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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 401329 matches for " Bosompem Kwabena M "
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Detection of Parasite-Specific DNA in Urine Sediment Obtained by Filtration Differentiates between Single and Mixed Infections of Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium from Endemic Areas in Ghana
Nilanjan Lodh, Jean M. Naples, Kwabena M. Bosompem, Joseph Quartey, Clive J. Shiff
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0091144
Abstract: Differential diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium, which often occur sympatrically in Africa, requires both urine and stool and the procedures are low in sensitivity. The standard diagnostic tests, such as Kato-Katz (KK) for S. mansoni eggs and presence of haematuria for S. haematobium both lack sensitivity, produce false-negative results and show reduced accuracy with decreasing intensity of infection. The need for a single diagnostic test with high sensitivity and specificity for both parasites is important as many African countries are implementing Mass Drug Administration (MDA) following recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO). Eighty-six samples of urine sediment obtained by filtration were collected from a group of 5–23 years old people from an endemic area of southern Ghana. DNA was extracted from the urine sediment on filter paper from which a species-specific repeat fragment was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with specific primers for S. mansoni and for S. haematobium. Additionally, all participants were tested by KK (stool) and dipstick for haematuria. Diagnostic parameters for all three tests were analyzed statistically. Amplification of species-specific DNA by PCR showed much higher sensitivity (99%–100%) and specificity (100%) compared to KK and haematuria (sensitivity: 76% and 30% respectively) for both schistosome species. The same pattern was observed when the data were stratified for age group and sex specific analysis. In addition PCR amplification detected DNA from 11 individuals infected with both parasites who were negative by KK and haematuria. This approach of detecting parasite specific DNA from either or both species in a single urine specimen is a practical advantage that avoids the need for two specimens and is more effective than standard tests including those based on serology. This promises to improve the effectiveness of surveillance of MDA control programs of schistosomiasis.
Characterization of malaria transmission by vector populations for improved interventions during the dry season in the Kpone-on-Sea area of coastal Ghana
Tchouassi David P,Quakyi Isabella A,Addison Ebenezer A,Bosompem Kwabena M
Parasites & Vectors , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-5-212
Abstract: Background Malaria is a major public health problem in Ghana. We present a site-specific entomological study of malaria vectors and transmission indices as part of an effort to develop a site for the testing of improved control strategies including possible vaccine trials. Methods Pyrethrum spray catches (PSC), and indoor and outdoor human landing collections of adult female anopheline mosquitoes were carried out over a six-month period (November 2005 - April 2006) at Kpone-on-Sea, a fishing village in southern Ghana. These were morphologically identified to species level and sibling species of the Anopheles gambiae complex further characterized by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect Plasmodium falciparum mosquito infectivity and host blood meal sources. Parity rate was examined based on dilatation of ovarian tracheoles following dissection. Results Of the 1233 Anopheles mosquitoes collected, An. gambiae s.l. was predominant (99.5%), followed by An. funestus (0.4%) and An. pharoensis (0.1%). All An. gambiae s.l. examined (480) were identified as An. gambiae s.s. with a majority of M molecular form (98.2%) and only 1.8% S form with no record of M/S hybrid. A significantly higher proportion of anophelines were observed outdoors relative to indoors (χ2 = 159.34, df = 1, p < 0.0000). Only An. gambiae M molecular form contributed to transmission with a high degree of anthropophily, parity rate and an estimated entomological inoculation rate (EIR) of 62.1 infective bites/person/year. The Majority of the infective bites occurred outdoors after 09.00 pm reaching peaks between 12.00-01.00 am and 03.00-04.00 am. Conclusion Anopheles gambiae M molecular form is responsible for maintaining the status quo of malaria in the surveyed site during the study period. The findings provide a baseline for evidence-based planning and implementation of improved malaria interventions. The plasticity observed in biting patterns especially the combined outdoor and early biting behavior of the vector may undermine the success of insecticide-based strategies using insecticide treated nets (ITN) and indoor residual spray (IRS). As such, novel or improved vector interventions should be informed by the local malaria epidemiology data as it relates to vector behavior.
Hypermethylation of Genes Detected in Urine from Ghanaian Adults with Bladder Pathology Associated with Schistosoma haematobium Infection
Xiaoli Zhong, Sumit Isharwal, Jean M. Naples, Clive Shiff, Robert W. Veltri, Chunbo Shao, Kwabena M. Bosompem, David Sidransky, Mohammad O. Hoque
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0059089
Abstract: Purpose Schistosoma haematobium is associated with chronic bladder damage and may subsequently induce bladder cancer in humans, thus posing a serious threat where the parasite is endemic. Here we evaluated aberrant promoter DNA methylation as a potential biomarker to detect severe bladder damage that is associated with schistosomiasis by analyzing urine specimens. Materials and Methods A quantitative methylation-specific PCR (QMSP) assay was used to examine the methylation status of seven genes (RASSF1A, RARβ2, RUNX3, TIMP3, MGMT, P16, ARF) in 57 urine samples obtained from volunteers that include infected and uninfected by S. haematobium from an endemic region. The Fishers Exact Test and Logistic Regression analysis were used to evaluate the methylation status with bladder damage (as assessed by ultrasound examination) in subjects with S. haematobium infection. Results RASSF1A and TIMP3 were significant to predict severe bladder damage both in univariate (p = 0.015 and 0.023 respectively) and in multivariate (p = 0.022 and 0.032 respectively) logistic regression analysis. Area under the receiver operator characteristic curves (AUC-ROC) for RASSF1A and TIMP3 to predict severe bladder damage were 67.84% and 63.73% respectively. The combined model, which used both RASSF1A and TIMP3 promoter methylation, resulted in significant increase in AUC-ROC compared to that of TIMP3 (77.55% vs. 63.73%.29; p = 0.023). Conclusions In this pilot study, we showed that aberrant promoter methylation of RASSF1A and TIMP3 are present in urine sediments of patients with severe bladder damage associated with S. haematobium infection and that may be used to develop non-invasive biomarker of S. haematobium exposure and early molecular risk assessmentof neoplastic transformation.
Health Seeking Behaviour and Utilization of Health Facilities for Schistosomiasis-Related Symptoms in Ghana
Anthony Danso-Appiah ,Wilma A. Stolk,Kwabena M. Bosompem,Joseph Otchere,Caspar W. N. Looman,J. Dik F. Habbema,Sake J. de Vlas
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2010, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000867
Abstract: Background Schistosomiasis causes long-term illness and significant economic burden. Morbidity control through integration within existing health care delivery systems is considered a potentially sustainable and cost-effective approach, but there is paucity of information about health-seeking behaviour. Methods A questionnaire-based study involving 2,002 subjects was conducted in three regions of Ghana to investigate health-seeking behaviour and utilization of health facilities for symptoms related to urinary (blood in urine and painful urination) and intestinal schistosomiasis (diarrhea, blood in stool, swollen abdomen and abdominal pain). Fever (for malaria) was included for comparison. Results Only 40% of patients with urinary symptoms sought care compared to >70% with intestinal symptoms and >90% with fever. Overall, about 20% of schistosomiasis-related symptoms were reported to a health facility (hospital or clinic), compared to about 30% for fever. Allopathic self-medication was commonly practiced as alternative action. Health-care seeking was relatively lower for patients with chronic symptoms, but if they took action, they were more likely to visit a health facility. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, perceived severity was the main predictor for seeking health care or visiting a health facility. Age, socio-economic status, somebody else paying for health care, and time for hospital visit occasionally showed a significant impact, but no clear trend. The effect of geographic location was less marked, although people in the central region, and to a lesser extent the north, were usually less inclined to seek health care than people in the south. Perceived quality of health facility did not demonstrate impact. Conclusion Perceived severity of the disease is the most important determinant of seeking health care or visiting a health facility in Ghana. Schistosomiasis control by passive case-finding within the regular health care delivery looks promising, but the number not visiting a health facility is large and calls for supplementary control options.
School-based participatory health education for malaria control in Ghana: engaging children as health messengers
Irene Ayi, Daisuke Nonaka, Josiah K Adjovu, Shigeki Hanafusa, Masamine Jimba, Kwabena M Bosompem, Tetsuya Mizoue, Tsutomu Takeuchi, Daniel A Boakye, Jun Kobayashi
Malaria Journal , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-9-98
Abstract: This study was conducted in the Dangme-East district of the Greater Accra Region, Ghana, between 2007 and 2008. Trained schoolteachers designed participatory health education activities and led school children to disseminate messages related to malaria control to their communities. Three schools and their respective communities were chosen for the study and assigned to an intervention group (one school) and a control group (two schools). Questionnaire-based interviews and parasitological surveys were conducted before and after the intervention, with the intervention group (105 children, 250 community adults) and the control group (81 children, 133 community adults). Chi-square and Fisher's Exact tests were used to analyse differences in knowledge, practices, and parasite prevalence between pre- and post-intervention.After the intervention, the misperception that malaria has multiple causes was significantly improved, both among children and community adults. Moreover, the community adults who treated a bed net with insecticide in the past six months, increased from 21.5% to 50.0% (p < 0.001). Parasite prevalence in school children decreased from 30.9% to 10.3% (p = 0.003). These positive changes were observed only in the intervention group.This study suggests that the participatory health education intervention contributed to the decreased malaria prevalence among children. It had a positive impact not only on school children, but also on community adults, through the improvement of knowledge and practices. This strategy can be applied as a complementary approach to existing malaria control strategies in West African countries where school health management systems have been strengthened.Ghana is located in sub-Saharan Africa, where an estimated 90% of the world's malaria-attributable deaths occur. In Ghana, malaria accounts for more than 44% of reported outpatient visits and an estimated 22% of deaths in children under the age of five. Reported malaria cases repres
Effective Control of Schistosoma haematobium Infection in a Ghanaian Community following Installation of a Water Recreation Area
Karen C. Kosinski ,Michael N. Adjei,Kwabena M. Bosompem,Jonathan J. Crocker,John L. Durant,Dickson Osabutey,Jeanine D. Plummer,Miguel J. Stadecker,Anjuli D. Wagner,Mark Woodin,David M. Gute
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001709
Abstract: Background Urogenital schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma haematobium was endemic in Adasawase, Ghana in 2007. Transmission was reported to be primarily through recreational water contact. Methods We designed a water recreation area (WRA) to prevent transmission to school-aged children. The WRA features a concrete pool supplied by a borehole well and a gravity-driven rainwater collection system; it is 30 m2 and is split into shallow and deep sections to accommodate a variety of age groups. The WRA opened in 2009 and children were encouraged to use it for recreation as opposed to the local river. We screened children annually for S. haematobium eggs in their urine in 2008, 2009, and 2010 and established differences in infection rates before (2008–09) and after (2009–10) installation of the WRA. After each annual screening, children were treated with praziquantel and rescreened to confirm parasite clearance. Principal Findings Initial baseline testing in 2008 established that 105 of 247 (42.5%) children were egg-positive. In 2009, with drug treatment alone, the pre-WRA annual cumulative incidence of infection was 29 of 216 (13.4%). In 2010, this incidence rate fell significantly (p<0.001, chi-squared) to 9 of 245 (3.7%) children after installation of the WRA. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine correlates of infection among the variables age, sex, distance between home and river, minutes observed at the river, low height-for-age, low weight-for-age, low Body Mass Index (BMI)-for-age, and previous infection status. Conclusion/Significance The installation and use of a WRA is a feasible and highly effective means to reduce the incidence of schistosomiasis in school-aged children in a rural Ghanaian community. In conjunction with drug treatment and education, such an intervention can represent a significant step towards the control of schistosomiasis. The WRA should be tested in other water-rich endemic areas to determine whether infection prevalence can be substantially reduced.
Large deviation principles for empirical measures of colored random graphs
Kwabena Doku-Amponsah,Peter M?rters
Mathematics , 2006, DOI: 10.1214/09-AAP647
Abstract: For any finite colored graph we define the empirical neighborhood measure, which counts the number of vertices of a given color connected to a given number of vertices of each color, and the empirical pair measure, which counts the number of edges connecting each pair of colors. For a class of models of sparse colored random graphs, we prove large deviation principles for these empirical measures in the weak topology. The rate functions governing our large deviation principles can be expressed explicitly in terms of relative entropies. We derive a large deviation principle for the degree distribution of Erd\H{o}s--R\'{e}nyi graphs near criticality.
Willingness to Pay for Improved Electricity Supply in Ghana  [PDF]
Daniel Kwabena Twerefou
Modern Economy (ME) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/me.2014.55046

One major problem facing Ghana is the unreliable supply of electricity. Unreliable electricity supply largely attributed to supply side constraints such as poor energy infrastructure, low tariffs which is below cost recovery and increasing demand has made it difficult to provide uninterrupted supply for the populace. Currently, there is a constant outcry by Ghanaians for the government and service providers to improve electricity service delivery due to the fact that households do suffer economic losses in the event of unannounced power outages to the point that many of them may be willing to pay higher tariffs if that will ensure improved service delivery. In this study we assess households’ willingness to pay (WTP) for improved electricity supply as well as the factors that influence WTP through a contingent valuation survey. Results from our analysis indicated that, households in Ghana are prepared to pay on the average about 0.2734 for a kilowatt-hour which is about one and a half times more than what they are paying currently. An econometric analysis of the factors that influence households’ WTP for improved electricity supply indicates that household income, sex, household size, secondary and tertiary level education are the significant factors.

The prevalence of seropositivity to hepatitis B surface antigen and the corresponding hemato-biochemical features in sickle cell patients in Ghana
Journal of Hematological Malignancies , 2012, DOI: 10.5430/jhm.v2n1p13
Abstract: Objectives: The reported prevalence of HBsAg in the general Ghanaian population is high (more than 10%). However, it is anticipated that following the establishment of the Sickle Cell Clinic, due to the comprehensive care, the prevalence of HBsAg among the sickle cell patients should be lower. Method: This study was aimed at screening for the HBsAg in 330 sickle cell patients, as well as using some hemato- biochemical parameters to characterize the seropositives, relative their age-, sex- and genotype-matched seronegative counterparts. Results: Twelve of the subjects (3.6%) were seropositive; 6 males and 6 females, this was lower than the prevalence rates reported from the general population. The mean levels of the following indices were higher in the seropositives; ALT (28.3 ± 19.6 U/L), AST (52.9 ± 36.1 U/L), ALP (181.4 ± 98.1 U/L), LDH (1010 ± 223.5 U/L), albumin (4.4 ± 0.5g/dL), creatinine (76.0 ± 18.2 μmol/L), urea (4.4 ± 5.8 mmol/L) and platelets (401.3 ± 152.8 × 109/L). However, it was only the difference in the mean creatinine levels that reached statistical significance (P=0.039). The cases of seropositivity to HBsAg were not active HBV infection, as patients did not show any incriminating symptoms, apart from vaso-occlusive pain. Additionally, the hematologic and biochemical profiles of both groups were similar. Conclusion: Compared to the reports from the general Ghanaian population, the prevalence of HBsAg seropositivity has been shown to be lower, and despite the seropositivity, the hepatic and kidney functions had not been compromised.
A survey of female genital schistosomiasis of the lower reproductive tract in the volta basin of Ghana
D Yirenya-Tawiah, C Amoah, KA Apea-Kubi, M Dade, M Ackumey, T Annang, DY Mensah, KM Bosompem
Ghana Medical Journal , 2011,
Abstract: Objective: To determine the prevalence of female genital schistosomiasis in riparian communities in the Volta basin of Ghana, Design: The study was a cross-sectional study conducted among women 15-49 years in the Volta Basin. Urinary schistosomiasis prevalence was determined using microscopy. A structured questionnaire was also administered to collect information on the demography, obstetric history and reproductive health experiences. Cervical punch biopsy was collected from women who consented to be screened for FGS. Descriptive statistics was used to determine frequency of occurrence, chi squared and logistic regression to identify associated variables Results: Urinary schistosomiasis prevalence among the women was 24.8% while 10.6% of them diagnosed with FGS. More FGS diagnosed women (57.7%, p value =0.04%) were observed to report copious discharge, vaginal itch (80.8%, p=0.042) and lower abdominal pain (66.7%, p= 0.041) compared to FGS negative women. The predominant abnormal observation of the lower genital tract made was erythematous cervix (18.8%). Conclusion: The study confirms the reproductive health symptoms associated with FGS and recommends awareness creation on FGS among women in endemic communities to facilitate early treatment.
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