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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4010 matches for " Bj?rn Blom "
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Social Work Students’ Use of Knowledge in Direct Practice – Reasons, Strategies and Effects
Blom, Bjrn,Nygren, Lennart,Nyman, Cia,Scheid, Carina
Social Work and Society , 2007,
Abstract: This article describes a study of Swedish social work students’ use of knowledge during their field practice. Data was collected by using short written narratives, where the students reflect on situations from practice, situations they experienced as critical or problematic. The narratives were analysed with a method inspired by the interpretation theory of Paul Ricoeur. The article starts with a discussion adhering to the present trend of evidence-based social work practice. This is followed by a study of 144 narratives from social work students containing critical or problematic events. A quantitative description of the material as well as qualitative model of two type-strategies, that social work students use, is presented. The results show, among other things, that students use several forms of knowledge, where facts/evidence is one of several. The study also shows that there is a strong adaptation to varying critical situations. A conclusion is that it is difficult to a priori define the types and proportions of knowledge to use in social work practice.
Risk Reduction Technologies in General Practice and Social Work
Devin Rexvid,Bjrn Blom,Lars Evertsson,Annika Forssén
Professions & Professionalism , 2012, DOI: 10.7577/pp.409
Abstract: General practitioners (GPs) and social workers (SWs) are professions whose professional autonomy and discretion have changed in the so-called risk and audit society. The aim of this article is to compare GPs’ and SWs’ responses to Evidence-Based and Organizational Risk Reduction Technologies (ERRT and ORRT). It is based on a content analysis of 54 peer-reviewed empirical articles. The results show that both professions held ambivalent positions towards ERRT. The response towards ORRT differed in that GPs were sceptical whilst SWs took a more pragmatic view. Furthermore the results suggest that SWs might experience professional benefits by adopting an adherent approach to the increased dissemination of risk reduction technologies (RRT). GPs, however, did not seem to experience such benefits. Keywords: Profession, risk, social worker, general practitioner, risk reduction technologies, evidence-based practice/medicine
Application of Pedagogical Perspectives in the Teaching and Training of New Cataract Surgeons—A Literature-Based Essay  [PDF]
Bjrn Johansson
Open Journal of Ophthalmology (OJOph) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojoph.2013.33015

Cataract is the most common cause of visual impairment that can be effectively treated by surgery and cataract surgery is the most commonly performed surgical procedure in the world. With modern cataract operation techniques, patients expect excellent results. Teaching and training of new surgeons involve both pedagogical and ethical challenges for teachers and trainees, and also may pose a potential risk to patients. This literature-based essay aims to describe how behavioristic, cognitive and conceptual learning perspectives can be recognized during the trainee surgeons progress. It also describes how teacher-pupil relationships may vary during the training process. Finally it presents the concept of situational tutorship, where the teacher adapts to the stages that the trainee passes through with increasing experience. Teaching and trainee surgeons who are aware of pedagogical concepts such as teacher-pupil relationships and tutoring strategies may use this knowledge to optimize the learning process. Further research is needed to clarify how using this knowledge may affect the training of new cataract surgeons.

Reviewing the Learning Process through Creative Puzzle Solving  [PDF]
Bjrn Petter Jelle
Creative Education (CE) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2017.813137
Abstract: Human beings are at a continuous learning process at various levels and with different motivations during their whole lifetime. Puzzle solving may beneficially be applied to increase the motivation, enhance the mastering apprehension, promote the creative processes, expand the ability to engage and solve miscellaneous challenges from various viewpoints, and hence lead to an improved learning process and problem solving capability. That is, the application of puzzles may lead to better learning and increased knowledge in general, stimulating the reasoning process and the apprehension of the need for both creativity and hard work. Thus, teachers of both students and teachers may find it beneficial to utilize the art of puzzle solving. Typically, the puzzles are very suitable for and mostly used in mathematics and natural science classes. Nevertheless, the puzzles are in general also applicable for any type of class. The aim of this study is to examine and discuss the learning process through applying creative puzzle solving as a teaching tool. These aspects are illustrated through a review of several selected puzzle examples.
Distinct Inflammatory Mediator Patterns Characterize Infectious and Sterile Systemic Inflammation in Febrile Neutropenic Hematology Patients
Christine Wenner?s, Lars Hagberg, Rune Andersson, Lars Hynsj?, Anders Lindahl, Marcin Okroj, Anna M. Blom, Peter Johansson, Bjrn Andreasson, Johan Gottfries, Agnes E. Wold
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0092319
Abstract: Background Invasive infections and sterile tissue damage can both give rise to systemic inflammation with fever and production of inflammatory mediators. This makes it difficult to diagnose infections in patients who are already inflamed, e.g. due to cell and tissue damage. For example, fever in patients with hematological malignancies may depend on infection, lysis of malignant cells, and/or chemotherapy-induced mucosal damage. We hypothesized that it would be possible to distinguish patterns of inflammatory mediators characterizing infectious and non-infectious causes of inflammation, respectively. Analysis of a broad range of parameters using a multivariate method of pattern recognition was done for this purpose. Methods In this prospective study, febrile (>38°C) neutropenic patients (n = 42) with hematologic malignancies were classified as having or not having a microbiologically defined infection by an infectious disease specialist. In parallel, blood was analyzed for 116 biomarkers, and 23 clinical variables were recorded for each patient. Using O-PLS (orthogonal projection to latent structures), a model was constructed based on these 139 variables that could separate the infected from the non-infected patients. Non-discriminatory variables were discarded until a final model was reached. Finally, the capacity of this model to accurately classify a validation set of febrile neutropenic patients (n = 10) as infected or non-infected was tested. Results A model that could segregate infected from non-infected patients was achieved based on discrete differences in the levels of 40 variables. These variables included acute phase proteins, cytokines, measures of coagulation, metabolism, organ stress and iron turn-over. The model correctly identified the infectious status of nine out of ten subsequently recruited febrile neutropenic hematology patients. Conclusions It is possible to separate patients with infectious inflammation from those with sterile inflammation based on inflammatory mediator patterns. This strategy could be developed into a decision-making tool for diverse clinical applications.
Limited Focus on the Use of Health Care by Elderly Migrants—A Literature Review  [PDF]
Katarina Hjelm, Bjrn Albin
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2014.46049

Our premise for this literature review is the global demographic change caused by the world’s population living longer and becoming older, and extensive international migration leading to multicultural societies. Increasing age leads to health problems, often long-term or chronic, requiring investments in health care. Worse health and dissimilarities in pattern of morbidity/ mortality have been found in foreign-compared to Swedish-born persons, so it is reasonable to assume that this affects use of health care. The exploratory review focuses on elderly migrants’ (>65 years) use of healthcare. The databases Pub Med, EBSCO, CINAHL and ERIC were searched in 2000-2013. A limited number of studies were found; few had a comparative approach, most were from the USA, and focused on migrants from the former Soviet Union or countries in South-East Asia. A range of factors were identified that influence patterns of health care use: language fluency, ability to communicate, self-reported health status, prevalence of chronic disease, physical distance from care provision, availability of transport to reach care, cost of care, the health insurance system, cultural norms and values regarding different forms of care, level of education, and length of residence in the host country. Most studies treated health care from a general perspective and collected data from community and hospital settings, without analysing usage separately. Some studies indicated elderly migrants making use of health care less than other groups but the pattern is not unambiguous: other studies show that there is an overuse of health care. It is therefore difficult to show any particular pattern, or possible differences in use, regarding community versus in-patient care. Studies focusing on migrants’ actual use of health care are few and further research is needed, especially because elderly people form the largest group of users of health care and will be even larger in the future.

Cement Bonded Particle Boards with Different Types of Natural Fibres—Using Carbon Dioxide Injection for Increased Initial Bonding  [PDF]
Bjrn Marteinsson, Edgar Gudmundsson
Open Journal of Composite Materials (OJCM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojcm.2018.81003
Abstract: The effect of CO2 injection on initial strength increase and hardening of cement-fibre mix in a cement bonded particle board (CBPB) production was evaluated. Different cement contents, formation pressure and types of fibres were considered. The initial strength increase with CO2 injection is so much faster than this caused by conventional hydration that the produced samples do not need additional curing before they can be stored. Similar strength and stiffness values as in conventional products on the market are gained with lower cement content for similar types of fibres. Visual inspection of board surfaces aged for 13 years in a harsh exterior environment as well as comparison of strength and stiffness values for these boards when new and after ageing, gives a very satisfying result. The combined effect of the above discussed gains results in markedly increased productivity at lower cost and lower environmental impacts than is possible in traditional CBPB production.
Concealed Integrity Monitoring for Wireless Sensor Networks  [PDF]
Bjrn Stelte, Thomas Bühring
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/wsn.2011.31002
Abstract: Nowadays, sensor networks are widely installed around the world. Typical sensors provide data for healthcare, energy management, environmental monitoring, etc. In the future sensors will become a part of critical infrastructures. In such a scenario the network operator has to monitor the integrity of the network devices, otherwise the trustworthiness of the whole system is questionable. The problem is that every integrity protocol needs a secure channel between the devices. Therefore, we will introduce a covert channel for hidden transportation of integrity monitoring messages. The covert channel enables us to hide integrity check messages embedded into regular traffic without giving potential attackers a hint on the used integrity protocol.
Diversity in Family Structure—Diversity in Communication between Family Members?  [PDF]
Piia M. Bjrn, Minna Kytt?l?
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2013.43A035

This study aims at investigating the parent-adolescent communication of Finnish families from a multi informant perspective. Thirteen- and fourteen-year-old adolescents (n = 171) and their parents were asked to complete a questionnaire examining positive and problematic communication between the two parties. Information about their family structure was collected. The results indicated an interrelationship between parental and adolescent assessments, particularly regarding negative aspects of communication. The boys assessed their communication with parents as more positive than did the girls. The results showed that the mothers still are the synchronizing hearts of communication in modern families, whereas the fathers’ roles in family communication were more modest suggesting that the stereotypical roles in Finnish families persist even today.

Spatial Competition between Health Care Providers: Effects of Standardization  [PDF]
Bjrn A. Kuchinke, Jürgen Zerth
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2015.53043
Abstract: In the international health care literature the impacts of competition in health care markets are discussed widely. But aspects of standardization in regional health care markets with no price competition received comparatively little attention. We use a typical Hotelling framework to analyze a regional health care market with two health care providers competing in (vertical) quality after the scope of medical treatment has been set (horizontal quality). We conclude that in the basic model both health care providers will use vertical quality to separate from each other. In the next step we introduce a standard in vertical quality of which one health care providerthe standard profiteer—could better cope with. In the standardization case a more homogeneous supply can be expected and there is a higher possibility that the standard follower has to leave the regional health care market. Therefore standardization of health care quality could strengthen monopolistic tendencies.
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