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OALib Journal期刊

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Manilkara zapota (Linn.) Seeds: A Potential Source of Natural Gum
Sudarshan Singh,Sunil B. Bothara
ISRN Pharmaceutics , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/647174
Abstract: Mucilage isolated from seeds of Manilkara zapota (Linn.) P. Royen syn. is a plant growing naturally in the forests of India. This mucilage is yet to be commercially exploited, and characterized as polymer. Various physicochemical methods like particle size analysis, scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis, gel permeation chromatography, X-ray diffraction spectrometry, zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy have been employed to characterize this gum in the present study. Particle size analyses suggest that mucilage has particle size in nanometer. Scanning electron microscopy analysis suggests that the mucilage has irregular particle size. The glass transition temperature of the gum was observed to be 138°C and 136°C by differential scanning calorimetry and differential thermal analysis, respectively. The thermogravimetric analysis suggested that mucilage had good thermal stability. The average molecular weight of mucilage was determined to be 379180, by gel permeation chromatography, while the viscosity of mucilage was observed to be 219.1 cP. The X-ray diffraction spectrometry pattern of the mucilage indicates a completely amorphous structure. Elemental analysis of the gum revealed the contents of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sulfur to be 80.9 (%), 10.1 (%), 1.58 (%), and 512 (mg/kg), respectively. Mucilage had specific content of calcium, magnesium, potassium, lower concentrations of aluminum, cadmium, cobalt, lead, and nickel. The major functional groups identified from FT-IR spectrum include 3441?cm?1 (–OH), 1660?cm?1 (Alkenyl C–H & C=C Stretch), 1632?cm?1 (–COO–), 1414?cm?1 (–COO–), and 1219?cm?1 (–CH3CO). Analysis of mucilage by paper chromatography and 1D NMR, indicated the presence of rhamnose, xylose, arabinose, mannose, and fructose. 1. Introduction In recent years, plant derived polymers have evoked tremendous interest due to their diverse pharmaceutical applications such as diluents, binders, disintegrants in tablets, thickeners in oral liquids, protective colloids in suspensions, gelling agents in gels, and bases in suppository [1]; they are also used in cosmetics, textiles, paints, and paper-making [2]. The plant based polymers have been studied for their application in different pharmaceutical dosage forms like matrix controlled system, film coating agents, buccal films, microspheres, nanoparticles, and viscous liquid formulations like ophthalmic solutions, suspensions, and implants and their applicability and efficacy has been proven [3–5]. These have also been
Effect of chronic administration of green tea extract on chemically induced electrocardiographic and biochemical changes in rat heart
Patil Leena,Bothara Sunil,Balaraman R
International Journal of Green Pharmacy , 2010,
Abstract: Many chemicals induce cell-specific cytotoxicity. Chemicals like doxorubicin induce oxidative stress leading to cardiotoxicity causing abnormalities in ECG and increase in the biomarkers indicating toxicity. Green tea extract (GTE), Camellia sinensis (Theaceae), is reported to exert antioxidant activity mainly by means of its polyphenolic constituent, catechins. Our study was aimed to find out the effect of GTE (25, 50, 100 mg/kg/day p.o. for 30 days) on doxorubicin-induced (3 mg/kg/week, i.p. for 5 weeks) electrocardiographic and biochemical changes in rat heart. It is observed that GTE administered rats were less susceptible to doxorubicin-induced electrocardiographic changes and changes in biochemical markers like lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), and glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) in serum, and superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and reduced glutathione (GSH), membrane bound enzymes like Na + K + ATPase, Ca 2+ ATPase, Mg 2+ ATPase and decreased lipid peroxidation (LP) in heart tissue, indicating the protection afforded by GTE administration.
Macro to Micro Viewpoint of Climate Change - Linking Karnataka to Global Issue  [PDF]
Sunil Nautiyal
Natural Resources (NR) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2011.21004
Abstract: A numerous studies have been done on climate change at regional, national and global levels. Several climate models have predicted the global scenarios for climate in different parts of the world. However, the significance and practical implementation of such models at local level yet to be validated. This is because those national or global models do not consider micro variables such as such as environmental resources for example ‘land availability, local climatic conditions, socioeconomic factors such as ‘labour and capital’, policy aspects such as ‘subsidies, nature conservation strategies’ and competition for labor and capital in relation of ‘national economy’. India, with a huge diversity in land, topography, climate and socioeconomic conditions, divided into 15 agro-ecological zones. Further, to help develop location specific research and development strategies at the micro level, a total of 127 sub-zones (agro-climatic sub regions) have been identified in India. Therefore, research on climate change and its impact only at the regional or national level may not be a sound approach to provide solutions for adaptation to climate change at micro level. Thus the micro-level research needs to be undertaken that might help us understand climate change impacts on the landscape i.e. biodiversity, health, natural resource management, land use and land cover development, adaptation and the development of socio-ecological systems. The concepts presented in this article should provide the basis for a discussion on decision-making issues among multidisciplinary experts with regard to climate change and sustainable development within complex environments.
From Thaer and Thünen until Today: Past and Future of Agricultural Landscape Use in Germany  [PDF]
Harald Kaechele, Sunil Nautiyal
Natural Resources (NR) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2010.12006
Abstract: This article intends to present the historical development of German agriculture sector in last two centuries and underlined the benefit of the advancement in agriculture sector to fulfil the growing food demand. At the same time the article discussed the ecological and socio-economic perspectives of rapid technological development of agriculture sector in Germany. This article would facilitate the debate on technological development in agriculture sector, which rapidly growing throughout the world, in view point of sustainable socio-ecological development.
Gene silencing of E-selectin block recruitment of endothelial progenitor cell to vascular endothelium under flow  [PDF]
Sunil Sharma, Masayuki Yoshida
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2010.36077
Abstract: Short interfering RNA (siRNA) is a powerful technique that can suppress gene expression in a variety of cells including mammalian cells. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are bone marrow—derived haematopoietic progenitor cells that have been implicated in vasculogenesis. We demonstrated for the first time that gene silencing of endothelial E-selectin using siRNA transfection in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) causes inhibition of EPC adhesion under flow conditions. Fluorescence immunobinding assay analysis showed that significant reduction of E-selectin surface expression in HUVECs (activated with IL-1β (10 U/mL) for 4 h) transfected with siRNA against E-selectin, but not in HUVECs transfected with LacZ siRNA (control). An EPC adhesion assay under flow conditions (shear stress = 1.0 dyne/cm2) then demonstrated that HUVECs transfected with E-selectin siRNA supported significantly less adhesion of EPCs than those HUVECs treated with control siRNA and no siRNA after activation by IL-1β (p < 0.05). Our experiments have shown the importance of E-selectin in EPC adhesion to HUVECs and the potential utility of gene silencing of E-selectin in EPC recruitment.
Lead Iodide Crystals as Input Material for Radiation Detectors  [PDF]
Sunil Kumar Chaudhary
Crystal Structure Theory and Applications (CSTA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/csta.2012.13004
Abstract: Lead iodide is an important inorganic solid for fundamental research and possible technological applications and is considered to be a potential room temperature nuclear radiation detector. In lead iodide the phenomenon of polytypism is posing an interesting problem of phase transformations amongst its various polytypic modifications. The transformations have also been observed even when the crystals are stored for few months. It causes deterioration in functioning of PbI2 devices. Taking into account the known structures of PbI2 and the data available on the mode of growth and storage of crystals, it has been concluded that purified melt grown crystals of PbI2 are the best suited for nuclear radiation detectors.
Neuroretinitis: Update on a visual emergency and role of technology in its diagnosis  [PDF]
Subashini Kaliaperumal, Sunil Narayan
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2013.610A2003
Abstract: Neuroretinitis is one of the forms of optic neuritis characterized by swelling of optic nerve head and adjoining retinal nerve fiber layer resulting in a macular star configuration. The underlying pathophysiology involves increased permeability of disc vasculature, but the etiology is not fully defined. Neuroretinitis may occur due to an infectious process involving the disc, a postviral or autoimmune mechanism or sometimes idiopathic. Technological advances like ophthalmoscopy, slit-lamp examination, fluorescein angiography, magnetic resonance imaging and immunodiagnostic tests all come handily and are often imperative in making an accurate diagnosis. Conditions mimicking neuroretinitis include papilledema, anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, and infiltration of the optic disc by tumor and systemic hypertension. Neuroretinitis is usually a self-limited disorder with a good visual prognosis. Treatment of neuroretinitis is required only when there is an underlying infectious or inflammatory condition.
Effect of Micro Size Cenosphere Particles Reinforcement on Tribological Characteristics of Vinylester Composites under Dry Sliding Conditions  [PDF]
Santram Chauhan, Sunil Thakur
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2012.1110092
Abstract: In this paper the friction and wear characteristics of vinylester and cenosphere reinforced vinylester composites have been investigated under dry sliding conditions, under different applied normal load and sliding speed. Wear tests were carried using pin on a rotating disc under ambient conditions. Tests were conducted at normal loads 10, 30, 50 and 70 N and under sliding velocity of 1.88, 3.14, 4.39 and 5.65 m/s. The results showed that the coefficient of friction decreases with the increase in applied normal load values under dry conditions. On the other hand for pure vinylester specific wear rate increases with increase in applied normal load. However the specific wear rate for 2%, 6%, 10% and 15% cenosphere reinforced vinylester composite decreases with the increase in applied normal load under dry conditions. The results showed that with increase in the applied normal load and sliding speed the coefficient of friction and spe- cific wear rate decreases under dry sliding conditions. It is also found that a thin film formed on the counterface seems to be effective in improving the tribological characteristics. The specific wear rates for pure vinylester and vinylester composite under dry sliding condition were in the order of 10-6 mm3/Nm. The results showed that the inclusion of cenosphere as filler materials in vinylester composites will increase the wear resistance of the composite significantly. SEM analysis has been carried to identify the wear mechanism.
Research: SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF PERINDOPRIL ERBUMINE AND INDAPAMIDE IN BULK DRUG AND TABLET DOSAGE FORM BY HPTLC
Mohit G Dewani,Kailash G Bothara,Ashwini R Madgulkar,Mrinalini C Damle*
Pharmacie Globale : International Journal of Comprehensive Pharmacy , 2011,
Abstract: Perindopril erbumine is one of the newly used non-peptide Angiotensin II receptor antagonist, and is used for the treatment of patients with hypertension and symptomatic heart failure. Indapamide is a diuretic of the class of Benzothiadiazines. The combined oral administration of perindopril erbumine with indapamide has been foundto be more effective than either drug alone in the treatment of hypertension. A new sensitive, simple, rapid and precise high performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method has been developed for simultaneous determination of both the drugs in Pharmaceutical dosage form. The method was based on the separation of two drugs on plates precoated with silica gel 60 F254. The mobile phase used was Dichloromethane : Methanol : Glacial acetic acid in the ratio of 9.5:0.5:0.1 v/v/v. Both the drugs showed considerable absorbance at 215 nm. Linearity was obtained in the concentration range of 1-5 μg/band and 100-500 ng/band for perindopril and indapamide respectively. The method has been successfully applied to tablets and was validated according to ICH Harmonized Tripartite guidelines.
Design of experiment approach for sintering study of nanocrystalline SiC fabricated using plasma pressure compaction
Bothara M.G.,Vijay P.,Atre S.V.,Park S.J.
Science of Sintering , 2009, DOI: 10.2298/sos0902125b
Abstract: Plasma pressure compaction (P2C) is a novel sintering technique that enables the consolidation of silicon carbide with a nanoscale microstructure at a relatively low temperature. To achieve a high final density with optimized mechanical properties, the effects of various sintering factors pertaining to the temperature-time profile and pressure were characterized. This paper reports a design of experiment approach used to optimize the processing for a 100 nm SiC powder focused on four sintering factors: temperature, time, pressure, and heating rate. Response variables included the density and mechanical properties. A L9 orthogonal array approach that includes the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed to optimize the processing factors. All of the sintering factors have significant effect on the density and mechanical properties. A final density of 98.1% was achieved with a temperature of 1600°C, hold time of 30 min, pressure of 50 MPa, and heating rate of 100°C/min. The hardness reached 18.4 GPa with a fracture toughness of 4.6 MPa√m, and these are comparable to reports from prior studies using higher consolidation temperatures.
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