Abstract:
We present an efficient local hybrid Monte-Carlo algorithm to investigate G(2) gluodynamics with and without Higgs field in 3 and 4 dimensions. Additionaly we implemented a modified version of the multi-level L\"uscher-Weisz algorithm with exponential error reduction to measure expectation values of Wilson and Polyakov loops. In three dimensions we show that at intermediate scales the potential between static charges in the eight lowest-dimensional representations of G(2) scale with the eigenvalues of the quadratic Casimir operator. For the fundamental representations we detect string breaking for larger separations of the charges at precisely the scale predicted by the mass of the created pair of glue-lumps. In four dimensions we explored the phase diagram of the G(2) Gauge Higgs model showing that a line of first order confinement-deconfinement phase transitions connects G(2) and SU(3) gluodynamics and a line of second order phase transitions separates the two deconfinement phases.

Abstract:
Based on the strong coupling expansion we obtain effective 3-dimensional models for the Polyakov loop in finite-temperature G_2 gluodynamics. The Svetitsky-Jaffe conjecture relates the resulting continuous spin models with G_2 gluodynamics near phase transition points. In the present work we analyse the effective theory in leading order with the help of a generalised mean field approximation and with detailed Monte-Carlo simulations. In addition we derive a Potts-type discrete spin model by restricting the characters of the Polyakov loops to the three extremal points of the fundamental domain of G_2. Both the continuous and discrete effective models show a rich phase structure with a ferromagnetic, symmetric and several anti-ferromagnetic phases. The phase diagram contains first and second order transition lines and tricritical points. The modified mean field predictions compare very well with the results of our simulations.

Abstract:
Yang-Mills theories with a gauge group SU(N_c\=3)and quark matter in the fundamental representation share many properties with the theory of strong interactions, QCD with N_c=3. We show that, for N_c even and in the confinement phase, the gluonic average of the quark determinant is independent of the boundary conditions, periodic or anti-periodic ones. We then argue that a Fermi sphere of quarks can only exist under extreme conditions when the centre symmetry is spontaneously broken and colour is liberated. Our findings are supported by lattice gauge simulations for N_c=2...5 and are illustrated by means of a simple quark model.

Abstract:
A study of the renormalization group flow in the three-dimensional nonlinear O(N) sigma model using Monte Carlo Renormalization Group (MCRG) techniques is presented. To achieve this, we combine an improved blockspin transformation with the canonical demon method to determine the flow diagram for a number of different truncations. Systematic errors of the approach are highlighted. Results are discussed with hindsight on the fixed point structure of the model and the corresponding critical exponents. Special emphasis is drawn on the existence of a nontrivial ultraviolet fixed point as required for theories modeling the asymptotic safety scenario of quantum gravity.

Abstract:
Supersymmetry is a prominent candidate for physics beyond the standard model. In order to compute the spectrum of supersymmetric theories, we employ nonperturbative lattice QFT techniques which due to the discretisation of spacetime violate supersymmetry at finite lattice spacings. Care has to be taken then to restore supersymmetry in the continuum limit. We discuss a discretisation of the supersymmetric Nonlinear O(N) Sigma model in two dimensions and argue that supersymmetry may be restored by finetuning of a single parameter. Furthermore, we show preliminary results for the vacuum physics of N = 2 Super-Yang-Mills theory in three dimensions.

Abstract:
$G_2$-QCD, in which the exceptional Lie group $G_2$ replaces the $SU(3)$ gauge group of QCD, does not suffer from a fermion sign problem. It can therefore be simulated also at comparatively low temperatures and high densities on the lattice, which hence allows to map out the phase diagram of this QCD-like theory. We briefly review some of our previous results from such finite density simulations to then present further evidence for a first-order transition to what might be called $G_2$-nuclear matter. In order to isolate diquark condensation effects, we introduce simulations with Majorana fermions and diquark sources. This allows to disentangle states in the spectrum that are connected by charge conjugation. We discuss chiral symmetry in the presence of diquark sources and present first results from our ongoing large-scale simulations.

Abstract:
We study the potential energy between static charges in G(2) gluodynamics in three and four dimensions. Our work is based on an efficient local hybrid Monte-Carlo algorithm and a multi-level L\"uscher-Weisz algorithm with exponential error reduction to accurately measure expectation values of Wilson- and Polyakov loops. Both in three and four dimensions we show that at intermediate scales the string tensions for charges in various G(2)-representations scale with the second order Casimir. In three dimensions Casimir scaling is confirmed within one percent for charges in representations of dimensions 7, 14, 27, 64, 77, 77', 182 and 189 and in 4 dimensions within 5 percent for charges in representions of dimensions 7, 14, 27 and 64. In three dimensions we detect string breaking for charges in the two fundamental representations. The scale for string breaking agrees very well with the mass of the created pair of glue-lumps.

Abstract:
Due to the fermion sign problem, standard lattice Monte-Carlo method for QCD fail at small temperatures and high baryon densities. $G_2$-QCD, QCD with the gauge group $SU(3)$ replaced by the exceptional Lie group $G_2$, can be simulated using lattice techniques at these densities, and can therefore provide an illustration of the possible phase structure. Here we present a systematic investigation of the ground-state hadronic spectrum using lattice simulations for different quark masses in several hadronic sectors. We then show that the different hadronic scales of Goldstone bosons, intermediate bosons, and baryons is reflected in the phase structure at finite density.

Abstract:
We study effective Polyakov loop models for SU(N) Yang-Mills theories at finite temperature. In particular effective models for SU(3) YM with an additional adjoint Polyakov loop potential are considered. The rich phase structure including a center and anti-center directed phase is reproduced with an effective model utilizing the inverse Monte-Carlo method. The demon method as a possibility to obtain the effective models' couplings is compared to the method of Schwinger-Dyson equations. Thermalization effects of microcanonical and canonical demon method are analyzed. Finally the elaborate canonical demon method is applied to the finite temperature SU(4) YM phase transition.

Abstract:
We investigate gauge theories based on the smallest exceptional simple lie group G(2). Our first model considered here is G(2) Yang-Mills coupled to a fundamental Higgs field. In 4 spacetime dimensions we explore the phase diagram of the theory, showing that at larger Higgs masses the first order deconfinement phase transition turns into a crossover and therefore connects the low temperature confined phase with the high temperature deconfined phase. The second model investigated is G(2) Yang-Mills coupled to fundamental fermions. It shares many features with QCD, especially fermionic baryons, but due to the absence of the fermion sign problem we can investigate this theory with Monte Carlo techniques even at low temperature and high baryonic density. First results on small lattices are presented.