Abstract:
The paper is devoted to the complete classification of all real Lie algebras of contact vector fields on the first jet space of one-dimensional submanifolds in the plane. This completes Sophus Lie's classification of all possible Lie algebras of contact symmetries for ordinary differential equations. As a main tool we use the abstract theory of filtered and graded Lie algebras. We also describe all differential and integral invariants of new Lie algebras found in the paper and discuss the infinite-dimensional case.

Abstract:
We show that classical Wilczynski--Se-ashi invariants of linear systems of ordinary differential equations are generalized in a natural way to contact invariants of non-linear ODEs. We explore geometric structures associated with equations that have vanishing generalized Wilczynski invariants and establish relationship of such equations with deformation theory of rational curves on complex algebraic surfaces.

Abstract:
There are two different approaches to exhibit submaximal symmetric rank 2 distributions in 5D via Monge equations. In this note we establish precise relations between these models, find auto-equivalences of one family, and treat two special equations.

Abstract:
We show that for n>2 the following equivalence problems are essentially the same: the equivalence problem for Lagrangians of order n with one dependent and one independent variable considered up to a contact transformation, a multiplication by a nonzero constant, and modulo divergence; the equivalence problem for the special class of rank 2 distributions associated with underdetermined ODEs z'=f(x,y,y',..., y^{(n)}); the equivalence problem for variational ODEs of order 2n. This leads to new results such as the fundamental system of invariants for all these problems and the explicit description of the maximally symmetric models. The central role in all three equivalence problems is played by the geometry of self-dual curves in the projective space of odd dimension up to projective transformations via the linearization procedure (along the solutions of ODE or abnormal extremals of distributions). More precisely, we show that an object from one of the three equivalence problem is maximally symmetric if and only if all curves in projective spaces obtained by the linearization procedure are rational normal curves.

Abstract:
We establish a twistor correspondence between a cuspidal cubic curve in a complex projective plane, and a co-calibrated homogeneous $G_2$ structure on the seven--dimensional parameter space of such cubics. Imposing the Riemannian reality conditions leads to an explicit co-calibrated $G_2$ structure on $SU(2, 1)/U(1)$. This is an example of an SO(3) structure in seven dimensions. Cuspidal cubics and their higher degree analogues with constant projective curvature are characterised as integral curves of 7th order ODEs. Projective orbits of such curves are shown to be analytic continuations of Aloff--Wallach manifolds, and it is shown that only cubics lift to a complete family of contact rational curves in a projectivised cotangent bundle to a projective plane.

Abstract:
The current paper is devoted to the study of integral curves of constant type in parabolic homogeneous spaces. We construct a canonical moving frame bundle for such curves and give the criterium when it turns out to be a Cartan connection. Generalizations to parametrized curves, to higher-dimensional submanifolds and to general parabolic geometries are discussed.

Abstract:
We develop an algebraic version of Cartan method of equivalence or an analog of Tanaka prolongation for the (extrinsic) geometry of curves of flags of a vector space $W$ with respect to the action of a subgroup $G$ of the $GL(W)$. Under some natural assumptions on the subgroup $G$ and on the flags, one can pass from the filtered objects to the corresponding graded objects and describe the construction of canonical bundles of moving frames for these curves in the language of pure Linear Algebra. The scope of applicability of the theory includes geometry of natural classes of curves of flags with respect to reductive linear groups or their parabolic subgroups. As simplest examples, this includes the projective and affine geometry of curves. The case of classical groups is considered in more detail.

Abstract:
Motivated by the geometric theory of differential equations and the variational approach to the equivalence problem for geometric structures on manifolds, we consider the problem of equivalence for distributions with fixed submanifolds of flags on each fiber. We call them flag structures. The construction of the canonical frames for these structures can be given in the two prolongation steps: the first step, based on our previous works, gives the canonical bundle of moving frames for the fixed submanifolds of flags on each fiber and the second step consists of the prolongation of the bundle obtained in the first step. The bundle obtained in the first step is not as a rule a principal bundle so that the classical Tanaka prolongation procedure for filtered structures can not be applied to it. However, under natural assumptions on submanifolds of flags and on the ambient distribution, this bundle satisfies a nice weaker property. The main goal of the present paper is to formalize this property, introducing the so-called quasi-principle frame bundles, and to generalize the Tanaka prolongation procedure to these bundles. Applications to the equivalence problems for systems of differential equations of mixed order, bracket generating distributions, sub-Riemannian and more general structures on distributions are given.

Abstract:
We demonstrate how the novel approach to the local geometry of structures of nonholonomic nature, originated by Andrei Agrachev, works in the following two situations: rank 2 distributions of maximal class in R^n with non-zero generalized Wilczynski invariants and rank 2 distributions of maximal class in R^n with additional structures such as affine control system with one input spanning these distributions, sub-(pseudo)Riemannian structures etc. The common feature of these two situations is that each abnormal extremal (of the underlying rank 2 distribution) possesses a distinguished parametrization. This fact allows one to construct the canonical frame on a (2n-3)-dimensional bundle in both situations for arbitrary n greater than 4. The moduli spaces of the most symmetric models for both situations are described as well. The relation of our results to the divergence equivalence of Lagrangians of higher order is given

Abstract:
We find the complete set of fundamental invariants for systems of ordinary differential equations of order $\ge 4$ under the group of point transformations generalizing similar results for contact invariants of a single ODE and point invariants of systems of the second and the third order. It turns out that starting from systems of order $(k+1)\ge 4$, the complete set of fundamental invariants is formed by $k$ generalized Wilczynski invariants coming from the linearized system and an additional invariant of degree 2.