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Stability and flocculation of nanosilica by conventional organic polymer  [PDF]
Mohamed Bizi
Natural Science (NS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2012.46052
Abstract: More than 2,000,000 tons of silica nanoparticles (NPs) are produced annually in the world to cover the needs of nanotechnologies. Inevitably, a quantity of NPs, will be in industrial discharges and domestic, or even in water resources. Share their high surface reactivity, these NPs may also carry with them through a specific adsorption of other toxic chemical pollutants inherent to the industrial sectors. To preserve public health and the environment from this pollution, it is necessary to remedy the potential pollution. In this context, the main motivation of this work is to answer this environmental issue by proposing a scheme of remediation based on the use of a conventional treatment process. The process of elimination nanoparticles by coagulation/flocculation was selected for its simplicity and also for its universal use. The NPs of industrial silica S30R50 were used as support to develop the process. The optimization of coagulation/flocculation, was greatly facilitated by the use of laser diffraction online. This technique allowed to follow the dynamic character of the treatment and to determine the size and the most relevant textural parameters (density, porosity and fractal dimension) of the flocs depending on the nature of the used reagents. The critical concentrations of different coagulants and flocculants used were determined by electrophoresis and turbidity. The ratio of their charge density/molecular weight has conditioned the quality of separation, the floc size and their texture. Excellent coagulation/flocculation performances are reached using organic reagents authorized by the Directorate General for Health of several countries. After optimization of the process, the size distributions are between 10 μm and 1 mm, with fractal dimensions (compactness) ranging from 2.3 to 2.5. The performances obtained show that the use of cationic polymers is a promising potential route to treat other types of NPs. The treatment proposed to reach a ratio of average diameters dFloc/dNP of 3500, and therefore it facilitates the elimination of these NPs agglomerated by filtration.
The disappearance of causality at small scale in almost-commutative manifolds
Nadir Bizi,Fabien Besnard
Mathematics , 2014,
Abstract: This paper continues the investigations of noncommutative ordered spaces put forward by one of the authors. These metaphoric spaces are defined dually by so-called \emph{isocones} which generalize to the noncommutative setting the convex cones of order-preserving functions. In this paper we will consider the case of isocones inside almost-commutative algebras of the form ${\cal C}(M)\otimes A_f$, with $M$ a compact metrizable space. We will give a family of isocones in such an algebra with the property that every possible isocone is contained in exactly one member of the family. We conjecture that this family is in fact a complete classification, a hypothesis related with the noncommutative Stone-Weierstrass conjecture. We also obtain that every isocone in ${\cal C}(M)\otimes A_f$, with $A_f$ noncommutative, induces an order relation on $M$ with the property that every point in $M$ lies in a neighbourhood of incomparable points. Thus, if the causal order relation on spacetime is induced by an isocone in an almost-commutative (but not commutative) algebra, then causality must disappear at small scale.
Produtos alternativos no controle do oídio em mudas de eucalipto
Bizi, Rafaela Mazur;Grigoletti Junior, Albino;Auer, Celso Garcia;May-De Mio, Louise Larissa;
Summa Phytopathologica , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-54052008000200006
Abstract: eucalypt plays an important role in brazilian forestry because of its good adaptation, fast growth, high productivity, as well as a lot of good qualities for industry. eucalyptus reforestation needs a continuous production of seedlings, which can be attacked by oidium sp. the control of powdery mildew is based on fungicides, but for eucalypts there are no products commercially registered. the objective of this work was to evaluate chemical products, essential oils, plants extracts, milk and dairy products and antagonist for the alternative control of this disease. seedlings of e. benthamii maiden & cambage were used in the assays. disease severity was assessed using a scale varying from 0 (no symptoms) to 4 (severe symptoms) and calculated the area under progress disease curve (audpc). it was verified that the lowest audpc values of powdery mildew were obtained with piraclostrobin + epoxyconazol, and cow milk and lecanicillium sp. were the best alternative products.
Sele o de Fungicidas para Controle de Oídio em Eucalipto Selection of Fungicides for Control of Eucalypt Powdery Mildew
Rafaela Mazur Bizi,Albino Garcia Grigoletti Júnior,Celso Garcia Auer
Pesquisa Florestal Brasileira , 2011, DOI: 10.4336/2012.pfb.51.165
Abstract: O objetivo deste estudo foi encontrar fungicidas eficientes contra o oídio do eucalipto. Foram testados os fungicidas chlorothalonil (2 g/l), fenarimol (0,5 ml/l), enxofre (3 g/l), tebuconazole (1 ml/l), propiconazol 12,5% + trifloxistrobina 12,5% (0,6 ml/l), benzothiadiazol (1g/l), piraclostrobina 13,3% + epoxiconazol 5% (1ml/l) e triadimenol (1 ml/l). Os fungicidas foram pulverizados em 30 mudas por tratamento de Eucalyptus benthamii, naturalmente infectadas. A doen a foi avaliada aos 9, 16, 23, 30 e 37 dias após serem colocadas em um ambiente infectado, onde os sintomas foram classificados em uma escala de notas que variam de 0 (ausência de sintomas) a 4 (sintoma muito forte). Os melhores tratamentos foram piraclostrobina + epoxiconazol, propiconazol + trifloxistrobina e triadimenol, apresentando um índice médio de infec o de 0,39 e 0,63 e 1,01, respectivamente. The objective of this study was to find effective fungicides against eucalypt powdery mildew. Fungicides tested were chlorothalonil, fenarimol, sulfur, tebuconazole, propiconazole, benzothiazole, pyraclostrobin + epoxiconazole and triadimenol. These fungicides were sprayed on Eucalyptus benthamii seedlings in a greenhouse infested with powdery mildew. Severity was evaluated at 9, 16, 23, 30 and 37 days after spraying, classifying symptoms observed with a scale 0 (symptoms absent) to 4 (strong symptoms). Best treatments were obtained with pyraclostrobin + epoxiconazole, propiconazole + trifloxystrobin and triadimenol, with an infection index average of 0.39, 0.63 and 1.01, respectively.
Control of African Trypanosomiasis in Nigeria: Time to Strengthening Integrated Approaches (A Review)
U.O. Adamu,M.K. Haruna,R.P. Ovbagbedia,R. Bizi
International Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2011,
Abstract: The aim of this review is to highlight the inadequacies of the current control of African Trypanosomiasis in Nigeria and the need to strengthen the already integrated control approach. African Trypanosomiasis is one of the most devastating diseases of man and animals in Sub-Saharan African countries, Nigeria inclusive. Over the past century numerous methods of control have been developed yet the disease has proved very difficult to eradicate. Current methods to control the disease, in the absence of a vaccine, rely on the use of anti-trypanosomal drugs and vector control. In animals, an additional control method is the use of trypanotolerant breeds of livestock. Unfortunately, all of these methods have disadvantages and none has proved to be ideal. The public health importance of trypanosomiasis, has led to attempts to control the disease nationally and regionally with initiatives such as the Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC) of the African union. At the Nigerian Institute for Trypanosomiasis Research (NITR), a combination of control methods is being used for research development and control efforts against the disease. However, diminishing funding for research development and control activities against the disease has hindered this approach. Hence there is a great need to strengthen these integrated approaches for more effective control of trypanosomiasis. Strengthening intersectoral and inter-agency collaboration is greatly advocated in the fight against trypanosomiasis, in order to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of control, as well as enhance the prospect of sustainability and food security as supported by PATTEC. Hence, further fostering the existing relationship with PATEC in a bid towards the eradication of trypanosomiasis from Nigeria.
Human Behavior in the Epidemiology and Control of African Trypanosomosis in Kachia Local Government Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria
S.M. Samdi,B. Bello,A. Abubakar,R.L. Bizi
International Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of trypanosomosis in white Fulani cattle in Ladduga District, Kachia LGA of Kaduna State and further highlight the importance of human behavior, belief, attitude and activity in the epidemiology and control of African trypanosomosis. A total of 65 animals were sampled randomly. Blood collected from the jugular vein was stored in heparinized blood containers. The standard trypanosomosis diagnostic method was employed. An overall infection rate of 29.2% was recorded in the herd with bulls accounting for 20.0% and cows 32.0%. The average Packed Cell Volume (PCV) of infected animals (23.6±0.4%) was lower than non-infected (36.4±0.7%). These values were statistically significant (p<0.05). Clinical signs observed were lacrimation, pale mucus membrane, rough hair coat and presence of ticks. However, despite good appetite and availability of forage, emaciation was observed in 29 animals (45.0%). The trypanosomes encountered were T. vivax (42.0%), T. congolense (15.7%), T. brucei (21.0%) and mixed infection (21.0%). Traps caught only biting flies; Tabanus and Stomoxy species.
Constraints in the Control of African Trypanosomiasis the Prevailing Factors in Kurmin Kaduna, Northern, Nigeria (Review Article)
Attahir Abubakar,S.M. Samdi; J.N. Abenga; B.M. Wayo; H.M. Sumayin; M.K. Haruna; A.M. Jijitar; R.T. Ogunwale; R.A. Ramatu and R.L. Bizi
International Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2010,
Abstract: The aim of this review is to further highlight the prevailing factors in the control of African trypanosomosis in Nigeria. The effectiveness of trypanocides as a means of control is being curtailed by, wide spread drug resistance, lack of alternative drugs, multiple resistance, fake drugs,insufficient veterinary services, proliferation of quacks, high cost of trypanocides and the ability of the parasite to survive in cryptic foci poorly accessible to drugs. Trypanotolerance is a relative rather than absolute trait, severely affected by heavy challenge, malnutrition, stress, breed, age, season, and concurrent disease, Trypanotolerant breeds are poorly utilized and accepted because of their size, productivity and traction power compared with the large zebu breeds. Use of insecticide has been the most effective and reliable method of control but fear of emergence of resistance, cross resistance, environmental damage, accumulation in food chains with damaging effect on fertility etc constitute a major drawback on its use. Poor policies formulation and enforcement, human beliefs and behaviors, tsetse redistribution, mechanical transmitters and reservoire host has hindered effective control. The scanty inform ation on distribution, prevalence and economic impact of trypanosomosis in Nigeria, coupled with corruption, lack of community participation, inability to implement cost effective control strategies, these has resulted in the negative attitude of national governments and international funding organizations towards control of the disease, leading to collapse of many control projects. There is no control method that can be used alone; rather a combination of different control methods has proven effective due to the social, economical and cultural behaviors of Nigerians.
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