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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4219 matches for " Bissagnene Emmanuel "
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Short-term risk of anaemia following initiation of combination antiretroviral treatment in HIV-infected patients in countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Asia-Pacific, and central and South America
Zhou Jialun,Jaquet Antoine,Bissagnene Emmanuel,Musick Beverly
Journal of the International AIDS Society , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1758-2652-15-5
Abstract: Background The objective was to examine the short-term risk and predictors of anaemia following initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in HIV-infected patients from the Western Africa, Eastern Africa, Southern Africa, Central Africa, Asian-Pacific, and Caribbean and Central and South America regions of the International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) collaboration. Methods Anaemia was defined as haemoglobin of < 10 g/dL. Patients were included if they started cART with three or more drugs, had prior haemoglobin of > = 10 g/dL, and had one or more follow-up haemoglobin tests. Factors associated with anaemia up to 12 months were examined using Cox proportional hazards models and stratified by IeDEA region. Results Between 1998 and 2008, 19,947 patients initiated cART with baseline and follow-up haemoglobin tests (7358, 7289, 2853, 471, 1550 and 426 in the Western Africa, Eastern Africa, Southern Africa, Central Africa, Asian-Pacific, and Caribbean and Central and South America regions, respectively). At initiation, anaemia was found in 45% of Western Africa patients, 29% of Eastern Africa patients, 21% of Southern Africa patients, 36% of Central Africa patients, 15% of patients in Asian-Pacific and 14% of patients in Caribbean and Central and South America. Among patients with haemoglobin of > = 10 g/dL at baseline (13,445), the risks of anaemia were 18.2, 6.6, 9.7, 22.9, 11.8 and 19.5 per 100 person-years in the Western Africa, Eastern Africa, Southern Africa, Central Africa, Asian, and Caribbean and Central and South America regions, respectively. Factors associated with anaemia were female sex, low baseline haemoglobin level, low baseline CD4 count, more advanced disease stage, and initial cART containing zidovudine. Conclusions In data from 34 cohorts of HIV-infected patients from sub-Saharan Africa, Central and South America, and Asia, the risk of anaemia within 12 months of initiating cART was moderate. Routine haemoglobin monitoring was recommended in patients at risk of developing anaemia following cART initiation.
The Spectrum of Cancers in West Africa: Associations with Human Immunodeficiency Virus
Aristophane Tanon, Antoine Jaquet, Didier K. Ekouevi, Jocelyn Akakpo, Innocent Adoubi, Isidore Diomande, Fabien Houngbe, Marcel D. Zannou, Annie J. Sasco, Serge P. Eholie, Francois Dabis, Emmanuel Bissagnene, IeDEA West Africa collaboration
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0048108
Abstract: Background Cancer is a growing co-morbidity among HIV-infected patients worldwide. With the scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in developing countries, cancer will contribute more and more to the HIV/AIDS disease burden. Our objective was to estimate the association between HIV infection and selected types of cancers among patients hospitalized for diagnosis or treatment of cancer in West Africa. Methods A case-referent study was conducted in referral hospitals in C?te d’Ivoire and Benin. Each participating clinical ward enrolled all adult patients seeking care for a confirmed diagnosis of cancer and clinicians systematically proposed an HIV test. HIV prevalence was compared between AIDS-defining cancers and a subset of selected non-AIDS defining cancers to a referent group of non-AIDS defining cancers not reported in the literature to be positively or inversely associated with HIV. An unconditional logistic model was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) of the risk of being HIV-infected for selected cancers sites compared to a referent group of other cancers. Results The HIV overall prevalence was 12.3% (CI 10.3–14.4) among the 1,017 cancer cases included. A total of 442 patients constituted the referent group with an HIV prevalence of 4.7% (CI 2.8–6.7). In multivariate analysis, Kaposi sarcoma (OR 62.2 [CI 22.1–175.5]), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (4.0 [CI 2.0–8.0]), cervical cancer (OR 7.9 [CI 3.8–16.7]), anogenital cancer (OR 11.6 [CI 2.9–46.3]) and liver cancer (OR 2.7 [CI 1.1–7.7]) were all associated with HIV infection. Conclusions In a time of expanding access to ART, AIDS-defining cancers remain highly associated with HIV infection. This is to our knowledge, the first study reporting a significant association between HIV infection and liver cancer in sub-Saharan Africa.
Characteristics of HIV-2 and HIV-1/HIV-2 Dually Seropositive Adults in West Africa Presenting for Care and Antiretroviral Therapy: The IeDEA-West Africa HIV-2 Cohort Study
Didier K. Ekouevi, Eric Balestre, Patrick A. Coffie, Daouda Minta, Eugene Messou, Adrien Sawadogo, Albert Minga, Papa Salif Sow, Emmanuel Bissagnene, Serge P. Eholie, Geoffrey S. Gottlieb, Fran?ois Dabis, IeDEA West Africa collaboration
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0066135
Abstract: Background HIV-2 is endemic in West Africa. There is a lack of evidence-based guidelines on the diagnosis, management and antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-2 or HIV-1/HIV-2 dual infections. Because of these issues, we designed a West African collaborative cohort for HIV-2 infection within the framework of the International epidemiological Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA). Methods We collected data on all HIV-2 and HIV-1/HIV-2 dually seropositive patients (both ARV-naive and starting ART) and followed-up in clinical centres in the IeDEA-WA network including a total of 13 clinics in five countries: Benin, Burkina-Faso C?te d’Ivoire, Mali, and Senegal, in the West Africa region. Results Data was merged for 1,754 patients (56% female), including 1,021 HIV-2 infected patients (551 on ART) and 733 dually seropositive for both HIV-1 and HIV 2 (463 on ART). At ART initiation, the median age of HIV-2 patients was 45.3 years, IQR: (38.3–51.7) and 42.4 years, IQR (37.0–47.3) for dually seropositive patients (p = 0.048). Overall, 16.7% of HIV-2 patients on ART had an advanced clinical stage (WHO IV or CDC-C). The median CD4 count at the ART initiation is 166 cells/mm3, IQR (83–247) among HIV-2 infected patients and 146 cells/mm3, IQR (55–249) among dually seropositive patients. Overall, in ART-treated patients, the CD4 count increased 126 cells/mm3 after 24 months on ART for HIV-2 patients and 169 cells/mm3 for dually seropositive patients. Of 551 HIV-2 patients on ART, 5.8% died and 10.2% were lost to follow-up during the median time on ART of 2.4 years, IQR (0.7–4.3). Conclusions This large multi-country study of HIV-2 and HIV-1/HIV-2 dual infection in West Africa suggests that routine clinical care is less than optimal and that management and treatment of HIV-2 could be further informed by ongoing studies and randomized clinical trials in this population.
Pierre Mendès France, French Security Politics, and the European Defense Community  [PDF]
Emmanuel Konde
Open Journal of Political Science (OJPS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojps.2013.31004

This paper examines the role of Pierre Mendès France in the decision of the French National Assembly to reject the European Defense Community (EDC) proposed by René Pleven in October 1950 and signed by the [Antoine] Pinay government in 1952. Since the signing of the EDC treaty in 1952, successive governments of the Fourth Republic delayed action on ratification of the treaty until 1954 when Mendès France assumed the office of prime minister and, acting against conventional wisdom, forced the National Assembly to vote on it. The EDC was a collective attempt by western European powers, with the full support of the United States, to counterbalance the overwhelming conventional military ascendancy of the Soviet Union in Europe by forming a supranational European army. This collective security plan had its origins in the French government of René Pleven in 1950. Why the French signed the treaty establishing the EDC two years later in 1952, and then rejected it in 1954 after four years of debate, is of central concern to this paper, which explores the intersection and interplay of various factors that contributed to the negative French vote.

Rethinking Leadership Theories  [PDF]
Emmanuel Mango
Open Journal of Leadership (OJL) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojl.2018.71005
Leadership is governed by over 66 theories which leaves many leaders and leadership scholars searching for an inclusive leadership theory. The existence of too many leadership theories obstructs progressive practice and research of leadership, hence there is need for leadership theory consolidation. This paper is an attempt to integrate leadership theories. The integration efforts are based on representative leadership theories and the review of the wider relevant leader-ship literature. Initially, the integration was to be built around 66 leadership theories but with further study 44 theories were eliminated to avoid either repetition or miniature issues and it was established that the 22 leadership theories are a good representation of the concepts captured in leadership theories. The review of the 22 leadership theories was enriched with insights from the wider leadership literature. The review and synthesis of leadership theories and the wider relevant leadership literature revealed that leadership is built on six (6) foundational domains, namely: character, characteristics, people practices, institutional practices, context and outcomes (CCPICO). The six domains occasioned the development of an integrative leadership model: ethical and effective leadership (EEL). As a consequence of the EEL model, one, the EEL subdomains are highlighted, two, leadership development based on EEL model is proposed, three, leadership definition that is in line with EEL model is suggested.
Beyond Leadership  [PDF]
Emmanuel Mango
Open Journal of Leadership (OJL) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojl.2018.71007
The crisis of leadership, like other crises in most critical human endeavours, is not occasioned by lack of definitive theories or knowledge, it is elicited by failure to put the existing theories and knowledge into practice. Besides, the assumption advanced by most of the proponents of leadership theories, that by revealing to leaders what leadership is and what leaders should do, then inevitably the leaders will utilize the acquired knowledge and skills to impact their followers and the society, does not stand the test of scrutiny. There is a gap between leadership knowledge and practice, meaning that there are missing elements which translate leadership theories, knowledge and skills into impact. This paper (beyond leadership) seeks to bridge the gap between knowledge and practice. Beyond leadership answers the question, why are some people (leaders) more ethical and effective than other? The paper proposes and discusses 7 elements (purpose, conviction, moral authority, passion, commitment, courage and learning) which distinguish impactful leaders from the rest. Many more elements may be needed on the leadership journey but without the 7 elements of beyond leadership, any other additional element may not matter much.
Capital Flows, Trade and the Role of the Financial System  [PDF]
Emmanuel Amissah
Modern Economy (ME) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/me.2018.99099
Abstract: In this study, we examine the crucial role played by financial development in the relationship between trade and capital flows. We examine this relationship for 130 countries from 1980 to 2005 for different types of capital flows. We show that the relationship depends on the type of capital flows and the level of financial development. We observe a positive interaction between trade liberalisation and financial development for portfolio flows. In the case of FDI (Foreign Direct Investment), we observe an insignificant relationship. The FDI flows bypass the financial system as it flows into such countries because of other factors as side the level of the financial development.
Pricing Services in a Grid of Computers Using Priority Segmentation  [PDF]
Emmanuel Fragniere, Francesco Moresino
Journal of Service Science and Management (JSSM) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2010.33040
Abstract: In the past decade many grids of computers have been built among non-profit institutions. These grids are built on a voluntary participation and the resources are not charged to the users. When a resource is given free of charge its allocation is in general not optimal. In this paper, we propose an original mechanism that allows an optimal resource allocation without cash exchanges. We develop a pricing scheme where the service is segmented according to the priority level. The optimal prices of the different services are obtained by solving a Markov Decision Process (MDP). Each participant receives a credit that is proportional to its contribution that enables him to have access to services offered by the grid.
Environmental Consequences of Rapid Urbanisation: Bamenda City, Cameroon  [PDF]
Emmanuel M. Nyambod
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2010.11003
Abstract: Human settlement conditions in many parts of the world, particularly the developing countries, are deteriorating. Natu-ral hazards now occur right at our door steps and the frequency of occurrence and magnitude of damages that they cause is seen to be on an increase especially in poor urban communities. The natural environment is deteriorating at a rate faster than the rate at which natural occurring processes and resources available within the environment can re-plenish. If left unabated, landslides, flooding, sporadic fire outbreaks, collapse of major road axis, houses and bridges have the potential of plunging urban centre’s into an abyss of environmental chaos. This paper chooses Bamenda city- Cameroon, a rapidly expanding city in the third world as an example. The paper therefore assesses the overall situation of deteriorating urban quality by randomly selecting some of the quarters within Bamenda city that are generally con-sidered as hazard prone. It was noticed that deteriorating urban quality stems from the phenomenon of rural exodus. The situation is further exacerbated by inappropriate systems of land administration, poverty and an overall anarchy and ignorance in the handling of environmental issues. This paper therefore calls for a multidisciplinary and holistic range of approaches to solving present day environmental hazards of Bamenda. It calls for the adoption of modern technology and the systematization of the processes of land acquisition and registration especially at state and local government levels.
On Radioactivity–Exposed Nanophotodetector Optoreliability  [PDF]
Emmanuel A. Anagnostakis
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2011.27089
Abstract: The optoelectronic reliability of representative radioactivity-exposed nanophotodetectors and the degree of functionally tolerable radioactivity-induced responsivity de-emphasis, against increasing cumulative radioactivity-dose, is notionally considered and modelled, with a view towards experimental findings concerning p-i-n photosensors being exposed to regulated successive (α, β)-particle bombardments.
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