Abstract:
New types of irreducible second order Darboux transformations for the one dimensional Schroedinger equation are described. The main feature of such transformations is that the transformation functions have the eigenvalues grater then the ground state energy of the initial (or reference) Hamiltonian. When such a transformation is presented as a chain of two first order transformations, an intermediate potential is singular and therefore intermediate Hamiltonian can not be Hermitian while the final potential is regular and the final Hamiltonian is Hermitian. Second derivative supersymmetric quantum mechanical model based on a transformation of this kind exhibits properties inherent to models with exact and broken supersymmetry at once.

Abstract:
Darboux transformation operators that produce multisoliton potentials are analyzed as operators acting in a Hilbert space. Isometric correspondence between Hilbert spaces of states of a free particle and a particle moving in a soliton potential is established. It is shown that the Darboux transformation operator is unbounded but closed and can not realize an isometric mapping between Hilbert spaces. A quasispectral representation of such an operator in terms of continuum bases is obtained. Different types of coherent states of a multisoliton potential are introduced. Measures that realize the resolution of the identity operator in terms of the projectors on the coherent states vectors are calculated. It is shown that when these states are related with free particle coherent states by a bounded symmetry operator the measure is defined by ordinary functions and in the case of a semibounded symmetry operator the measure is defined by a generalized function.

Abstract:
The supersymmetric quantum mechanical model based on higher-derivative supercharge operators possessing unbroken supersymmetry and discrete energies below the vacuum state energy is described. As an example harmonic oscillator potential is considered.

Abstract:
Parasupersymmetry of the one dimensional time-dependent Schr\"odinger equation is established. It is intimately connected with a chain of the time-dependent Darboux transformations. As an example a parasupersymmetric model of nonrelativistic free particle with threefold degenerate discrete spectrum of an integral of motion is constructed.

Abstract:
The necessary and sufficient conditions for minimization of the generalized rate error for discriminating among $N$ pure qubit states are reformulated in terms of Bloch vectors representing the states. For the direct optimization problem an algorithmic solution to these conditions is indicated. A solution to the inverse optimization problem is given. General results are widely illustrated by particular cases of equiprobable states and $N=2,3,4$ pure qubit states given with different prior probabilities.

Abstract:
Optimization of the mean efficiency for unambiguous (or error free)discrimination among $N$ given linearly independent nonorthogonal states should be realized in a way to keep the probabilistic quantum mechanical interpretation. This imposes a condition on a certain matrix to be positive semidefinite. We reformulated this condition in such a way that the conditioned optimization problem for the mean efficiency was reduced to finding an unconditioned maximum of a function defined on a unit $N$-sphere for equiprobable states and on an $N$-ellipsoid if the states are given with different probabilities. We established that for equiprobable states a point on the sphere with equal values of Cartesian coordinates, which we call symmetric point, plays a special role. Sufficient conditions for a vector set are formulated for which the mean efficiency for equiprobable states takes its maximal value at the symmetric point. This set, in particular, includes previously studied symmetric states. A subset of symmetric states, for which the optimal measurement corresponds to a POVM requiring a one-dimensional ancilla space is constructed. We presented our constructions of a POVM suitable for the ancilla space dimension varying from 1 till $N$ and the Neumark's extension differing from the existing schemes by the property that it is straightforwardly applicable to the case when it is desirable to present the whole space system + ancilla as the tensor product of a two-dimensional ancilla space and the $N$-dimensional system space.

Abstract:
Supersymmetric (SUSY) transformation operators corresponding to complex factorization constants are analyzed as operators acting in the Hilbert space of functions square integrable on the positive semiaxis. Obtained results are applied to Hamiltonians possessing spectral singularities which are non-Hermitian SUSY partners of selfadjoint operators. A new regularization procedure for the resolution of the identity operator in terms of continuous biorthonormal set of the non-Hermitian Hamiltonian eigenfunctions is proposed. It is also shown that the continuous spectrum eigenfunction has zero binorm (in the sense of distributions) at the singular point.

Abstract:
Using techniques of supersymmetric quantum mechanics, scattering properties of Hermitian Hamiltonians, which are related to non-Hermitian ones by similarity transformations, are studied. We have found that the scattering matrix of the Hermitian Hamiltonian coincides with the phase factor of the non-unitary scattering matrix of the non-Hermitian Hamiltonian. The possible presence of a spectral singularity in a non-Hermitian Hamiltonian translates into a pronounced resonance in the scattering cross section of its Hermitian counterpart. This opens a way for detecting spectral singularities in scattering experiments; although a singular point is inaccessible for the Hermitian Hamiltonian, the Hamiltonian "feels" the presence of the singularity if it is "close enough". We also show that cross sections of the non-Hermitian Hamiltonian do not exhibit any resonance behavior and explain the resonance behavior of the Hermitian Hamiltonian cross section by the fact that corresponding scattering matrix, up to a background scattering matrix, is a square root of the Breit-Wigner scattering matrix.

Abstract:
Transformations of coherent states of the free particle by bounded and semibounded symmetry operators are considered. Resolution of the identity operator in terms of the transformed states is analyzed. A generalized identity resolution is formulated. Darboux transformation operators are analyzed as operators defined in a Hilbert space. Coherent states of multisoliton potentials are studied.

Abstract:
One of the simplest non-Hermitian Hamiltonians first proposed by Schwartz (1960 {\it Commun. Pure Appl. Math.} \tb{13} 609) which may possess a spectral singularity is analyzed from the point of view of non-Hermitian generalization of quantum mechanics. It is shown that $\eta$ operator, being a second order differential operator, has supersymmetric structure. Asymptotic behavior of eigenfunctions of a Hermitian Hamiltonian equivalent to the given non-Hermitian one is found. As a result the corresponding scattering matrix and cross section are given explicitly. It is demonstrated that the possible presence of the spectral singularity in the spectrum of the non-Hermitian Hamiltonian may be detected as a resonance in the scattering cross section of its Hermitian counterpart. Nevertheless, just at the singular point the equivalent Hermitian Hamiltonian becomes undetermined.