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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 461989 matches for " Bolatito A Lanre-Abass "
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Poverty and maternal mortality in Nigeria: towards a more viable ethics of modern medical practice
Bolatito A Lanre-Abass
International Journal for Equity in Health , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1475-9276-7-11
Abstract: Since high levels of poverty limit access to quality health care and consequently human development, this paper suggests ways of reducing maternal mortality in Nigeria. It emphasizes the importance of care ethics, an ethical orientation that seeks to rectify the deficiencies of medical practice in Nigeria, notably the problem of poor reproductive health services.Care ethics as an ethical orientation, attends to the important aspects of our shared lives. It portrays the moral agent (in this context the physician) as a self who is embedded in webs of relations with others (pregnant women). Also central to this ethical orientation is responsiveness in an interconnected network of needs, care and prevention of harm.This review concludes by stressing that many human relationships involve persons who are vulnerable, including pregnant women, dependent, ill and or frail, noting that the desirable moral response is that prescribed by care ethics, which thus has implications for the practice of medicine in Nigeria.Poverty exists when people lack the means to satisfy their basic needs. These may be defined narrowly as "those needs necessary for survival"[1] or broadly as "those needs reflecting the prevailing standard of living in the community"[2]. Reproductive ill health is both a cause and consequence of poverty [3]. Sexual and reproductive health problems account for approximately 20 percent of the ill-health of women globally, and 14 percent of men due to lack of appropriate sexual and reproductive health services [4]. It is against this background that this review examines poverty as a major cause of maternal deaths in Nigeria. It offers an insight into the practice of medicine in Nigeria which is different from that of modern medicine because it falls short of the principle of showing care. The consequence of this is the uncaring attitude of many health care providers in the context of maternal care. It suggests ways of reducing maternal deaths in Nigeria, emphasizing
Autonomy and interdependence: quandaries in research ethics  [PDF]
Bolatito Lanre-Abass
Health (Health) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/health.2012.44026
Abstract: The autonomy of research participants is crucial in research ethics without which it will be difficult to carry out research. Central to the concept of autonomy is the debate on whether the cultural norms of individuals (particularly women) should be given priority in settings where these norms require that researchers should go through male heads such as husbands and traditional leaders. This paper examines issues relating to the autonomy of women in research ethics. It highlights the far-reaching implications of autonomy for women participating in research using Islam as a religion and Africa as case studies. The paper takes a look at what obtains in Ghana and Nigeria as African countries with diverse religious sects highlighting at the same time the extent to which women are autonomous in some Islamic parts of India and Pakistan. The paper stresses that in spite of certain factors limiting the autonomy of women in Africa and Islam, there is need for a more robust account of autonomy. It takes a relational approach to autonomy concluding at the same time that the best way to do bioethics is to be culture-sensitive.
Racism and Its Presuppositions: Towards a Pragmatic Ethics of Social Change
B. Lanre-Abass
Human Affairs , 2010, DOI: 10.2478/v10023-010-0037-5
Abstract: Racism has been described as a litmus test or a barium meal which reveals other disorders and injustices within the body politic. It presupposes the legitimacy of racial classifications and the metaphysical reality of races and therefore provides a vital area of scrutiny for philosophical traditions. This paper examines racism and its anti-social effects both on the individual and the society at large. It argues that racism is generally driven by fear and hatred hence all forms of racism are dangerous, socially harmful and morally wrong in practice. The paper recommends ways of overcoming the evil of racism by emphasizing social intelligence and self-realization as moral ideals drawing on John Dewey's pragmatism in ethics. It concludes by stressing Dewey's moral pragmatism as a potent instrument of social change.
Modernism and Secularization: Towards a Reconciliation of Religious Freedom and National Security in the Realization of Peace in Nigeria
Lanre Abass Bolatito
Canadian Social Science , 2013, DOI: 10.3968/3281
Abstract: This paper examines religious violence in some Northern parts of Nigeria and its effects on national security. It argues that Modern religiously motivated violence has affected the balance between individual religious liberty and national security in this country. The paper attributes this to modernism and its feature of secularization particularly as it displaces some religious values such as love, peace, concern for others, the fear of God and so on. The paper underscores the need for peace in Nigeria and for government to address the conflicting duties of allowing people to exercise their religious freedom and maintaining national security. It draws on W.D Ross’s prima facie and actual duties to argue that when duties conflict, there is need to arrive at a substantive duty after a fully considered deliberation. Unfortunately, one cannot be allowed without it having a negative effect on the other. In order to avoid a situation whereby attempts at resolving conflicting duties on the part of government degenerates into a more intense violent conflict, there is need to reconcile religious freedom and national security. The paper concludes by stressing that since religious freedom and national security are crucial elements in the functioning of the society, there is need for Nigerian government to reconcile both without one necessarily affecting the other in a negative sense; this will give room for peaceful co-existence in this country. Key words: Violence; Peace; Security; Secularization; Modernism; Religion
The Natural Law Theory of Morality and the Homosexuality Debate in an African Culture
L-A Bolatito
OGIRISI: a New Journal of African Studies , 2012,
Abstract: Same sex relationship has recently been criticized by many not only on grounds of being immoral but also as a practice that erodes certain values attached to marriage and procreation in some African cultures. This paper examines the immorality or otherwise of homosexuality as an act. It argues that homosexual behaviour is degrading and damaging as an act because it devalues the institution of marriage and its related values in the Yoruba culture. The paper underscores the fact that a typical Yoruba would make allusions to either Christian or Islamic injunctions to justify the moral unacceptability of homosexuality as an act. It employs Aquinas natural law theory of morality to further argue that homosexual act is unnatural hence it goes against what reason dictates. The paper also argues that we cannot completely rule out the possibility that homosexual acts are consequences of certain predisposing biological factors over which actors have no control and if this is the case, then they cannot act otherwise. In the light of this, the paper argued for both nature and nurture as predisposing factors of homosexual behavior. It concludes by stressing that in spite of some biological arguments in favour of homosexual act, such act threatens the viability of the Yoruba community where special value is placed on the institution of marriage and procreation.
Two Flavones from Acanthospermum hispidum DC and Their Antibacterial Activity  [PDF]
Theresa I. Edewor, Abass A. Olajire
International Journal of Organic Chemistry (IJOC) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ijoc.2011.13020
Abstract: Two new flavones, namely 5,7,2’,5’-tetrahydroxy-3,4’-dimethoxyflavone and 5’-acetoxy-5,7,2’-trihydroxy-3, 4’-dimethoxyflavone were successfuly isolated from the leaves of Acanthospermum hispidum DC and identified by UV-Vis, IR, 1H-NMR and EI-MS techniques. Both compounds exhibited antibacterial activity against Salmonella typii, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Shigella dysenteriae with minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) ranging from 0.001 - 0.20 but was inactive against Escherichia coli, Corybacterium pyogenes and Proteus vulgaris.
The Dynamics of Monetary and Fiscal Policy as a Tool for Economic Growth: Evidence from Nigeria
Samson Ogege,Abass A. Shiro
Journal of Management and Sustainability , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/jms.v2n2p247
Abstract: The study investigated the dynamics of Nigeria’s monetary and fiscal policies, focusing specifically on the effects on the growth of Nigerian economy. The fundamental objective is to examine the effect of monetary and fiscal policy in Nigerian economic growth. The paper employed the Engle-Granger and Johansen-Joselius method of co-integration in a VECM setting. The empirical results demonstrated that there exist a long-run linear relationship between the dependent variable and the explanatory variables, meaning that both monetary and fiscal policy contributed to the growth of Nigerian economy. Based on the above reason the paper, therefore recommended that both monetary and fiscal policy should have the same objectives at a time.
Effects of cleaning agents in reducing microbial load on meat display tables at the Bodija municipal abattoir, Ibadan, Nigeria
A. E. J. Awosanya,,O. K. Bolatito,V. O. Adetunji
Research Opinions in Animal & Veterinary Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: Meat display tables have been implicated as one of the sources of meat contamination and a critical control point in food processing. Cleaning and disinfection operations are of great importance within the food processing industries for food safety reasons. The effectiveness of four cleaning agents as treatments for the reduction of microbial contamination of meat display tables used by meat sellers at the Bodija municipal abattoir in Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria was assessed within April and October, 2009. The treatments include the use of: 1. Pipe-borne water (27oC); 2. Hot water at 85oC; 3. Pipe-borne water and detergent; 4. Combination of pipe-borne water, detergent and sodium hypochlorite. Swab samples were taken from a 1cm2 area on each wooden table surfaces before and after application of each treatment. They were processed and grown on nutrient agar and MacConkey agar to determine the effects of each treatment on total aerobic and coliform counts in the laboratory. The results revealed that all the four treatments had statistically significant difference (P<0.05) in reducing microbial contamination with treatment 4– combination of pipe-borne water, detergent and sodium hypochlorite having the highest percent reduction in total aerobic and coliform counts (63% and 75% respectively). It is recommended that treatments 3 and 4 should be incorporated into the routine activities of meat sellers before the commencement of daily sales and after, because of their greater effect in reducing coliform than treatments 1 and 2, in order to minimize contamination of meat arising from meat display tables.
Evaluation of Treated Municipal Wastewater Quality for Irrigation  [PDF]
Abdul Hameed M. Jawad Alobaidy, Mukheled A. Al-Sameraiy, Abass J. Kadhem, Athmar Abdul Majeed
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2010.13026
Abstract: Wastewater reuse is a useful tool in minimizing the amount of wastewater in the environment. Therefore, evaluation of the suitability of Al-Rustamiyah WWTP municipal treated wastewater for irrigation was made according to its compo-sition and the international irrigation water quality standards. In addition, to classify water quality and to evaluate its suitability for irrigation purposes, Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR), Soluble Sodium Percentage (SSP) and Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC) were calculated following standard equations and found experimentally as (2.11), (35.67) and (–12.75) respectively. Plotting the values of conductivity (EC) and sodium absorption ratio (SAR) on the US salinity diagram illustrated that most of the samples fall in the field of C3-S1, indicating high salinity and low sodium water which can be used for irrigation on almost all types of soil without danger of exchangeable sodium. Furthermore, the data indicate slight to moderate degree of restriction on the use of this treated wastewater in irrigation due to chloride hazard. RSC value is negative at all sampling sites, indicating that there is no complete precipitation of calcium and magnesium. Overall, the treated wastewater can be classified with few exceptions as suitable for irrigation use.
SHORT COMMUNICATION: Total and leachable phosphorous in urban street tree leaves
Abass A. Olajire, Edward O. Olanipekun
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia , 2000,
Abstract: (Received January 13, 2000; revised May 8, 2000) Leaves of different tree species were leached with distilled water (pH 7.0 ± 0.2) and rain water (pH 5.7 ± 0.3) in laboratory glass cylinders to simulate the release of phosphorous (P) pollutant to urban runoff. An average of 106 ± 52.1 μg g-1 and 143 ± 72.7 μg g-1 (air dried weight) of P were leachable from entire leaves in 2 1/2 hours in distilled water and rain water, respectively; these represented 7.21% and 11.36%, respectively, of the total P in the leaves analyzed. The amount of leachable and total leaf P varied significantly (p < 0.05) among tree species but were not significantly (p < 0.05) affected by tree diameters. Fragmented leaves released more than twice as much phosphorous as intact leaves. These findings point to leaves as a source of urban runoff P. Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop. 2000, 14(1), 91-95 Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia. ISSN: 1011-3924
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