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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 410 matches for " Biomaterials "
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PREDICTING THE STRENGTH OF SAWN WOOD BY TRACHEID LASER SCATTERING
Mattias Br?nnstr?m,Janne Manninen,Johan Oja
BioResources , 2008,
Abstract: An industrial laser light scattering scanner, designed to detect the spiral grain angle of logs by the light scattering along the grain, was used on two large samples of Norway spruce (Picea abies (var. Karst)) in various sawn dimensions (approximately 750 pieces). Additional measurements were made by other techniques, such as X-ray scanning, resonance frequency measurement, and various manual measurements. The strength properties of the boards were measured by destructive testing in four-point bending according to European standard. Multivariate methods (PLS) were used to model the relationship between the bending strength of the board (MOR) and the measurements. Based only on the output from the simple tracheid scattering equipment, a model for MOR achieved an R2 exceeding 0.3. Combinations with average density or outer shape parameters from log scanning resulted in R2 0.4 and 0.3 respectively, although these parameters alone only accounted for R2 0.2. The results can be used to increase the understanding of strength in wood and in an improved industrial strength-grading process.
In Vitro Evaluation of Polyurethane-Chitosan Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering  [PDF]
Imelda Olivas-Armendariz, Perla García-Casillas, Adriana Martel Estrada, Alberto Martínez-Villafa?e, Laura A. A. de la Rosa, Carlos A. Martínez-Pérez
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology (JBNB) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jbnb.2012.34044
Abstract: In this work the use of Polyurethane (PU)-Chitosan(CH) scaffolds prepared by thermal induced phase separation (TIPS) for osteoblast proliferation and bone mineralization is described. Primary rat calvaria osteoblasts were seeded in the scaffolds and it was shown that supported cell adhesion and growth. The behavior osteoblast cells growing in the scaffold in function of the different ratio of PU and CH is presented. The results showed that TIPS is an appropriate technique for the production of PU-CH scaffolds with high potential for application as cell scaffolds in bone tissue engineering.
Silica matrix doped with calcium and phosphate by sol-gel  [PDF]
Lucimara C. Bandeira, Katia J. Ciuffi, Paulo S. Calefi, Eduardo J. Nassar
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2010.13028
Abstract: Silica matrices doped with calcium and phosphate at various Ca/P molar ratios were prepared by the hydrolytic sol-gel methodology. Tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) was reacted with calcium ethoxide, in the presence of phosphoric acid as catalyst. Eu III ions were added to the resulting silica, in order to obtain structural information. The samples were dried at 50ºC and characterized before and after contact with Simulated Body Fluid (SBF). The xerogels were analyzed by thermal analysis (TA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The PL spectra revealed Eu III lines characteristic of the 5D0 ? 7FJ (J = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4) transition of this ion, and they indicated a nonhomogenous distribution of Eu III in the Ca-P-Si matrix. XRD and SEM confirmed the presence of an amorphous and crystalline system before and after contact of the samples with the SBF solution, and the crystalline phases were ascribed to hydroxyapatite and? ?-calcium triphosphate. The goal of the work is the preparation of a material can be used as biomaterias at low temperature.
Biodegradable stent  [PDF]
Doo Yeon Kwon, Jae Il Kim, Da Yeon Kim, Hwi Ju Kang, Bong Lee, Kang Woo Lee, Moon Suk Kim
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2012.54028
Abstract: The bare metal stent (BMS) used in the blood vessel caused the restenosis after the operation due to formation and proliferation of neointimal. Recently, as a method to overcome the problems of BMS, drug eluting stent (DES) is developed and being applied to human body which has drug reducing restenosis applied on the metal surface. DES has the advantage of greatly reducing the restenosis after the operation; however, metal stent remains in the body after the drug is released causing issues such as late thrombosis and restenosis so that currently the attention is increasing for biodegradable materials that reduce restenosis and thrombosis by degrading as a certain amount of time passes after the drug is released by the stent material. In this review, the study trend of biodegradable stent will be explained.
Uni- and multidirectional wear resistance of different crosslinking degrees in UHMWPE for artificial joints  [PDF]
V.A. González-Mora, M. Hoffmann, R. Stroosnijder, E. Espinar, J.M. Llamas, M. Fernández-Fairén, F.J. Gil
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2011.44035
Abstract: The aim of this work was to study the effect of UHMWPE crosslinking on wear performance. Differently treated UHMWPEs were studied by means of unidirectional and multidirectional wear tests. Unidirectional tests simulate total knee replacement and multidirectional tests simulate total hip replacement movements. The samples tested were observed by optical and scanning electron microscopy in order to determine wear mechanisms that explain the dif-ferent results obtained in the uni- and multidirectional wear tests performed.
The 5 Hallmarks of Biomaterials Success: An Emphasis on Orthopaedics  [PDF]
Dustin L. Williams, Brad M. Isaacson
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2014.54035
Abstract:

Over the past 200 years, there has been significant advancements in the fields of bioengineering and orthopaedics. Investigators, clinicians and manufactures are learning that the success of implant systems is not limited to a single factor, but a combination of variables that must work in unison to provide stability and high survivorship. Innovations continue to advance these fields and include: biomimetic alterations, three-dimensional, patient-specific reconstructions and novel coatings to mitigate aseptic loosening or other pathologies. However, implant systems continue to fail in clinical practice since they do not adhere to key fundamental principles. Therefore, this article is intended to highlight 5 hallmarks of biomaterials that should be considered during design, surgery, and post-operative rehabilitation.

Studies on Processing and Characterization of Hydroxyapatite Biomaterials from Different Bio Wastes  [PDF]
Sudip Mondal, Biswanath Mondal, Apurba Dey, Sudit S. Mukhopadhyay
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2012.111005
Abstract: Development of suitable materials that acts as an interface between the implant and tissues in body system structurally, mechanically and bio functionally is important for the success of tissue engineering. This motivated materials scientists and biologists to find out suitable bioactive materials for the aforementioned purpose. There has been growing interest in developing bioactive synthetic ceramics that could closely mimic natural apatite characteristics. Hydroxyapatite (HAp) has been widely used as a biocompatible ceramic but mainly for contact with bone tissue, due to its resemblance to mineral bone. This study presents the synthesis and characterization of HAp materials from different sources like bovine bone and fish scales and their application in tissue engineering. The phase purity and crystallinity of different calcined HAp powder was determined by XRD and FTIR analysis. The Thermo Gravimetric and Differential Thermal Analysis were carried out to show the thermal stability of the HAp powder. The morphology of the powder was observed under Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Cytotoxicity evaluation of the developed powder was carried out in RAW macrophage like cell line media for an incubation period of 72 hours. These results proved the biocompatibility of HAp powders obtained from different biosources for tissue engineering applications.
Reconstrucción craneal con biomateriales: Revisión histórica y estado actual
Zubillaga Rodríguez,I.; Sánchez Aniceto,G.; Montalvo Moreno,J.J.;
Revista Espa?ola de Cirugía Oral y Maxilofacial , 2007, DOI: 10.4321/S1130-05582007000200001
Abstract: craniofacial defect reconstruction is still a challenging procedure. a cranioplasty is the treatment of a cranial defect or a deformity. cranial injuries and neurosurgical procedures provide an important group of cases that allow the development of new materials and fascinating progress. the aim of this article is a historic review of the different cranial reconstructive techniques used, describing advantages and drawbacks. the biomaterials applied in recent cases are presented.
Review Article: Immobilized Molecules Using Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology  [PDF]
Magdy M. M. Elnashar
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology (JBNB) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jbnb.2010.11008
Abstract: Immobilized molecules using biomaterials and nanobiotechnology is a very interesting topic that touching almost all aspects of our life. It uses the sciences of biology, chemistry, physics, materials engineering and computer science to develop instruments and products that are at the cutting edge of some of today’s most promising scientific frontiers. In this review article, the author based on his experience in this arena has tried to focus on some of the supports for im-mobilization; the most important molecules to be immobilized such as DNA, cells, enzymes, metals, polysaccharides, etc and their applications in medicine, food, drug, water treatment, energy and even in aerospace. He specified a special section on what is new in the arena of supports and technologies used in enzyme immobilization and finally a recommendation by the author for future work with a special attention to up-to-date references.
A Study of the Cytotoxicity of a New Nonwoven Polymeric Fibrous Bandaging Material In-Vitro  [PDF]
M.G. Danilets, A.M. Dygai, A.A. Ligatcheva, A.A. Сhurin, L.M. Ogorodova, S.G. Psakhie, Y.P. Belsky, N.V. Belska
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology (JBNB) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jbnb.2011.23029
Abstract: Traditionally used cotton-based bandaging materials have several disadvantages which can be overcome by using another fabric structure – nonwoven fabric. Moreover, these materials are more spongeous which increases their sorption capacity. The new bandaging material developed by the Institute of Physics of Strength and Material Science of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences has even better sorption capacity with improved sorption properties. Its sorption capacity has been increased by means of an additional introduction of porous aluminum hydrate particles into fabric. It is important that a bandaging material has a good biocompatibility and does not have any cytotoxic effect on cells and tissues. Here it is present results of the study of the material's direct contact and indirect cytotoxicity assays in comparison with cotton gauze. It have found that in the direct contact of nonwoven polymeric fibrous bandaging material (NPFBM) with cells for 24 hours of cultivation no changes in cell morphology take place, nor does the amount of dead cells increase. These conclusions have been made by means of both a visual examination and an МТТ assay. The NPFBM extract did not have any cytotoxic effect on the tested cells either. The obtained results allow us to make a conclusion that the NPFBM complies with the international standard ISO 10993-5, which is applied to medical goods, and can from now on be applied in the treatment of infected wounds in clinical practice.
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