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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 858 matches for " Biodiesel glycerin ashes "
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Acción fundente de cenizas de glicerina de biodiésel en pastas cerámicas
Iglesias, I.,Aineto, M.,Soriano, R.,Acosta, A.
Boletín de la Sociedad Espa?ola de Cerámica y Vidrio , 2009,
Abstract: Biodiesel glycerin ashes are residual ashes generated in the combustion of glycerine that is produced as a by-product in the manufacture of biodiesel. The aim of this work is to check their flux action in ceramic fabrics. In order to do so, both mineralogical and chemical characterisation of these ashes and some ceramic pastes, used in stoneware, has been performed, as well as an assessment of its thermal behaviour. Different mixtures of biodiesel ceramics adding ashes to a paste in a ceramic 5, 7 and 10% by weight have been used. Such mixtures have been studied with a hot stage microscope and it can be concluded that the ash acts as a flux of the ceramic paste reducing its sintering temperature in more than 100 oC, which in an industrial process would result in energy savings in the firing process and valorisation of waste it as a secondary raw material, in addition to obtaining an environmental benefit reusing waste products and preventing its dumping. Las cenizas de glicerina de biodiésel son unas cenizas residuales generadas en la combustión de la glicerina que se obtiene como subproducto en la fabricación de biodiésel. El objetivo de este trabajo es comprobar su acción fundente en pastas cerámicas. Para ello se ha realizado la caracterización mineralógica y química de dichas cenizas y de unas pastas cerámicas destinadas a la fabricación de gres, así como el estudio de su comportamiento térmico. Se han formulado diferentes mezclas adicionando cenizas de glicerina a la pasta cerámica en un 5, 7 y 10 % en peso. Estas mezclas se han estudiado con el microscopio de calefacción de manera comparada y se concluye que la ceniza actúa como fundente de la pasta cerámica reduciendo su temperatura de sinterización en más de 100oC, lo cual en un proceso industrial se traduciría en un ahorro energético en la cocción y en la valorización de un residuo al considerarlo como una materia prima secundaria, además de obtener un beneficio medioambiental al reutilizar un residuo evitando su vertido.
Monoacylglycerols Production: Routes and Catalysts [Produ o de Monoacilgliceróis: Rotas e Catalisadores]
Nikolas B. L. dos Santos,Michelle J. C. Rezende
Revista Virtual de Química , 2012,
Abstract: The increased consumption of biodiesel in Brazil leads to the need of new uses for by-products generated in its production, such as glycerin. One of the main derivatives of glycerin is its transformation into monoacylglycerols. Monoacylglycerols are basically monoesters composed by fatty acid and glycerol. These compounds are widely used as nonionic surfactants in the pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries, representing about 70 % of all used synthetic emulsifiers. It has been noticed an increasing number of articles about monoacylglycerols and this is an indication that the interest and importance of this class of compounds have been growing over the years. Obtaining monoacylglycerols from triacylglycerols glycerolysis and also from the esterification of fatty acids with glycerol has been under constant study. This article summarizes their main routes of obtaining and mentions some catalysts that have been proposed in the literature. In addition, there are several references of articles and reviews related to the topic
Co-products from Biodiesel Production [Co-produtos da Produ o de Biodiesel]
Claudio J. A. Mota,Carolina F. M. Pestana
Revista Virtual de Química , 2011,
Abstract: The increasing demand of biodiesel for blending with fossil-derived diesel leads to a great production of residues and co-products. Adding value to these byproducts is of great economical and environmental importance. The residues generated in the vegetable oil production are mainly used in animal feeding, manure production and thermal energy generation. On the other hand, the focus on glycerin, the main co-product of biodiesel production, is the chemical transformation into products that can be used in the production of plastics and as fuel additives.
Dust Suppression with Glycerin from Biodiesel Production: A Review  [PDF]
Wei Yan, S. Kent Hoekman
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.32027
Abstract: An increasing number of countries and areas in the world suffer from either natural or anthropogenic dust, which results in a serious hazard with respect to the environment and to personal health and safety. This paper reviews and summa- rizes open literature involving the use of glycerin in dust control applications. Glycerin, a by-product from biodiesel manufacturing, has been evaluated for dust suppressant performance when applied alone as aqueous solutions, or in combinations with surfactants, polymers, or other chemicals. There are reports indicating that glycerin is effective in some dust suppression applications, although details about its use and performance metrics are generally lacking. Re- cent growth of the biodiesel industry has significantly increased the supply of crude glycerin, making it an economically attractive material for use in dust suppression. This paper also highlights several environmental accidents caused by irresponsible discharges of crude glycerin, and points out the need to understand environmental consequences of gly- cerin and its impurities when used in dust suppression applications.
Capacity of ensilage of Jatropha curcas L. cake to degrade forbol esters
Oliveira, André Soares de;Schwambach, Thiago Ivan;Sinhorin, Adilson Paulo;Oliveira, Márcia Rodrigues Carvalho;Alessi, Karine Claudia;Oliveira Filho, Francisco Ant?nio de;Pina, Douglas dos Santos;
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-35982012000600032
Abstract: the objective of this study was to evaluate the capacity of the ensilage of jatropha curcas l. expeller cake to reduce the phorbol esters and its effect on fermentative losses, by adding soluble carbohydrates or microbial inoculants. the design was completely randomized with four replications in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement, with three sources of soluble carbohydrates (sc, control, 50 g sucrose/kg or 50 g crude glycerin/kg as fed) and two doses of microbial inoculants (mi, 0 or 5 × 105 ufc lactobacillus plantarum + 3.33 × 105 ufc propionibacterium per g as fed). twenty-four mini-silos (982 cm3) of polyvinyl chloride were created and opened after 60 days of fermentation at room temperature. the pre-hydrated jatropha curcas l. cake (282 g of water/kg) contained 0.424 mg of phorbol esters/g of dry matter. ensiling reduced the phorbol esters in 47.4%, on average, regardless of the sc or mi. there was no interaction effect between sc and mi on effluent, gases or total dry matter losses. however, both losses were increased when sc were added, and it was higher with glycerin that than sucrose. the addition of mi reduced all fermentation losses. the process of ensiling, although partially to reduce the phorbol esters of pre-hydrated jatropha curcas l. cake, is not indicated as a biodestoxification procedure.
CONSUMO E DESEMPENHO DE BOVINOS DE APTID O LEITEIRA EM CONFINAMENTO ALIMENTADOS COM GLICEROL
Jean Pacheco Le?o,Jose Neuman Miranda Neiva,Jo?o Restle,Pedro Veiga Rodrigues Paulino
Ciência Animal Brasileira , 2012,
Abstract: This study was conducted to evaluate the nutrients intake and the productive performance ofdairy cows and steers fed diets containing glycerol. The animals were distributed in a completely randomized design with factorial arrangement 4 glycerol levels (0, 6, 12 and 24%) x2sexes (steers and cows) and three replications. The consumption of dry matter (DM) crude protein (CP) and non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC) were not affected by inclusion of glycerol in the diets of cows and steers.However, there was a linear decrease in the consumption of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) (g/kg BW) for cows, but it did not affect the consumption of NDF and ethereal extract (EE) for steers when expressed in kg/day, but showed a quadratic response to NDF intake expressed as%BW and a linear decrease for the consumption of EE expressed in g/kgBW0.75 and %BW. The cows showed a higher intake of DM, CP, NDF, NFC, expressed in kg/day, than the steers, when the diets included 6 and 12% glycerol and higher intakes of DM, NDF and NFC, expressed in g/kg/BW0.75, when diet included 6% glycerol. The daily weight gain was not affected by the inclusion of glycerol. We concluded that glycerol can be included up to 24% of total DM of diets ofdairy steers and cows without compromising animal performance.
Refinación de la Fase Glicerina del Biodiesel de Aceite de Palma empleando ácidos Minerales
Carde?o,Fernando; Gallego,Luis J; Rios,Luis A;
Información tecnológica , 2011, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-07642011000600003
Abstract: a method is proposed for the purification of glycerin from palm oil biodiesel production to achieve the required standards, for use in applications non-requiring usp grade (united states pharmacopoeia), particularly those defined by colombian standards. a factorial design 2 3 was used with the three variables: type of acid (phosphoric or sulfuric acid), quantity of methanol and ph. it was found that the treatment with sulfuric acid, 50% methanol and ph of 6 gave the best results, and requires an activated carbon bleaching to meet the required color. refined and bleached glycerin obtained meets the requirements of glycerin type 2 grades 1 and 2 according to the colombian standard ntc1274.
Treatment of Glycerin Pitch from Biodiesel Production
E. Nor Hidawati,A M Mimi Sakinah
International Journal of Chemical and Environmental Engineering , 2011,
Abstract: Glycerin pitch, a by-product of biodiesel was generated from a biodiesel plant through transesterification process in- creased drastically as tremendously growth of biodiesel industry. The excess glycerine pitch may become an environ- mental problem since it cannot be disposed to the environment. The pitch is contained many other material such as soaps, remaining catalysts, water and esters formed throughout the process. In this paper, treatment of glycerine pitch is obtained the glycerol purity is up to 87.14wt % with relatively low ash content (0.00397% (w/w)), MONG of 5.503% (w/w) and moisture content was 7.35% (w/w). Several analyses using Fourier transform infra red (FTIR) and high per- formance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were employed to determine the purity and the compositions of glycerol pitch and recovered glycerol.
Enhancement of biodiesel production from different species of algae
El-Moneim M. R. Afify, Abd,Shalaby, Emad A.,Shanab, Sanaa M. M.
Grasas y Aceites , 2010, DOI: 10.3989/gya.021610
Abstract: Eight algal species (4 Rhodo, 1 chloro and 1 phaeophycean macroalgae, 1 cyanobacterium and 1 green microalga) were used for the production of biodiesel using two extraction solvent systems (Hexane/ether (1:1, v/v)) and (Chloroform/ methanol (2:1, v/v)). Biochemical evaluations of algal species were carried out by estimating biomass, lipid, biodiesel and sediment (glycerin and pigments) percentages. Hexane/ ether (1:1, v/v) extraction solvent system resulted in low lipid recoveries (2.3-3.5% dry weight) while; chloroform/methanol (2: 1, v/v) extraction solvent system was proved to be more efficient for lipid and biodiesel extraction (2.5 – 12.5% dry weight) depending on algal species. The green microalga Dictyochloropsis splendida extract produced the highest lipid and biodiesel yield (12.5 and 8.75% respectively) followed by the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis (9.2 and 7.5 % respectively). On the other hand, the macroalgae (red, brown and green) produced the lowest biodiesel yield. The fatty acids of Dictyochloropsis splendida Geitler biodiesel were determined using gas liquid chromatography. Lipids, biodiesel and glycerol production of Dictyochloropsis splendida Geitler (the promising alga) were markedly enhanced by either increasing salt concentration or by nitrogen deficiency with maximum production of (26.8, 18.9 and 7.9 % respectively) at nitrogen starvation condition. Ocho especies de algas (4 Rhodo, 1 cloro y 1 macroalgas phaeophycean, 1 cianobacteria y 1 microalga verde) fueron utilizados para la producción de biodiesel utilizando dos sistemas de extracción con disolventes (hexano/éter (1:1, v/v)) y (Cloroformo / metanol (2:1, v/v)). La evaluación bioquímica de las especies de algas se llevó a cabo mediante la estimación de los porcentajes de biomasa, de lípidos, de biodiesel y de sedimento (glicerina y pigmentos). El sistema extracción con el disolvente hexano/éter (1:1, v/v) produjo una bajada de los porcentaje de lípidos (2.3-3.5% de peso seco), mientras que el sistema de extracción con el disolvente cloroformo/metanol (2:1, v/v) demostró ser más eficaz en la extracción de los lípidos y del biodiésel (2,5 - 12,5% de peso seco) dependiendo de las especies de algas. Los extractos de microalgas verde Dictyochloropsis splendida produjeron los mayores porcentaje de lípidos y de biodiésel (12,5 y 8,75%, respectivamente), seguida de la cianobacteria Spirulina platensis (9,2 y 7,5% respectivamente). Por otra parte, las macroalgas (rojo, marrón y verde) produce los porcentajes más bajos de biodiesel (0,25 - 3,8%). Los ácidos grasos del biodiesel de
Refinación de la Fase Glicerina del Biodiesel de Aceite de Palma empleando ácidos Minerales Refining of Glycerin Phase from Palm Oil Biodiesel using Mineral Acids
Fernando Carde?o,Luis J Gallego,Luis A Rios
Información Tecnológica , 2011,
Abstract: Se estudió un método de purificación para la glicerina procedente de la producción de biodiesel de aceite de palma, para alcanzar los estándares requeridos para su uso en aplicaciones que no requieran el grado USP (United States Pharmacopoeia), definidos por las normas técnicas colombianas. Se usó dise o factorial 2 3 con tres variables: tipo de ácido (fosfórico o sulfúrico), cantidad de metanol y pH. Se encontró que el tratamiento con ácido sulfúrico, con 50% de metanol y pH de 6, es el que da mejores resultados y que se requiere una decoloración con carbón activado para cumplir con la exigencia de color. La glicerina refinada y decolorada obtenida cumple con los requerimientos de la glicerina tipo 2 grado 1 y 2 según la Norma Técnica colombiana NTC1274. A method is proposed for the purification of glycerin from palm oil biodiesel production to achieve the required standards, for use in applications non-requiring USP grade (United States Pharmacopoeia), particularly those defined by Colombian standards. A factorial design 2 3 was used with the three variables: type of acid (phosphoric or sulfuric acid), quantity of methanol and pH. It was found that the treatment with sulfuric acid, 50% methanol and pH of 6 gave the best results, and requires an activated carbon bleaching to meet the required color. Refined and bleached glycerin obtained meets the requirements of glycerin type 2 grades 1 and 2 according to the Colombian standard NTC1274.
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