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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 17959 matches for " Bo Eriksson "
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Do Functional Problems and Neighborhood Disturbances in and around the Home Trigger Injuries?  [PDF]
Koustuv Dalal, Charli Eriksson
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.611134
Abstract: The study has tried to identify whether poor self-rated health and home and neighbourhood environmental problems trigger injuries. The study used data from the Life & Health year 2008 survey, a postal questionnaire administered by Statistics Sweden in five administrative regions in central Sweden (Uppsala, S?dermanland, ?rebro, Varmland and V?stmanland). A random sample of 1,060,032 respondents aged 18 - 79 years had participated in the study. ?rebro and Varmland region had the highest proportions of injuries. People at their age between 18 to 24 years—males—tobacco and alcohol addicted had the highest proportions of injuries. Environmental factors such as disturbances in and around home had emerged as major triggering factors for injuries. Physical functional problems such as problem of buying own food, cooking, dressing-up and walking had been emerged as very strong predicting factors of injuries. Policy makers in Sweden could identify the poor neighborhood, disturb living condition through the housing companies and the cooperative housing societies to control injuries and promote safety.
The Heterogeneity of Asthma Phenotypes in Children and Young Adults
Bill Hesselmar,Anna-Carin Enelund,Bo Eriksson,Leonid Padyukov,Lars ?. Hanson,Nils ?berg
Journal of Allergy , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/163089
Abstract: Objective. Genetic heterogeneity and risk factor distribution was analyzed in two previously proposed asthma phenotypes. Method. A sample of 412 subjects was investigated at 7-8, 12-13, and 21-22 years of age with questionnaires, skin prick tests, and genetic analysis of IL-4 receptor (IL4R) single-nucleotide polymorphisms. The sample was subdivided in one group with no asthma, and two groups with asthma separated by age of onset of symptoms, namely, early onset asthma (EOA) and late onset asthma (LOA). Risk factors and IL4R markers were analyzed in respect to asthma phenotypes. Results. EOA and LOA groups were both associated with atopy and a maternal history of asthma. Female gender was more common in LOA, whereas childhood eczema, frequent colds in infancy, and a paternal history of asthma were more common in EOA. The AA genotype of rs2057768 and the GG genotype of rs1805010 were more common in LOA, whereas the GG genotype of rs2107356 was less common in EOA. Conclusion. Our data suggest that early and late onset asthma may be of different endotypes and genotypes. 1. Introduction Asthma is a common disease, but it has been questioned if it is one single disease, or a group of asthmatic diseases. Such different “phenotypes” of asthma may vary in response to treatment [1], in prognosis [2], in inflammatory patterns [3], and in susceptibility to environmental exposure [4]. Identifying possible subphenotypes has therefore rendered increasing interest in recent years [5, 6]. But a reliable subgroup classification of asthma (or any other disease) can seldom include only clinical parameters, very often additional biomarkers have to be included [7] in order to find genetic or endotypic differences. In the 1990s, the Tucson group presented data on lung function of infants from a population-based birth-cohort study and they also retrospectively classified preschool wheeze into three subgroups or phenotypes, namely, transient wheeze, early persistent wheeze, and late onset asthma [8]. Interestingly, not only transient wheeze had a characteristic phenotype pattern, there were also differences between the two asthma subgroups, with eczema being more common among children with early persistent wheeze than among children with asthma onset after the age of 3 years. If the noticed difference in the prevalence of eczema in children with early versus late onset of respiratory symptoms is of any phenotypic significance is, however, not known. Our own data reveal that 12-13-year-old children with asthma and eczema differ regarding the interleukin-4 receptor genotype from
Physical growth during the first year of life. A longitudinal study in rural and urban areas of Hanoi, Vietnam
Huong Nguyen, Bo Eriksson, Liem Nguyen, Chuc Nguyen, Max Petzold, G?ran Bondjers, Henry Ascher
BMC Pediatrics , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-12-26
Abstract: Totally 1,466 children, born from 1st March, 2009 to June 2010, were followed monthly from birth to 12 months of age in two Health and Demographic Surveillance Sites; one rural and one urban. In all, 14,199 measurements each of weight and length were made. Birth weight was recorded separately. Information about demographic conditions, education, occupation and economic conditions of persons and households was obtained from household surveys. Fractional Polynomial models and standard statistical methods were used for description and analysis.Urban infants have higher birth weight and gain weight faster than rural infants. The mean birth weight for urban boys and girls were 3,298 grams and 3,203 grams as compared to 3,105 grams and 3,057 grams for rural children. At 90 days, the urban boys were estimated to be 4.1% heavier than rural boys. This difference increased to 7.2% at 360 days. The corresponding difference for girls was 3.4% and 10.5%. The differences for length were comparatively smaller. Both birth weight and growth were statistically significantly and positively associated with economic conditions and mother education.Birth weight was lower and the growth, weight and length, considerably slower in the rural area, for boys as well as for girls. The results support the hypothesis that the rather drastic differences in maternal education and economic conditions lead to poor nutrition for mothers and children in turn causing inferior birth weight and growth.Growth of children is influenced by maternal, environmental, genetic and hormonal factors. Nutrition is assumed to be the one of the most important factors for the growth of infants [1]. Some reasons for growth failure in children could be problems in child well-being as well as underlying chronic illnesses or inadequate nutrition [2]. Slow intrauterine and infant growth can influence the weight gain in childhood and later in life increase the risk for diseases like coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes an
Birth weight and delivery practice in a Vietnamese rural district during 12 year of rapid economic development
Huong Thu Nguyen, Bo Eriksson, Toan Khanh Tran, Chuc Thi Nguyen, Henry Ascher
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2393-13-41
Abstract: Information about birth weight, sex, place and method of delivery, mother's age and education as well as household economy of 10,114 children, born from 1999 to 2010, was obtained from the routine data collection in the HDSS.Over the study period the mean birth weight remained at the same level, about 3,100 g, in spite of increased economic resources and technology development. At the individual child level we found associations between birth weight and household economy as well as the education of the mother. Hospital delivery increased from about 35% to 65% and the use of Caesarian section increased from 2.6% to 10.1%.During the twelve years studied, household income as well as the use of modern technology increased rapidly. In spite of that, the mean and variation of birth weight did not change systematically. It is suggested that increasing gaps in economic conditions and misallocation of resources, possibly to overuse of technology, are partly responsible.
Antibiotic prescribing in two private sector hospitals; one teaching and one non-teaching: A cross-sectional study in Ujjain, India
Megha Sharma, Bo Eriksson, Gaetano Marrone, Surya Prakash Dhaneria, Cecilia St?lsby Lundborg
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-12-155
Abstract: A cross-sectional study with manual data collection was carried out in 2008. Antibiotic prescribing was recorded for all inpatients throughout their hospital stay. Demographic profile of inpatients and prescribed antibiotics were compared. WHO Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classifications for antibiotics was used and Defined Daily Doses (DDD) were calculated per patient day.A total of 8385 inpatients were admitted during the study period. In the Teaching hospital (TH) 82% of 3004 and in the Non-teaching hospital (NTH) 79% of 5381 patients were prescribed antibiotics. The most commonly prescribed antibiotic groups were; fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides in the TH and, 3rd generation cephalosporins and combination of antibiotics in the NTH. Of the prescriptions, 51% in the TH and 87% in the NTH (p<0.001) were for parenteral route administration. Prescribing by trade name was higher in the NTH (96%) compared with the TH (63%, p<0.001).The results from both hospitals show extensive antibiotic prescribing. High use of combinations of antibiotics in the NTH might indicate pressure from pharmaceutical companies. There is a need to formulate and implement; based on local prescribing and resistance data; contextually appropriate antibiotic prescribing guidelines and a local antibiotic stewardship program.
Static platelet adhesion, flow cytometry and serum TXB2 levels for monitoring platelet inhibiting treatment with ASA and clopidogrel in coronary artery disease: a randomised cross-over study
Andreas C Eriksson, Lena Jonasson, Tomas L Lindahl, Bo Hedb?ck, Per A Whiss
Journal of Translational Medicine , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5876-7-42
Abstract: With a randomised cross-over design we evaluated the anti-platelet effects of ASA combined with clopidogrel as well as monotherapy with either drug alone in 29 patients with a recent acute coronary syndrome. Also, 29 matched healthy controls were included to evaluate intra-individual variability over time. Platelet function was measured by flow cytometry, serum thromboxane B2 (TXB2)-levels and by static platelet adhesion to different protein surfaces. The results were subjected to Principal Component Analysis followed by ANOVA, t-tests and linear regression analysis.The majority of platelet adhesion measures were reproducible in controls over time denoting that the assay can monitor platelet activity. Adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet adhesion decreased significantly upon treatment with clopidogrel compared to ASA. Flow cytometric measurements showed the same pattern (r2 = 0.49). In opposite, TXB2-levels decreased with ASA compared to clopidogrel. Serum TXB2 and ADP-induced platelet activation could both be regarded as direct measures of the pharmacodynamic effects of ASA and clopidogrel respectively. Indirect pharmacodynamic measures such as adhesion to albumin induced by various soluble activators as well as SFLLRN-induced activation measured by flow cytometry were lower for clopidogrel compared to ASA. Furthermore, adhesion to collagen was lower for ASA and clopidogrel combined compared with either drug alone.The indirect pharmacodynamic measures of the effects of ASA and clopidogrel might be used together with ADP-induced activation and serum TXB2 for evaluation of anti-platelet treatment. This should be further evaluated in future clinical studies where screening opportunities with the adhesion assay will be optimised towards increased sensitivity to anti-platelet treatment.Anti-platelet drugs such as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and clopidogrel are routinely used to prevent thrombosis in cardiovascular disease. The benefits of ASA have been clearly
Surveillance of Antibiotic Consumption Using the “Focus of Infection” Approach in 2 Hospitals in Ujjain, India
Ashish Pathak, Kalpana Mahadik, Surya Prakesh Dhaneria, Ashish Sharma, Bo Eriksson, Cecilia St?lsby Lundborg
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0038641
Abstract: Antibiotic surveillance initiatives are limited in resource-constrained settings. In the present study, a quantitative comparison of antibiotic use rates for suspected infections in 2 hospitals in India was performed using the “focus of infection” approach to identify targets for quality improvement in antibiotic prescription patterns in hospitalized patients. Methods This observational study was carried out in one teaching and one nonteaching hospital. All the patients with suspected bacterial etiology were included. Data on the prescribed antibiotics and the focus of infection were prospectively collected using a structured questionnaire. Each diagnosis was further reviewed and confirmed by an independent consultant. The prescribed antibiotics were coded according to the World Health Organization Anatomic Therapeutic Classification (ATC) index with the defined daily dose (DDD) methodology. Focus-specific DDDs were calculated per hundred patient days (DDD/HPD). Results A total of 6026 patients were included from 72 participating physicians out of available 75 physicians. Overall antibiotic prescribing was higher by 5 percentage points in the teaching hospital (95%) than in the nonteaching hospital (90%). Quinolones (ciprofloxacin constituting 86% of DDD/HPD) were the highest prescribed class in the teaching hospital, and third-generation cephalosporins (with ceftriaxone and ceftriaxone/sulbactam constituting 40% and 28% of the DDD/HPD, respectively), in the nonteaching hospital. The targets identified for improvement were the following: longer than recommended duration of prophylaxis and lack of distinction between prophylaxis and therapy among surgical patients; irrational antibiotic prescribing in gastroenteritis; overuse of quinolones and lack of use of penicillin in pneumonia; overuse of quinolones and lack of use of doxycycline and macrolides in genital infections; and overreliance on antibiotics for treating skin and soft tissue infections. Conclusions Providing a quantitative comparison of antibiotic use rates for suspected infections, using the “focus of infection” approach along with the ATC/DDD methodology, appears appropriate for identifying targets for quality improvement with regards to antibiotic prescribing.
Words with intervening neighbours in infinite Coxeter groups are reduced
Henrik Eriksson,Kimmo Eriksson
Mathematics , 2008,
Abstract: Consider a graph with vertex set S. A word in the alphabet S has the intervening neighbours property if any two occurrences of the same letter are separated by all its graph neighbours. For a Coxeter graph, words represent group elements. Speyer recently proved that words with the intervening neighbours property are irreducible if the group is infinite and irreducible. We present a new and shorter proof using the root automaton for recognition of irreducible words.
Conjugacy of Coxeter elements
Henrik Eriksson,Kimmo Eriksson
Mathematics , 2013,
Abstract: For a Coxeter group (W,S), a permutation of the set S is called a Coxeter word and the group element represented by the product is called a Coxeter element. Moving the first letter to the end of the word is called a rotation and two Coxeter elements are rotation equivalent if their words can be transformed into each other through a sequence of rotations and legal commutations. We prove that Coxeter elements are conjugate if and only if they are rotation equivalent. This was known for some special cases but not for Coxeter groups in general.
Impact of Mutations on K-Ras-p120GAP Interaction  [PDF]
Chunxia Gao, Leif A. Eriksson
Computational Molecular Bioscience (CMB) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/cmb.2013.32002
Abstract:


The K-Ras protein plays a key role in the signal transduction cascade. Certain mutations in K-Ras lead to a permanent “on” state which results in tumorigenesis due to failed interaction with the GTPase activating protein (GAP). In this study, we examined the mutations E31N, D33N and D38N of K-Ras coupled and decoupled to wildtype GAP-334 and mutation K935N of GAP-334 coupled and decoupled to wildtype K-Ras, to illustrate the potential mechanism by which these mutants affect the interaction between the two proteins. We identify Tyr32 in the Ras Switch I region as a critical residue that acts as a gate to the GTP binding site and which needs to be “open” during Ras coupling with GAP to allow for insertion of GAP residue Arg789. This residue plays a vital role in stabilizing the transition state during GTP hydrolysis. The different mutations studied herein caused a reduced binding affinity, and the fluctuation of the Tyr32 side chain might hinder the insertion of Arg789. This may in turn be the cause of decreased GTP hydrolysis, and permanent on state of K-Ras, observed for these mutants.


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