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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4339 matches for " Bj?rn Schumacher "
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Genome maintenance and transcription integrity in aging and disease
Stefanie Wolters,Bjrn Schumacher
Frontiers in Genetics , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fgene.2013.00019
Abstract: DNA damage contributes to cancer development and aging. Congenital syndromes that affect DNA repair processes are characterized by cancer susceptibility, developmental defects, and accelerated aging (Schumacher et al., 2008). DNA damage interferes with DNA metabolism by blocking replication and transcription. DNA polymerase blockage leads to replication arrest and can gives rise to genome instability. Transcription, on the other hand, is an essential process for utilizing the information encoded in the genome. DNA damage that interferes with transcription can lead to apoptosis and cellular senescence. Both processes are powerful tumor suppressors (Bartek and Lukas, 2007). Cellular response mechanisms to stalled RNA polymerase II complexes have only recently started to be uncovered. Transcription-coupled DNA damage responses might thus play important roles for the adjustments to DNA damage accumulation in the aging organism (Garinis et al., 2009). Here we review human disorders that are caused by defects in genome stability to explore the role of DNA damage in aging and disease. We discuss how the nucleotide excision repair system functions at the interface of transcription and repair and conclude with concepts how therapeutic targeting of transcription might be utilized in the treatment of cancer.
Next Generation Sequencing of miRNAs – Strategies, Resources and Methods
Susanne Motameny,Stefanie Wolters,Peter Nürnberg,Bjrn Schumacher
Genes , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/genes1010070
Abstract: miRNAs constitute a family of small RNA species that have been demonstrated to play a central role in regulating gene expression in many organisms. With the advent of next generation sequencing, new opportunities have arisen to identify and quantify miRNAs and elucidate their function. The unprecedented sequencing depth reached by next generation sequencing technologies makes it possible to get a comprehensive miRNA landscape but also poses new challenges for data analysis. We provide an overview of strategies used for miRNA sequencing, public miRNA resources, and useful methods and tools that are available for data analysis.
Involvement of Global Genome Repair, Transcription Coupled Repair, and Chromatin Remodeling in UV DNA Damage Response Changes during Development
Hannes Lans ,Jurgen A. Marteijn,Bjrn Schumacher,Jan H. J. Hoeijmakers,Gert Jansen,Wim Vermeulen
PLOS Genetics , 2010, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1000941
Abstract: Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER), which removes a variety of helix-distorting lesions from DNA, is initiated by two distinct DNA damage-sensing mechanisms. Transcription Coupled Repair (TCR) removes damage from the active strand of transcribed genes and depends on the SWI/SNF family protein CSB. Global Genome Repair (GGR) removes damage present elsewhere in the genome and depends on damage recognition by the XPC/RAD23/Centrin2 complex. Currently, it is not well understood to what extent both pathways contribute to genome maintenance and cell survival in a developing organism exposed to UV light. Here, we show that eukaryotic NER, initiated by two distinct subpathways, is well conserved in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. In C. elegans, involvement of TCR and GGR in the UV-induced DNA damage response changes during development. In germ cells and early embryos, we find that GGR is the major pathway contributing to normal development and survival after UV irradiation, whereas in later developmental stages TCR is predominantly engaged. Furthermore, we identify four ISWI/Cohesin and four SWI/SNF family chromatin remodeling factors that are implicated in the UV damage response in a developmental stage dependent manner. These in vivo studies strongly suggest that involvement of different repair pathways and chromatin remodeling proteins in UV-induced DNA repair depends on developmental stage of cells.
Transcriptional profiling in C. elegans suggests DNA damage dependent apoptosis as an ancient function of the p53 family
Sebastian Greiss, Bjrn Schumacher, Kaj Grandien, Jonathan Rothblatt, Anton Gartner
BMC Genomics , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-9-334
Abstract: Examining C. elegans expression profiles using whole genome Affymetrix GeneChip arrays, we found that 83 genes were induced more than two fold upon ionizing radiation (IR). None of these genes, with exception of an ATP ribosylase homolog, encode for known DNA repair genes. Using two independent cep-1 loss of function alleles we did not find genes regulated by cep-1 in the absence of IR. Among the IR-induced genes only three are dependent on cep-1, namely egl-1, ced-13 and a novel C. elegans specific gene. The majority of IR-induced genes appear to be involved in general stress responses, and qRT-PCR experiments indicate that they are mainly expressed in somatic tissues. Interestingly, we reveal an extensive overlap of gene expression changes occurring in response to DNA damage and in response to bacterial infection. Furthermore, many genes induced by IR are also transcriptionally regulated in longevity mutants suggesting that DNA damage and aging induce an overlapping stress response.We performed genome-wide gene expression analyses which indicate that only a surprisingly small number of genes are regulated by CEP-1 and that DNA damage induced apoptosis via the transcriptional induction of BH3 domain proteins is likely to be an ancient DNA damage response function of the p53 family. Interestingly, although the apoptotic response to DNA damage is regulated through the transcriptional activity of CEP-1, other DNA damage responses do not appear to be regulated on the transcriptional level and do not require the p53 like gene cep-1.Previous studies established the C. elegans system as a simple multicellular organism to study DNA damage responses and DNA damage induced apoptosis. These studies led to the identification of a core C. elegans DNA damage response pathway that includes conserved upstream DNA damage sensor molecules such as the PI3 kinase-like ATM and ATR (Ce-ATL-1) kinases, the Rad-17 clamp loader-like molecule and the Rad-9-Hus-1-Rad-1(Ce-MRT-2) (9-1-1) repl
Application of Pedagogical Perspectives in the Teaching and Training of New Cataract Surgeons—A Literature-Based Essay  [PDF]
Bjrn Johansson
Open Journal of Ophthalmology (OJOph) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojoph.2013.33015

Cataract is the most common cause of visual impairment that can be effectively treated by surgery and cataract surgery is the most commonly performed surgical procedure in the world. With modern cataract operation techniques, patients expect excellent results. Teaching and training of new surgeons involve both pedagogical and ethical challenges for teachers and trainees, and also may pose a potential risk to patients. This literature-based essay aims to describe how behavioristic, cognitive and conceptual learning perspectives can be recognized during the trainee surgeons progress. It also describes how teacher-pupil relationships may vary during the training process. Finally it presents the concept of situational tutorship, where the teacher adapts to the stages that the trainee passes through with increasing experience. Teaching and trainee surgeons who are aware of pedagogical concepts such as teacher-pupil relationships and tutoring strategies may use this knowledge to optimize the learning process. Further research is needed to clarify how using this knowledge may affect the training of new cataract surgeons.

Reviewing the Learning Process through Creative Puzzle Solving  [PDF]
Bjrn Petter Jelle
Creative Education (CE) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2017.813137
Abstract: Human beings are at a continuous learning process at various levels and with different motivations during their whole lifetime. Puzzle solving may beneficially be applied to increase the motivation, enhance the mastering apprehension, promote the creative processes, expand the ability to engage and solve miscellaneous challenges from various viewpoints, and hence lead to an improved learning process and problem solving capability. That is, the application of puzzles may lead to better learning and increased knowledge in general, stimulating the reasoning process and the apprehension of the need for both creativity and hard work. Thus, teachers of both students and teachers may find it beneficial to utilize the art of puzzle solving. Typically, the puzzles are very suitable for and mostly used in mathematics and natural science classes. Nevertheless, the puzzles are in general also applicable for any type of class. The aim of this study is to examine and discuss the learning process through applying creative puzzle solving as a teaching tool. These aspects are illustrated through a review of several selected puzzle examples.
Limited Focus on the Use of Health Care by Elderly Migrants—A Literature Review  [PDF]
Katarina Hjelm, Bjrn Albin
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2014.46049

Our premise for this literature review is the global demographic change caused by the world’s population living longer and becoming older, and extensive international migration leading to multicultural societies. Increasing age leads to health problems, often long-term or chronic, requiring investments in health care. Worse health and dissimilarities in pattern of morbidity/ mortality have been found in foreign-compared to Swedish-born persons, so it is reasonable to assume that this affects use of health care. The exploratory review focuses on elderly migrants’ (>65 years) use of healthcare. The databases Pub Med, EBSCO, CINAHL and ERIC were searched in 2000-2013. A limited number of studies were found; few had a comparative approach, most were from the USA, and focused on migrants from the former Soviet Union or countries in South-East Asia. A range of factors were identified that influence patterns of health care use: language fluency, ability to communicate, self-reported health status, prevalence of chronic disease, physical distance from care provision, availability of transport to reach care, cost of care, the health insurance system, cultural norms and values regarding different forms of care, level of education, and length of residence in the host country. Most studies treated health care from a general perspective and collected data from community and hospital settings, without analysing usage separately. Some studies indicated elderly migrants making use of health care less than other groups but the pattern is not unambiguous: other studies show that there is an overuse of health care. It is therefore difficult to show any particular pattern, or possible differences in use, regarding community versus in-patient care. Studies focusing on migrants’ actual use of health care are few and further research is needed, especially because elderly people form the largest group of users of health care and will be even larger in the future.

Cement Bonded Particle Boards with Different Types of Natural Fibres—Using Carbon Dioxide Injection for Increased Initial Bonding  [PDF]
Bjrn Marteinsson, Edgar Gudmundsson
Open Journal of Composite Materials (OJCM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojcm.2018.81003
Abstract: The effect of CO2 injection on initial strength increase and hardening of cement-fibre mix in a cement bonded particle board (CBPB) production was evaluated. Different cement contents, formation pressure and types of fibres were considered. The initial strength increase with CO2 injection is so much faster than this caused by conventional hydration that the produced samples do not need additional curing before they can be stored. Similar strength and stiffness values as in conventional products on the market are gained with lower cement content for similar types of fibres. Visual inspection of board surfaces aged for 13 years in a harsh exterior environment as well as comparison of strength and stiffness values for these boards when new and after ageing, gives a very satisfying result. The combined effect of the above discussed gains results in markedly increased productivity at lower cost and lower environmental impacts than is possible in traditional CBPB production.
Concealed Integrity Monitoring for Wireless Sensor Networks  [PDF]
Bjrn Stelte, Thomas Bühring
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/wsn.2011.31002
Abstract: Nowadays, sensor networks are widely installed around the world. Typical sensors provide data for healthcare, energy management, environmental monitoring, etc. In the future sensors will become a part of critical infrastructures. In such a scenario the network operator has to monitor the integrity of the network devices, otherwise the trustworthiness of the whole system is questionable. The problem is that every integrity protocol needs a secure channel between the devices. Therefore, we will introduce a covert channel for hidden transportation of integrity monitoring messages. The covert channel enables us to hide integrity check messages embedded into regular traffic without giving potential attackers a hint on the used integrity protocol.
Diversity in Family Structure—Diversity in Communication between Family Members?  [PDF]
Piia M. Bjrn, Minna Kytt?l?
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2013.43A035

This study aims at investigating the parent-adolescent communication of Finnish families from a multi informant perspective. Thirteen- and fourteen-year-old adolescents (n = 171) and their parents were asked to complete a questionnaire examining positive and problematic communication between the two parties. Information about their family structure was collected. The results indicated an interrelationship between parental and adolescent assessments, particularly regarding negative aspects of communication. The boys assessed their communication with parents as more positive than did the girls. The results showed that the mothers still are the synchronizing hearts of communication in modern families, whereas the fathers’ roles in family communication were more modest suggesting that the stereotypical roles in Finnish families persist even today.

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