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Transparent Meta-Analysis of Prospective Memory and Aging
Bob Uttl
PLOS ONE , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0001568
Abstract: Prospective memory (ProM) refers to our ability to become aware of a previously formed plan at the right time and place. After two decades of research on prospective memory and aging, narrative reviews and summaries have arrived at widely different conclusions. One view is that prospective memory shows large age declines, larger than age declines on retrospective memory (RetM). Another view is that prospective memory is an exception to age declines and remains invariant across the adult lifespan. The present meta-analysis of over twenty years of research settles this controversy. It shows that prospective memory declines with aging and that the magnitude of age decline varies by prospective memory subdomain (vigilance, prospective memory proper, habitual prospective memory) as well as test setting (laboratory, natural). Moreover, this meta-analysis demonstrates that previous claims of no age declines in prospective memory are artifacts of methodological and conceptual issues afflicting prior research including widespread ceiling effects, low statistical power, age confounds, and failure to distinguish between various subdomains of prospective memory (e.g., vigilance and prospective memory proper).
Transparent Meta-Analysis: Does Aging Spare Prospective Memory with Focal vs. Non-Focal Cues?
Bob Uttl
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0016618
Abstract: Prospective memory (ProM) is the ability to become aware of a previously-formed plan at the right time and place. For over twenty years, researchers have been debating whether prospective memory declines with aging or whether it is spared by aging and, most recently, whether aging spares prospective memory with focal vs. non-focal cues. Two recent meta-analyses examining these claims did not include all relevant studies and ignored prevalent ceiling effects, age confounds, and did not distinguish between prospective memory subdomains (e.g., ProM proper, vigilance, habitual ProM) (see Uttl, 2008, PLoS ONE). The present meta-analysis focuses on the following questions: Does prospective memory decline with aging? Does prospective memory with focal vs. non-focal cues decline with aging? Does the size of age-related declines with focal vs. non-focal cues vary across ProM subdomains? And are age-related declines in ProM smaller than age-related declines in retrospective memory?
Meaning of Missing Values in Eyewitness Recall and Accident Records
Bob Uttl,Kelly Kisinger
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0012539
Abstract: Eyewitness recalls and accident records frequently do not mention the conditions and behaviors of interest to researchers and lead to missing values and to uncertainty about the prevalence of these conditions and behaviors surrounding accidents. Missing values may occur because eyewitnesses report the presence but not the absence of obvious clues/accident features. We examined this possibility.
The Influence of Object Relative Size on Priming and Explicit Memory
Bob Uttl, Peter Graf, Amy L. Siegenthaler
PLOS ONE , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0003109
Abstract: We investigated the effects of object relative size on priming and explicit memory for color photos of common objects. Participants were presented with color photos of pairs of objects displayed in either appropriate or inappropriate relative sizes. Implicit memory was assessed by speed of object size ratings whereas explicit memory was assessed by an old/new recognition test. Study-to-test changes in relative size reduced both priming and explicit memory and had large effects for objects displayed in large vs. small size at test. Our findings of substantial size-specific influences on priming with common objects under some but not other conditions are consistent with instance views of object perception and priming but inconsistent with structural description views.
The Numbers Tell It All: Students Don't Like Numbers!
Bob Uttl, Carmela A. White, Alain Morin
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0083443
Abstract: Undergraduate Students' interest in taking quantitative vs. non quantitative courses has received limited attention even though it has important consequences for higher education. Previous studies have collected course interest ratings at the end of the courses as part of student evaluation of teaching (SET) ratings, which may confound prior interest in taking these courses with students' actual experience in taking them. This study is the first to examine undergraduate students' interest in quantitative vs. non quantitative courses in their first year of studies before they have taken any quantitative courses. Three hundred and forty students were presented with descriptions of 44 psychology courses and asked to rate their interest in taking each course. Student interest in taking quantitative vs non quantitative courses was very low; the mean interest in statistics courses was nearly 6 SDs below the mean interest in non quantitative courses. Moreover, women were less interested in taking quantitative courses than men. Our findings have several far-reaching implications. First, evaluating professors teaching quantitative vs. non quantitative courses against the same SET standard may be inappropriate. Second, if the same SET standard is used for the evaluation of faculty teaching quantitative vs. non quantitative courses, faculty are likely to teach to SETs rather than focus on student learning. Third, universities interested primarily in student satisfaction may want to expunge quantitative courses from their curricula. In contrast, universities interested in student learning may want to abandon SETs as a primary measure of faculty teaching effectiveness. Fourth, undergraduate students who are not interested in taking quantitative courses are unlikely to pursue graduate studies in quantitative psychology and unlikely to be able to competently analyze data independently.
Saccadic Compression of Rectangle and Kanizsa Figures: Now You See It, Now You Don't
Atsushi Noritake, Bob Uttl, Masahiko Terao, Masayoshi Nagai, Junji Watanabe, Akihiro Yagi
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0006383
Abstract: Background Observers misperceive the location of points within a scene as compressed towards the goal of a saccade. However, recent studies suggest that saccadic compression does not occur for discrete elements such as dots when they are perceived as unified objects like a rectangle. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the magnitude of horizontal vs. vertical compression for Kanizsa figure (a collection of discrete elements unified into single perceptual objects by illusory contours) and control rectangle figures. Participants were presented with Kanizsa and control figures and had to decide whether the horizontal or vertical length of stimulus was longer using the two-alternative force choice method. Our findings show that large but not small Kanizsa figures are perceived as compressed, that such compression is large in the horizontal dimension and small or nil in the vertical dimension. In contrast to recent findings, we found no saccadic compression for control rectangles. Conclusions Our data suggest that compression of Kanizsa figure has been overestimated in previous research due to methodological artifacts, and highlight the importance of studying perceptual phenomena by multiple methods.
Prospective Memory, Personality, and Individual Differences
Bob Uttl,Carmela A. White,Daniela Wong Gonzalez,Carrie A. Leonard
Frontiers in Psychology , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00130
Abstract: A number of studies investigating the relationship between personality and prospective memory (ProM) have appeared during the last decade. However, a review of these studies reveals little consistency in their findings and conclusions. To clarify the relationship between ProM and personality, we conducted two studies: a meta-analysis of prior research investigating the relationships between ProM and personality, and a study with 378 participants examining the relationships between ProM, personality, verbal intelligence, and retrospective memory. Our review of prior research revealed great variability in the measures used to assess ProM, and in the methodological quality of prior research; these two factors may partially explain inconsistent findings in the literature. Overall, the meta-analysis revealed very weak correlations (rs ranging from 0.09 to 0.10) between ProM and three of the Big Five factors: Openness, Conscientiousness, and Agreeableness. Our experimental study showed that ProM performance was related to individual differences such as verbal intelligence as well as to personality factors and that the relationship between ProM and personality factors depends on the ProM subdomain. In combination, the two studies suggest that ProM performance is relatively weakly related to personality factors and more strongly related to individual differences in cognitive factors.
About the Causes of the Koror Bridge Collapse  [PDF]
Corneliu Bob
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology (OJSST) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojsst.2014.42013
This paper has been prepared from basic works published, mainly, after 2008 when the collapse investigation was made available. The main contributions of the paper are: a proper model for the deflections at mid-span of the bridge, the state of stress in elastic and post elastic stage for same phases of behavior, the stage of cracked of the top of cantilever beams, the repair effect on the structure of Koror Bridge, the probabilistic evaluation. The present study is based on well known and simple engineer tools: the one-dimensional beam-type was analyzed.
Climate Shifts and the Role of Nano Structured Particles in the Atmosphere  [PDF]
Bob Ursem
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2016.61005
Abstract: A global net sum equilibrium in heat exchange is a fact and thus a global climate change doesn’t exist, but climate shifts in climate cells, especially in the northern temperate cell, do. The global climate has been ever since homeostatic, and has recuperated far huger climate impacts in the past. Current climate models need a drastically revision on the focus of carbon dioxide as main driver. Carbon dioxide and other carbon gasses do influence albedo patterns, but provide globally a homeostatic effect with a commonly accepted increase impact of 0.3 degrees Celsius. Carbon dioxide does not trigger the climate shifts, but is an indicator of exhaust of combustion processes that emit very small particles which drive these climate shifts. They are the fine dust and nano structured particles that cause the shifts of the climate in cells, as demonstrated in this article and results i.e. in more thunder and lightning, extreme weather, distinct droughts and precipitation patterns. The causes underlying these shifts are nano structured particles in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, especially largely produced and remain in the temperate climate northern hemisphere cell and get dispersed by jet streams and low and high pressure areas. However, because of electrical charge, caused by friction or due to anthropogenic negatively charged nano structured particle, emissions will travel up to the lower stratosphere and become neutralized at the electro sphere level, and they do also have a tendency to move to the Arctic. The southern hemisphere climate faces limited anthropogenic emissions, because only 10 percent of the world population can contribute with less pollutant providing activities, and hasn’t changed, but that could well be because it is equally influenced and driven, like the northern hemisphere, by the variation of sun activity in diverse cycles. The present problem is that we produce huge amounts of air borne nano structured particles from combustion processes that never exist before. The only nano particles known in nature are those who are limited produced from volcano eruptions and natural forest fires. The natural feedback systems that moderate climate shifts and influence global climate are: convection by cumulonimbus clouds, sea currents and vegetation adaptation. A novel ultra-fine dust electric reduction device (UFDRS-System), created by the author, diminishs to a size of less than 10 nano particles in diameter and thus prevents major electrical drift of nano structured particulates in the upper troposphere and lower
Source Code Comparison of DOS and CP/M  [PDF]
Bob Zeidman
Journal of Computer and Communications (JCC) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jcc.2016.412001
Abstract: In a previous paper [1], I compared DOS from Microsoft and CP/M from Digital Research Inc. (DRI) to determine whether the original DOS source code had been copied from CP/M source code as had been rumored for many years [2] [3]. At the time, the source code for CP/M was publicly available but the source code for DOS was not. My comparison was limited to the comparison of the DOS 1.11 binary code and the source code for CP/M 2.0 from 1981. Since that time, the Computer History Museum in Mountain View, California received the source code for DOS 2.0 from Microsoft and was given permission to make it public. The museum also received the source code for DOS 1.1 from Tim Paterson, the developer who was originally contracted by Microsoft to write DOS. In this paper, I perform a further analysis using the newly accessible source code and determine that no code was copied. I further conclude that the commands were not copied but that a substantial number of the system calls were copied.
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