Abstract:
These proceedings summarize my plenary talk at Quark Matter 2011 with a focus on the future perspectives of the low energy programs at RHIC, FAIR, NICA and CERN.

Abstract:
We present a short overview on the ideas of large extra-dimensions and their implications for the possible production of micro black holes in the next generation particle accelerator at CERN (Geneva, Switzerland) from this year on. In fact, the possibility of black hole production on earth is currently one of the most exciting predictions for the LHC accelerator and would change our current understanding of physics radically. While it is impossible to discuss the models and implications in full detail here, this article is thought to serve as a starting point for the interested physics students with some basic knowledge about general relativity and particle physics.

Abstract:
We study $J/\Psi$ absorption in high multiplicity proton-proton (pp) collisions at $\sqrt {s_{NN}}=7\,$TeV. We predict a modification of the $J/\Psi$-yield within the UrQMD transport approach, where explicit interactions of the $J/\Psi$ with the surrounding comovers and a prehadronic phase with adjusted cross sections and $J/\Psi$ melting is included. We present the analog of the nuclear modification factor in pp collisions at various charged particle multiplicities. It turns out that $J/\Psi$-Mesons may be suppressed towards higher particle multiplicities in pp collisions at LHC energies.

Abstract:
We perform a theoretical analysis of the $a_1$ resonance mass spectrum in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions within a hadron/string transport approach. Predictions for the $a_1$ yield and its mass distribution are given for the GSI-FAIR and the critRHIC energy regime. The potential of the $a_1$ meson as a signal for chiral symmetry restoration is explored. In view of the latest discussion, we investigate the decay channel $a_1 \to \gamma\pi$ in detail and find a strong bias towards low $a_1$ masses. This apparent mass shift of the $a_1$ if observed in the $\gamma\pi$ channel might render a possible mass shift due to chiral symmetry restoration very difficult to disentangle from the decay kinematics.

Abstract:
These proceedings will cover various studies of hadronic resonances within the UrQMD transport model. After a brief explanation of the model, various observables will be highlighted and the chances for resonance reconstruction in hadronic channels will be discussed. Possible signals of chiral symmetry restoration will be investigated for feasibility.

Abstract:
The effects of initial state fluctuations on elliptic flow are investigated within a (3+1)d Boltzmann + hydrodynamics transport approach. The spatial eccentricity ($\epsilon_{\rm RP}$ and $\epsilon_{\rm part}$) is calculated for initial conditions generated by a hadronic transport approach (UrQMD). Elliptic flow results as a function of impact parameter, beam energy and transverse momentum for two different equations of state and for averaged initial conditions or a full event-by-event setup are presented. These investigations allow the conclusion that in mid-central ($b=5-9$ fm) heavy ion collisions the final elliptic flow is independent of the initial state fluctuations and the equation of state. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that most of the $v_2$ is build up during the hydrodynamic stage of the evolution. Therefore, the use of averaged initial profiles does not contribute to the uncertainties of the extraction of transport properties of hot and dense QCD matter based on viscous hydrodynamic calculations.

Abstract:
Baryon-strangeness correlations ($C_{BS}$) are studied with a hadron/string transport approach (UrQMD) and a dynamical quark recombination model (quark molecular dynamics, qMD) for various energies from $E_{lab}=4A$ GeV to $\sqrt{s_{NN}}=200$ GeV. As expected, we find that the hadron/string dynamics shows correlations similar to a simple hadron gas. In case of the quark molecular dynamics, we find that initially the $C_{BS}$ correlation is that of a weakly interacting QGP but changes in the process of hadronization also to the value for a hadron gas. Therefore, we conclude that the hadronization process itself makes the initial baryon strangeness correlation unobservable. To make an experimental study of this observable more feasible, we also investigate how a restriction to only charged kaons and $\Lambda$'s (instead of all baryons and all strange particles) influences the theoretical result on $C_{BS}$. We find that a good approximation of the full result can be obtained in this limit in the present simulation.

Abstract:
We present a comprehensive study of event-by-event multiplicity fluctuations in nucleon-nucleon and nucleus-nucleus interactions from AGS/FAIR to RHIC energies within the UrQMD transport approach. The scaled variances of negative, positive, and all charged hadrons are analysed. The scaled variance in central Pb+Pb collisions increases with energy and behaves similar to inelastic p+p interactions. We find a non-trivial dependence of multiplicity fluctuations on the rapidity and transverse momentum interval used for the analysis and on the centrality selection procedure. Quantitative predictions for the NA49 experiment are given, taking into account the acceptance of the detector and the selection procedure of central events.

Abstract:
We apply the parton recombination approach to study the energy dependence of the elliptic flow, v_2 in heavy ion collisions from AGS to LHC energies. The relevant input quantities ($T, \mu_B, \eta_T$) at the various center of mass energies are obtained from fits to the available data. The model yields a good description of the integrated v_2 data for charged particles at midrapidity from AGS to RHIC energies. In stark contrast to the current expectations, we observe a decrease of the integrated v_2 values above the highest RHIC energy. Thus, we predict a decrease of v_2 at LHC energies compared to the RHIC results. This drop is attributed to negative v_2 values for the underlying parton distributions at low to moderate transverse momenta that develops if the transverse flow velocity is high enough. At energies above the LHC regime, the present approach predicts even negative values for the integrated v_2.

Abstract:
Direct photon emission in heavy-ion collisions is calculated within a relativistic micro+macro hybrid model and compared to the microscopic transport model UrQMD. In the hybrid approach, the high-density part of the collision is calculated by an ideal 3+1-dimensional hydrodynamic calculation, while the early (pre-equilibrium-) and late (rescattering-) phase are calculated with the transport model. Different scenarios of the transition from the macroscopic description to the transport model description and their effects are studied. The calculations are compared to measurements by the WA98-collaboration and predictions for the future CBM-experiment are made.