosis, and treatment method. Further accumulation of cases is necessary.
Males at High Risk for Breast Cancer: Who Are They and How Should We Screen Them?  [PDF]
Natalie Swergold, Vijayashree Murthy, Ronald S. Chamberlain
Surgical Science (SS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2014.57054

Background: It is estimated that 2240 males in the United States will develop invasive breast cancer (BC) in 2013, resulting in 410 deaths. Overall, male breast cancers (MBCs) are diagnosed with larger tumor size, more frequent lymphatic invasion, and advanced tumor stage compared to their female counterparts. Several risk factors have been elucidated for the development of MBC, and this paper aims to critically review the existing literature on at-risk populations and provide screening recommendations. Methods: A comprehensive search for all published studies on populations at risk for MBC using PubMed, EBSCOhost, and Google Scholar was performed (1982- 2013). The search focused specifically on genetic and epidemiologic risk factors, and screening for MBC. Keywords searched included “male breast cancer risk factors”, “male breast cancer epidemiology”, and “male breast cancer genetics”. A total of 34 studies involving 4,865,819 patients were identified. Results: Five studies (N = 327,667) focused primarily on family history of breast cancer as a risk factor for MBC. 15% - 20% of men with BC have a family history of breast or ovarian cancer, and a family history of BC among first-degree relatives confers a 2-to 3-fold increase in MBC risk (odds ratio = 3.3). Seventeen studies (N = 5451) analyzed associations between several heritable genes and MBC. Lifetime MBC risk among BRCA1 mutation carriers is 1% - 5%, while MBC risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers is higher and varies between 4% - 40%. Less clear associations between MBC and PALB2, Androgen Receptor gene, CYP17, and CHEK2 mutations have also been documented. Five studies (N = 16,667) have addressed occupational risk factors for MBC. An 8-fold increase in MBC is reported in males working in the cosmetic cream manufacturing, and the motor vehicle industries. A meta-analysis of 18 trials also identified electromagnetic field exposure as a potential MBC risk, though causation remains undocumented. Eleven studies (N = 4,843,598) analyzed the role of abnormalities in the androgen-to-estrogen ratio as a risk factor for MBC. Conditions associated with increased MBC risk include Klinefelter’s syndrome (relative risk, RR = 29.64), obesity (RR = 1.98), orchitis/epididymitis (RR = 1.84), and gynecomastia (RR = 5.86). Conclusion: Routine screening for MBC should be considered in all high risk male populations, including those with a prior history of breast carcinoma, a strong family history of BC

Hyperthyroidism Due to Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Associated with Ductal Breast Carcinoma  [PDF]
Maria de Fátima Borges, Ilka Mara Borges Botelho Modolo, Rodrigo Gimenez Pissutti Modolo, Lilian Carla Silva, Rogério Costa Tiveron, Delcio Scandiuzzi, Marcus Aurelho Lima, Luciene Mayumi Sato
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine (CRCM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/crcm.2014.38105

Thyroid tumors are usually associated with euthyroidism, and hyper functioning tumors are rare. There are few reports of carcinomas associated with hyperthyroidism. The aim of this study is to describe a case of hyper functioning papillary carcinoma associated with breast carcinoma. We present a 46-year-old woman that was referred for investigation of thyroid and breast nodules detected by routine ultrasound. She presented with hyperthyroidism and enlarged left thyroid lobe with fibroelastic consistency. Investigation demonstrated papillary carcinoma with follicular hyperactivity and invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast. The patient developed metastases 6 months later and died. This study demonstrates that hot thyroid nodules may harbor malignant tumors and should be punctured. The association with breast adenocarcinoma and the unfavorable outcome suggest higher aggressiveness of this tumor in the presence of hyperthyroidism.

Muhammad Shuja Tahir
The Professional Medical Journal , 1997,
Unusual Case of Bilateral Breast Cancer: A Pure Encapsulated Papillary Breast Tumor of the Right Breast and a Contralateral Invasive Ductal Carcinoma  [PDF]
Alberto Testori, Valentina Errico, Edoardo Bottoni, Emanuele Voulaz, Stefano Meroni, Roberto Travaglini, Marco Alloisio
Advances in Breast Cancer Research (ABCR) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/abcr.2015.42004

Background: Intracystic papillary breast cancer is a very rare tumor that occurs most frequently in elderly postmenopausal women. Aim: In this article we presented a case of a 66-year-old woman who underwent excisional biopsy due to a right breast mass. Case presentation: Histological examination revealed the “pure” encapsulated papillary breast carcinoma without coexisting in situ neoplasm and/or invasive carcinoma. This is a rare lesion of the breast that can clinically mimic breast benign mass with only local or regionally aggressive course. Conclusion: In order to avoid misdiagnosis, both the clinician and the breast radiologist should have the possibility of diagnosing this tumor. Intracystic papillary carcinoma of the breast associated with lymph node?metastasis has rarely been reported, but the sentinel lymph node biopsy may be prudent in such cases, despite the non aggressive behavior.

Metaplastic Carcinoma of the Breast: A Clinical Study of 7 Cases from Balochistan  [PDF]
Abdul Hameed Baloch, Shakeela Daud, Jameela Shuja, Adeel Ahmad, Fateh Ali, Mohammad Akram, Dost Mohammad Baloch, Abdul Majeed Cheema, Mohammad Iqbal, Jamil Ahmad
Advances in Breast Cancer Research (ABCR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/abcr.2014.33016

Metaplastic carcinomas of the breast are rare heterogenous neoplasms characterized by adenocarcinoma with dominant areas of spindle cells, squamous and/or other mesenchymal differentiation, that comprise of <5% of all invasive breast cancers. Our objective in this study was to review the pathological features and clinical outcomes for metaplastic carcinoma of breast in breast cancer patients registered in CENAR (Center for Nuclear Medicines and Radiotherapy), Balochistan. Present study was performed on 7 patients affected with metaplastic carcinoma of breast, who were registered patients in CENAR. Informed consent was taken from the patients and BMI was calculated by measuring the height and weight of the patients. Available clinical history obtained by retrieving the patients file and a copy of biopsy report was also obtained from the file. Metaplastic carcinoma of breast was 4.11% of all 170 breast cancer cases registered in CENAR from 2010-2012. Mean age was 40 years ranging from 25 - 50 years. Four subtypes of metaplastic carcinoma of breast were reported in this study; DCIS component was present in one case and mean tumor size was 6.12 cm ranging from 3.5 - 10 cm. Metaplastic carcinomas of breast are rare heterogenous neoplasm with different characteristics, demographics and tumor biology and accounts for almost >5% of all breast cancer cases.

Advanced Papillary Carcinoma of the Breast Presenting as an Ulcerated Anterior Chest Wall Tumour: Case Report  [PDF]
U. Abubakar, J. N. Legbo, S. M. Sahabi, C. Opara, I. R. Jamalu, N. Musa, S. Aliyu
Advances in Breast Cancer Research (ABCR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/abcr.2014.31001

BACKGROUND: Papillary carcinoma of the breast is a rare malignant tumour accounting for 1% - 2% of all breast cancers in women. Papillary carcinomas of the chest wall are always secondary to thyroid, thymus and ovaries. Other variants of breast cancer metastasizing to the chest wall have been reported. CASE: We report a 67-year-old woman presented to us with an ulcerated anterior chest wall mass of 1-year duration, bilateral axillary, supraclavicular and cervical swellings of 8-month duration. There was a history of breast lump which was noticed 5 years prior to presentation, no history of breast malignancy in the past and no family history of breast cancer. Examination revealed an ulcerated, nodular mass over the sternal angle which measured 14 cm × 12 cm

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