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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 561 matches for " Bird flu "
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BIRD FLU (AVIAN INFLUENZA)
Ali ACAR,Bülent BE??RBELL?O?LU
TAF Preventive Medicine Bulletin , 2005,
Abstract: Avian influenza (bird flu) is a contagious disease of animals caused by influenza A viruses. These flu viruses occur naturally among birds. Actually, humans are not infected by bird flu viruses.. However, during an outbreak of bird flu among poultry, there is a possible risk to people who have contact infect birds or surface that have been contaminated with excreations from infected birds. Symptoms of bird flu in humans have ranged from typical flu-like symptoms to eye infections, pneumonia, severe respiratory diseases and other severe and life-threatening complications. In such situation, people should avoid contact with infected birds or contaminated surface, and should be careful when handling and cooking poultry.
Dual Use and Biosecurity: the Case of the Avian Flu H5N1  [PDF]
Pieter J. D. Drenth
Open Journal of Applied Sciences (OJAppS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2012.23017
Abstract: The classical dual use problem—the potential for harmful as well as beneficial application of scientific findings—has become more immediate in biotechnology than in most other fields of science. Terrorist misuse of the information on the development of pathogenic organisms can lead to catastrophic outcomes. Therefore, particular in biosciences researchers are faced with the dilemma to find a proper balance between the right to know and the dangers of knowing. In this paper this dilemma is illustrated by the research on the influenza A virus subtype H5N1, commonly known as “bird flu”. The pros and cons of the full publication on the development of a dangerous airborne type are discussed.
“Body bags ready”: Print media coverage of avian influenza in Australia  [PDF]
Sandra C. Jones, Louise Waters, Fiona Byrne, Don Iverson, Max Sutherland, Julian Gold, Chris Puplick
Health (Health) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/health.2012.430142
Abstract: In 2006 the avian influenza A (H5N1) virus received considerable media coverage in Australia, as it did in many other countries. It is often argued that the media sensationalizes health crises, and experts cautioned about the risk of panic as a result of fear of avian influenza. The purpose of the present study was to systematically analyze Australian print media coverage of avian influenza in 2006 and to examine whether this coverage served the purpose of informing, rather than alarming, the general public. For the period January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2006, 20 Australian newspaper titles were monitored for coverage of avian influenza. The identified articles were analyzed using aspects of protection motivation theory for theoretical direction to determine whether there were any consistent themes or perspectives in the coverage. A total of 850 articles were identified for analysis. Concerning vulnerability, 46% of articles reported the incidence of human cases, with 24% noting that avian influenza was a potential threat to Australia. The most common severity theme was “deadly” with over 50% of mentions, followed by “pandemic” with 35%. Only 11% of articles referred to any form of self-protection. We found that a considerable proportion of the articles reporting on avian influenza were framed in a way that had the potential to incite fear and panic amongst the public; the intensity of media coverage reduced over time; and, of particular concern, that there was little media coverage that focused on protective or preventative issues. Whether an influenza pandemic eventuates or not, it is prudent for governments and health authorities to continually develop appropriate resources and strategies to prepare the health system and the general public to respond to current, and future, infectious disease risks.
An Empirical Estimation of the Factors Affecting Demand and Supply of Poultry Meat
Abdul Ghafoor*, Hammad Badar, Maqsood Hussain and Naeem Tariq
Pakistan Veterinary Journal , 2010,
Abstract: Poultry sector is one of the most important segments in agriculture sector of Pakistan. Despite growth in poultry sector, many new challenges including bird flu, fluctuating prices and higher cost of production have affected pace of development of this sector. The present study was conducted to evaluate the impact of various variables affecting supply of poultry birds and demand of poultry meat in Faisalabad, Pakistan. Cross sectional data were collected from 40 poultry farmers and 40 consumers selected randomly from Faisalabad city. Simple linear form of regression analysis was employed to estimate effect of major variables. Sale price of poultry birds, average cost of production and experience of the poultry farmers significantly (P<0.05) affected supply of poultry birds, whereas education of farmers and distance from markets had non-significant effect. Income of the consumers, family size and retail price of poultry meat were found significant variables, whereas age and education of consumers were non-significant variables affecting demand. A qualitative variable was used to capture effect of bird flu on supply and demand of poultry meat, which was found significant in both models. This finding establishes the serious implications of bird flu epidemic for poultry industry in Pakistan.
Birds–Dead and Deadly: Why Numeracy Needs to Address Social Construction
Joel Best
Numeracy , 2008,
Abstract: Sociologists use the term social construction to refer to the processes by which people assign meaning to their world. This paper argues that numeracy education needs to address social construction. In particular, thinking critically about the statistics the news media report regarding social issues requires understanding the competitive nature of the social problems marketplace, and the social forces that allow questionable numbers to receive widespread public attention. Such critiques must incorporate more than assessing how the numbers were calculated; they must consider the social construction of particular statistics. Two recent examples—claims about the number of birds killed flying into windows, and warnings about the threat of an avian flu pandemic—are presented to illustrate the need to incorporate social construction into numeracy education.
Ultrasonic synthetic technique to manufacture a pHEMA nanopolymeric-based vaccine against the H6N2 avian influenza virus: a preliminary investigation
Poinern GEJ, Thi Le X, Shan S, Ellis T, Fenwick S, Edwards J, Fawcett D
International Journal of Nanomedicine , 2011, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S24272
Abstract: rasonic synthetic technique to manufacture a pHEMA nanopolymeric-based vaccine against the H6N2 avian influenza virus: a preliminary investigation Original Research (3310) Total Article Views Authors: Poinern GEJ, Thi Le X, Shan S, Ellis T, Fenwick S, Edwards J, Fawcett D Published Date September 2011 Volume 2011:6 Pages 2167 - 2174 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S24272 Gérrard Eddy Jai Poinern1, Xuan Thi Le1, Songhua Shan2, Trevor Ellis3, Stan Fenwick3, John Edwards3, Derek Fawcett1 1Murdoch Applied Nanotechnology Research Group, Murdoch University, Murdoch, WA, Australia; 2Australian Animal Health Laboratories, CSIRO, VIC, Australia; 3Veterinary School, School of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Murdoch University, Murdoch, WA, Australia Abstract: This preliminary study investigated the use of poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA) nanoparticles for the delivery of the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) vaccine pCAG-HAk, which expresses the full length hemagglutinin (HA) gene of the avian influenza A/Eurasian coot/Western Australian/2727/1979 (H6N2) virus with a Kozak sequence which is in the form of a pCAGGS vector. The loaded and unloaded nanoparticles were characterized using field-emission scanning electron microscopy. Further characterizations of the nanoparticles were made using atomic force microscopy and dynamic light scattering, which was used to investigate particle size distributions. This preliminary study suggests that using 100 μg of pHEMA nanoparticles as a nanocarrier/adjuvant produced a reduction in virus shedding and improved the immune response to the DNA vaccine pCAG-HAk.
Bird Flu: A recent threat to human health
Asad U. Khan
Bioinformation , 2006,
Abstract: Not applicable
An outbreak of H7N6 low pathogenic avian influenza in quails in Japan
Katsuaki Sugiura,Keiji Fushimi,Tomoyuki Takehisa,Masuji Miwa
Veterinaria Italiana , 2009,
Abstract: In February and March 2009, a total of seven quail farms in the Aichi Prefecture in Japan were found to be infected with an avian influenza (AI) virus. Low pathogenic AI viruses, subtype H7N6, were isolated from three of these farms. The infection was eliminated through the destruction of susceptible birds on the infected premises, movement controls of quail and other poultry in areas around infected premises, accompanied by intensive clinical, serological and virological surveillance. Sentinel quails were used to verify that the infected farms were free from AI virus before they were restocked. An epidemiological study revealed that the virus was likely to have been introduced into the infected area some time ago. Economic losses amounted to 874 million yen (US$9.75 million), mainly accounting for costs incurred by control and eradication measures and financial support for the infected farms and farms in the movement control areas.
Avian Influenza infection in Human
Mohan. M,Trevor Francis Fernandez and Feroz Mohammed.M.S.
Veterinary World , 2008,
Abstract: Outbreaks caused by the H5N1 strain are presently of the greatest concern for human health. In assessing risks to human health, it is important to know exactly which avian virus strains are causing the outbreaks in birds.All available evidence points to an increased risk of transmission to humans when outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza are widespread in poultry. There is mounting evidence that this strain has a unique capacity to jump the species barrier and cause severe disease, with high mortality, in humans. There is no evidence, to date that efficient human to human transmission of H5N1 strain has occurred and very often. Efficient transmission among humans is a key property of pandemic strains and a property that the avian H5N1 and H9N2 viruses apparently lacked. The biological and molecular basis for effective aerosol transmission among humans is not known. The virus can improve its transmissibility among humans via two principal mechanisms. The first is a “reassortment” event, in which genetic material is exchanged between human and avian viruses during co-infection of a human or pig.Reassortment could result in a fully transmissible pandemic virus, announced by a sudden surge of cases with explosive spread. The second mechanism is a more gradual process of adaptive mutation, whereby the capability of the virus to bind to human cells increases during subsequent infections of humans. Adaptive mutation, expressed initially as small clusters of human cases with some evidence of human-to-human transmission, would probably give the world some time to take defensive action, if detected sufficiently early. As the number of human infections grows, the risk increases that a new virus subtype could emerge, triggering an influenza pandemic. Humans as well as swine must now be considered a potential mixing vessel for the generation of such a virus. This link between widespread infection in poultry and increased risk of human infection is being demonstrated right now in Asia. However, urgent control of all outbreaks of avian influenza in birds - even when caused by a strain of low pathogenicity- is of utmost importance. Research has shown that certain, avian influenza virus strains, usually of low pathogenicity can rapidly Avian Influenza infection in Human mutate (within 6 to 9 months) into a highly pathogenic strain if allowed to circulate in poultry populations. Altogether, more than half of the laboratoryconfirmed cases have been fatal. H5N1 avian influenza in humans is still a rare disease, but a severe one that must be closely watched a
Avian influenza: integration of knowledge updated for disease prevention and control
Chethanond, U.
Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology , 2006,
Abstract: Avian influenza (AI) subtype H5N1 is a highly contagious as well as highly pathogenic disease of poultry, and also a zoonosis. The epidemic has occurred in Asia since 2003, causing great economic loss to the poultry industry. The fear has arisen that the virus, which can mutate easily, may have reassortment with influenza virus leading to pandemic outbreak. Stamping out the birds in infected farms is the major control measure in Thailand which has an impact on not only the psychic loss of raisers but also the loss of genetic pool. This review is aimed to disclose updated knowledge and approaches to implement the control measures. The strategies are involved with 1) outreach to stakeholders on the property of virus and transmission, 2) restriction of movement and carcass disposition, and 3) reduction of viral contamination in the environment and increased farm biosecurity. Vaccination is an option for which both pro and cons must be considered. However, owing to sophisticated technology, vaccines offer more choices and are produced better results in terms of protection and reduction of viral contamination. Thus, many countries decided to use vaccine for AI prevention and control nowadays.
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