Abstract:
In this paper, we establish a general relation which directly links the dissipated work done on a system driven arbitrarily far from equilibrium, a fundamental quantity in thermodynamics, and the R\'{e}nyi divergences, a fundamental concept in information theory. Specifically, we find that the generating function of the dissipated work under an arbitrary time-dependent driving process is related to the R\'{e}nyi divergences between a non-equilibrium state in the driven process and a non-equilibrium state in its time reversed process. This relation is a consequence of time reversal symmetry in driven process and is universally applicable to both finite classical system and finite quantum system, arbitrarily far from equilibrium.

Abstract:
The wave function of a dilute hard sphere Bose gas at low temperatures is discussed, emphasizing the formation of pairs. The pair distribution function is calculated for two values of $\sqrt{\rho a^3}$.

Abstract:
As a foundation of statistical physics, Lee and Yang in 1952 proved that the partition functions of thermal systems can be zero at certain points (called Lee-Yang zeros) on the complex plane of temperature. In the thermodynamic limit, the Lee-Yang zeros approach to real numbers at the critical temperature. However, the imaginary Lee-Yang zeros have not been regarded as experimentally observable since they occur at imaginary field or temperature, which are unphysical. Here we show that the coherence of a probe spin weakly coupled to a many-body system presents zeros as a function of time that are one-to-one mapped to the Lee-Yang zeros of the many-body system. In the thermodynamic limit, of which the Lee-Yang zeros form a continuum, the probe spin coherence presents a sudden death at the edge singularities of the Lee-Yang zeros. By measuring the probe spin coherence, one can directly reconstruct the partition function of a many-body system. These discoveries establish a profound relation between two most fundamental quantities in the physical world, time and temperature, and also provide a universal approach to studying interacting many-body systems through measuring coherence of only one probe spin (or one qubit in quantum computing).

Abstract:
In this paper, we investigate the ground-state properties of a bosonic Tonks-Girardeau gas confined in a one-dimensional periodic potential. The single-particle reduced density matrix is computed numerically for systems up to $N=265$ bosons. Scaling analysis of the occupation number of the lowest orbital shows that there are no Bose-Einstein Condensation(BEC) for the periodically trapped TG gas in both commensurate and incommensurate cases. We find that, in the commensurate case, the scaling exponents of the occupation number of the lowest orbital, the amplitude of the lowest orbital and the zero-momentum peak height with the particle numbers are 0, -0.5 and 1, respectively, while in the incommensurate case, they are 0.5, -0.5 and 1.5, respectively. These exponents are related to each other in a universal relation.

Abstract:
We investigate the ground state properties of a one-dimensional two-component ultra-cold Fermi gas in an infinite potential well. Exact Bethe ansatz solution is used to calculate the many-body wave function of the system. Then we evaluate the single-particle reduced density matrix and two-particle density density correlations of the system for different interaction strengths. We find that the momentum density distributions of the strongly interacting two-component Fermi gas is distinct from that of free spinless Fermi gas although their position density distributions are similar. This interacting system may be experimentally accessible using ultra-cold atoms.

Abstract:
Nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond, being a promising candidate for quantum information processing, may also be an ideal platform for simulating many-body physics. However, it is difficult to realize interactions between nitrogen-vacancy centers strong enough to form a macroscopically ordered phase under realistic temperatures. Here we propose a scheme to realize long-range ferromagnetic Ising interactions between distant nitrogen-vacancy centers by using a mechanical resonator as a medium. Since the critical temperature in the long-range Ising model is proportional to the number of spins, a ferromagnetic order can be formed at a temperature of tens of millikelvin for a sample with $\sim10^4$ nitrogen-vacancy centers. This method may provide a new platform for studying many-body physics using qubit systems.

Abstract:
At low temperature a thermodynamic system undergoes a phase transition when a physical parameter passes through a singularity point of the free energy, corresponding to formation of a new order. At high temperature the thermal fluctuations destroy the orders; correspondingly the free energy is a smooth function of the physical parameter and the singularity would occur only at complex values of the parameter. Since a complex parameter is unphysical, at high temperature no phase transition is expected with varying the physical parameter. Here we show that the quantum evolution, driven by a designed interaction, of a system initialized in thermal equilibrium is equivalent to the partition function of a complex parameter. Therefore we can access the complex singularity points of thermodynamic functions and observe phase transitions even at high temperatures. This discovery makes it possible to study thermodynamics in the complex plane of physical parameters.

Abstract:
Lee-Yang zeros are points on the complex plane of magnetic field where the partition function of a spin system is zero and therefore the free energy diverges. Lee-Yang zeros and their generalizations are ubiquitous in many-body systems and they fully characterize the analytic properties of the free energy and hence thermodynamics of the systems. Determining the Lee-Yang zeros is not only fundamentally important for conceptual completeness of thermodynamics and statistical physics but also technically useful for studying many-body systems. However, Lee-Yang zeros have never been observed in experiments, due to the intrinsic difficulty that Lee-Yang zeros would occur only at complex values of magnetic field, which are unphysical. Here we report the first observation of Lee-Yang zeros, by measuring quantum coherence of a probe spin coupled to an Ising-type spin bath. As recently proposed, the quantum evolution of the probe spin introduces a complex phase factor, and therefore effectively realizes an imaginary magnetic field on the bath. From the measured Lee-Yang zeros, we reconstructed the free energy of the spin bath and determined its phase transition temperature. This experiment demonstrates quantum coherence probe as a useful approach to studying thermodynamics in the complex plane, which may reveal a broad range of new phenomena that would otherwise be inaccessible if physical parameters are restricted to be real numbers.