Abstract:
Leptogenesis may be induced by the mixing of extra Higgs doublets with experimentally accessible masses. This mechanism relies on diagrammatic cuts that are kinematically forbidden in the vacuum but contribute at finite temperature. A resonant enhancement of the asymmetry occurs generically provided the dimensionless Yukawa and self-interactions are suppressed compared to those of the Standard Model Higgs field. This is in contrast to typical scenarios of Resonant Leptogenesis, where the asymmetry is enhanced by imposing a degeneracy of singlet neutrino masses.

Abstract:
It is shown that the mixing of lepton doublets of the Standard Model can yield sizeable contributions to the lepton asymmetry, that is generated through the decays of right-handed neutrinos at finite temperature in the early Universe. When calculating the flavour-mixing correlations, we account for the effects of Yukawa as well as of gauge interactions. We compare the freeze-out asymmetry from lepton-doublet mixing to the standard contributions from the mixing and direct decays of right-handed neutrinos. The asymmetry from lepton mixing is considerably large when the mass ratio between the right-handed neutrinos is of order of a few, while it becomes Maxwell-suppressed for larger hierarchies. For an intermediate range between the case of degenerate right-handed neutrinos (resonant Leptogenesis) and the hierarchical case, lepton mixing can yield the main contribution to the lepton asymmetry.

Abstract:
We study thermalization by applying gradient expansion to the Kadanoff-Baym equations of the 2PI effective action to two-loop in a theory with Dirac fermions coupled to scalars. In addition to those chemical potentials which equilibrate in the on-shell limit, we identify modes which are conserved in this approximation, but which relax when off-shell effects are taken into account. This implies that chemical equilibration does not require higher loop contributions to the effective action and is compatible with the gradient expansion. We explicitly calculate the damping time-scales of both, on- and off-shell, chemical equilibration rates. It is shown that off-shell equilibration is suppressed by the thermal width of the particles in the plasma, which explains the separation of on- and off-shell chemical equilibration time-scales.

Abstract:
We argue that the energy levels of an Unruh detector experience an effect similar to the Lamb shift in Quantum Electrodynamics. As a consequence, the spectrum of energy levels in a curved background is different from that in flat space. As examples, we consider a detector in an expanding Universe and in Rindler space, and for the latter case we suggest a new expression for the local virtual energy density seen by an accelerated observer. In the ultraviolet domain, that is when the space between the energy levels is larger than the Hubble rate or the acceleration of the detector, the Lamb shift quantitatively dominates over the thermal response rate.

Abstract:
We study thermalization by applying gradient expansion to the Kadanoff-Baym equations of the 2PI effective action to two-loop in a theory with Dirac fermions coupled to scalars. In addition to those chemical potentials which equilibrate in the on-shell limit, we identify modes which are conserved in this approximation, but which relax when off-shell effects are taken into account. This implies that chemical equilibration does not require higher loop contributions to the effective action and is compatible with the gradient expansion. We explicitly calculate the damping time-scales of both, on- and off-shell, chemical equilibration rates. It is shown that off-shell equilibration is suppressed by the thermal width of the particles in the plasma, which explains the separation of on- and off-shell chemical equilibration time-scales.

Abstract:
We study the one-loop radiative corrections for massless fermions in de Sitter space induced by a Yukawa coupling to a light, nearly minimally coupled scalar field. We show that the fermions acquire a mass. Next we construct the corresponding (nonlocal) effective fermionic action, which -- in contrast to the case of a massive Dirac fermion -- preserves chirality. Nevertheless, the resulting fermion dynamics is precisely that of a Dirac fermion with a mass proportional to the expansion rate. Our finding supports the view that an observer or a test particle responds to a scalar field in inflation by shifting its energy rather than seeing a thermal bath.

Abstract:
We derive solutions to the Schwinger-Dyson equations on the Closed-Time-Path for a scalar field in the limit where backreaction is neglected. In Wigner space, the two-point Wightman functions have the curious property that the equilibrium component has a finite width, while the out-of equilibrium component has zero width. This feature is confirmed in a numerical simulation for scalar field theory with quartic interactions. When substituting these solutions into the collision term, we observe that an expansion including terms of all orders in gradients leads to an effective finite-width. Besides, we observe no breakdown of perturbation theory, that is sometimes associated with pinch singularities. The effective width is identical with the width of the equilibrium component. Therefore, reconciliation between the zero-width behaviour and the usual notion in kinetic theory, that the out-of-equilibrium contributions have a finite width as well, is achieved. This result may also be viewed as a generalisation of the fluctuation-dissipation relation to out-of-equilibrium systems with negligible backreaction.

Abstract:
We calculate the response functions of a freely falling Unruh detector in de Sitter space coupled to scalar fields of different coupling to the curvature, including the minimally coupled massless case. Although the responses differ strongly in the infrared as a consequence of the amplification of superhorizon modes, the energy levels of the detector are thermally populated.

Abstract:
We consider the response of an Unruh detector to scalar fields in an expanding space-time. When combining transition elements of the scalar field Hamiltonian with the interaction operator of detector and field, one finds at second order in time-dependent perturbation theory a transition amplitude, which actually dominates in the ultraviolet over the first order contribution. In particular, the detector response faithfully reproduces the particle number implied by the stress-energy of a minimally coupled scalar field, which is inversely proportional to the energy of a scalar mode. This finding disagrees with the contention that in de Sitter space, the response of the detector drops exponentially with particle energy and therefore indicates a thermal spectrum.

Abstract:
Self-energies of a minimally coupled scalar field with quartic and trilinear interactions are calculated in a de Sitter background, using a position space propagator. For quartic interactions, we recover earlier results for the seagull diagram, namely that it contributes an effective mass for the scalar field at leading order in the infrared enhancement in a steady-state de Sitter background. We further show that the sunset diagram also contributes to this effective mass and argue that these two contributions are sufficient in order to determine a self-consistent dynamical mass. In addition, trilinear interactions also induce a dynamical mass for the scalar field which we calculate. Since an interacting scalar field in de Sitter acquires a dynamical mass through these loop corrections, the infrared divergences of the two-point correlator are naturally self-regulated.