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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 168272 matches for " Brad E. Zacharia "
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Complement Inhibition as a Proposed Neuroprotective Strategy following Cardiac Arrest
Brad E. Zacharia,Zachary L. Hickman,Bartosz T. Grobelny,Peter A. DeRosa,Andrew F. Ducruet,E. Sander Connolly
Mediators of Inflammation , 2009, DOI: 10.1155/2009/124384
Abstract: Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a devastating disease process with neurological injury accounting for a disproportionate amount of the morbidity and mortality following return of spontaneous circulation. A dearth of effective treatment strategies exists for global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (GCI/R) injury following successful resuscitation from OHCA. Emerging preclinical as well as recent human clinical evidence suggests that activation of the complement cascade plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of GCI/R injury following OHCA. In addition, it is well established that complement inhibition improves outcome in both global and focal models of brain ischemia. Due to the profound impact of GCI/R injury following OHCA, and the relative lack of effective neuroprotective strategies for this pathologic process, complement inhibition provides an exciting opportunity to augment existing treatments to improve patient outcomes. To this end, this paper will explore the pathophysiology of complement-mediated GCI/R injury following OHCA.
Complement Inhibition Promotes Endogenous Neurogenesis and Sustained Anti-Inflammatory Neuroprotection following Reperfused Stroke
Andrew F. Ducruet, Brad E. Zacharia, Sergey A. Sosunov, Paul R. Gigante, Mason L. Yeh, Justin W. Gorski, Marc L. Otten, Richard Y. Hwang, Peter A. DeRosa, Zachary L. Hickman, Paulina Sergot, E. Sander Connolly
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0038664
Abstract: Background and Purpose The restoration of blood-flow following cerebral ischemia incites a series of deleterious cascades that exacerbate neuronal injury. Pharmacologic inhibition of the C3a-receptor ameliorates cerebral injury by attenuating post-ischemic inflammation. Recent reports also implicate C3a in the modulation of tissue repair, suggesting that complement may influence both injury and recovery at later post-ischemic time-points. Methods To evaluate the effect of C3a-receptor antagonism on post-ischemic neurogenesis and neurological outcome in the subacute period of stroke, transient focal cerebral ischemia was induced in adult male C57BL/6 mice treated with multiple regimens of a C3a receptor antagonist (C3aRA). Results Low-dose C3aRA administration during the acute phase of stroke promotes neuroblast proliferation in the subventricular zone at 7 days. Additionally, the C3a receptor is expressed on T-lymphocytes within the ischemic territory at 7 days, and this cellular infiltrate is abrogated by C3aRA administration. Finally, C3aRA treatment confers robust histologic and functional neuroprotection at this delayed time-point. Conclusions Targeted complement inhibition through low-dose antagonism of the C3a receptor promotes post-ischemic neuroblast proliferation in the SVZ. Furthermore, C3aRA administration suppresses T-lymphocyte infiltration and improves delayed functional and histologic outcome following reperfused stroke. Post-ischemic complement activation may be pharmacologically manipulated to yield an effective therapy for stroke.
Users’ Perceptions on Drinking Water Quality and Household Water Treatment and Storage in Small Towns in Northwestern Tanzania  [PDF]
Zacharia S. Masanyiwa, Innocent J. E. Zilihona, Benedict M. Kilobe
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2019.71003
Abstract: Despite recent progress in increasing the world’s population with sustainable access to safe drinking water, hundreds of millions still rely on unimproved sources. To improve the quality of drinking water, various household water treatment and safe storage methods have been developed, adopted and promoted as alternative interventions. However, there is paucity of information regarding drinking water quality and prevalence of HWTS practices especially from the users’ perspectives in Tanzania. This paper examines users’ perceptions on drinking water quality and household water treatment and storage practices in the selected towns of Misungwi, Magu and Lamadi in Northwestern Tanzania. The specific objectives of the study were 1) to examine users’ perceptions on drinking water quality, and 2) to identify household water treatment and storage methods used in the study towns. The paper is based on empirical primary and secondary data collected from 417 households, through survey, key informant interviews, observation and documentary review, and analysed for descriptive statistics, chi-square tests and qualitative content analysis. The study found that water supply coverage in the study towns was generally low. Households drew water from various sources, including ones which were not suitable for drinking. This necessitated households to improve the quality of their drinking water through HWTS practices. Although a combination of adequate and inadequate treatment methods was used to improve water quality and aesthetics, prevalence of HWT practices was generally low. Similarly, safe storage was rarely practiced. Therefore, interventions aimed at improving access to domestic water supply should also incorporate elements of water treatment and safe storage at the point of use to contribute to improved health outcomes.
Quantifying Rooftop Rainwater Harvest Potential: Case of Mbeya University of Science and Technology in Mbeya Tanzania  [PDF]
Zacharia Katambara
Engineering (ENG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2013.510098

The advantages that the rooftop rainwater harvesting system has as a source of water supply have been examined. The observed daily rainfall records of 10 years and the current total roof area of the facilities at Mbeya University of Science and Technology as the catchment area were used. Using a water balance model to determine the suitable water use that will cover 100% of the time, the model indicated that for the current roof area a water supply of 120 lts per day can be met when a storage tank whose capacity is 13.5 m3 is installed. When values higher that 120 l/day are simulated a tank of higher capacity is required to meet the water demand. The study recommends on the necessity of installing rooftop rainwater harvesting system so as to increase the water supply reliability and reduction of cost. The selection of a suitable storage tank capacity should take into consideration the future development plans so as to reduce the construction cost of new storage tank.

Positioning Mbeya University of Science and Technology in Tanzania in the Systems of Innovation Perspective  [PDF]
Zacharia Katambara
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2014.41004

The chronological development of universities ranges from the state at which universities are considered to be knowledge accumulators followed by knowledge factories and finally the knowledge hubs. The various national systems of innovations are aligned with the knowledge hubs and it involves a substantial amount of research activities. The newly established Mbeya University of Science and Technology is recognised as a knowledge hub in some particular niches. However, there are a limited number of research activities conducted at the university and this study is an attempt to identify the reasons that limit research activities. Well-structured research questionnaires were designed and distributed to academic staff members and thereafter the respondents were analysed by using SPSS software package. The lack of knowledge, skills and funds as well as equipment was earmarked as the reason that hindered the research activities. Therefore, resources are required to improve the capabilities of the staff members and the study recommends on the need for deliberate efforts to improve the knowledge of the staff members with respect to research activities.

UV Properties of Type Ia Supernova and their Host Galaxies
Brad E. Tucker
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1007/s10509-011-0615-z
Abstract: Type Ia Supernova(SN Ia) are a powerful, albeit not completely understood, tool for cosmology. Gaps in our understanding of their progenitors and detailed physics can lead to systematic errors in the cosmological distances they measure. We use UV data in two context to help further our understanding of SN Ia progenitors and physics. We analyze a set of nearly 700 light curves, and find no signature of the shock heating of a red giant companion, predicted by Kasen (2010), casting doubt as to frequency of this SN Ia channel. We also use UV imaging of high redshift host galaxies of SN Ia to better understand the environments which SN Ia occur. We show that some high-z elliptical galaxies have current star formation, hindering efforts to use them as low-extinction environments. We show cosmological scatter of SN distances at large effective radii in their hosts is significantly reduced, and argue this is due to the smaller amounts of dust affecting the SN Ia. Finally, we find a two component dependance of SN distance measurements as a function of their host galaxy's FUV-V color. This indicates that both the age and metallicity/mass of the host galaxy maybe important ingredients in measuring SN Ia distances.
Domestication and Sustainable Use of Genetic Resources of a Native Tree with High Economic Potential in Ghana  [PDF]
Theresa Peprah, Kwame Antwi Oduro, Daniel E. Kwaku Addo Siaw, Joseph Rexford Cobbinah, Zacharia Tchoundjeu, Anthony John Simons, Ramni Jamnadass, Daniel Aninagyei Ofori
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2015.57060
Abstract: Allanblackia parviflora A. Chev., an underutilized fruit tree species commonly found in tropical rainforest of West Africa, has potential for integration into agroforestry systems for economic and environmental benefits. The seed oil of A. parviflora is considered economically important but wild fruits collection produces an average of 40 tons of oil annually. However, over 100,000 tons of Allanblackia seed oil is needed annually by food and cosmetics industries. The need to domesticate and conserve A. parviflora to ensure adequate sustainable supply of seed oil and to sustainably manage the genetic resources is therefore critical. This paper reviews the current state-of-the art on domestication and sustainable use efforts of Allanblackia. Propagation methods have been developed to encourage large scale commercial cultivation, include grafting, rooting of stem cuttings and research into improved seed germination. Range-wide germplasm collection has been undertaken leading to establishment of 140 accessions in a gene bank for future source of germplasm. Mother blocks, i.e. established plots consisting of grafts, seedlings and cuttings, have been established at Rural Resource Centres with 58 elite clones, which have been recommended for distribution to farmers. The diversification of cropping systems to include A. parviflora trees is projected to contribute to community livelihoods development and poverty reduction through large-scale production and supply chain development of the species. Furthermore, the integration of A. parviflora into agroforestry systems is important for the conservation of the genetic resources of the species.
Developing a Web-based agricultural community information centre for rural farmers
Zacharia Letshela
South African Journal of Information Management , 2009, DOI: 10.4102/sajim.v1i2/3.51
Abstract: To follow
Consciousness & Time: A Time-Based Model of the Evolution of Consciousness  [PDF]
Brad Bowins
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2017.71002
Abstract: A novel theoretical model is presented maintaining that consciousness evolved on the basis of time distinctions. Various models of time pertain to the existence of future, present and past. It is proposed that the future represents potentialities, the present the actualization of certain potentialities, and the past a record of actualized potentialities. Actualization of potentialities derives from micro quantum wave function collapses with specific constellations corresponding to macro level form. Consciousness provides for an awareness of potentialities being actualized in the present, the time frame of consciousness closely aligning with the time frame of potentialities being actualized in the moment. Evolution of such awareness is highly probable, given the ensuing motivation enabling behavior to be altered in the moment to minimize the actualization of maladaptive potentialities, and maximize the actualization of adaptive potentialities. The model also provides a logical proof for the occurrence of time distinctions.
Estimation of Extreme Flows in Nkana River to Verify the Adequacy of Naming’ongo Bridge Waterway  [PDF]
Zacharia Katambara, Joseph J. Msambichaka, Joseph Mkisi
Engineering (ENG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2013.53040

The response by the government of Tanzania to food security and poverty alleviation in the Naming’ongo area in Mbozi District has been to develop Naming’ongo irrigation scheme as well as construct a bridge across River Nkana to connect the farms and other parts of the district to facilitate a reliable transportation of the produce to the market. The Australian Water Balance Model that was calibrated by using 10 years data from a nearby sub-catchment of Mbarali. The Naming’ongo Sub-catchment was delineated form a 30 m digital elevation model. The observed rainfall was obtained from Mbozi Meteorological station. The study approximated the peak flows in River Nkana for a return period of 50 years to be slightly above 560 m3/s. This was considered to be adequate for the proposed structure. The study recommends that when undertaking human activities such as deforestation and cultivation an account for soil and environmental conservation should be considered. While it is necessary to establish a monitoring system within the catchment, the designs of future hydraulic structures should incorporate stream flow measuring facilities.

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