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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 884 matches for " Bindra Shrestha "
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Adsorptive Removal of Heavy Metals from Aqueous Solution with Environmental Friendly Material—Exhausted Tea Leaves  [PDF]
Bindra Shrestha, Jagjit Kour, Kedar Nath Ghimire
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science (ACES) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/aces.2016.64046
Abstract: In this study adsorptive removal of Pb(II) and Cu(II) from aqueous solution by using environmental friendly natural polymers present in exhausted tea leaves has been studied. The biosorbent was modified with dimethylamine to introduce N-functional groups on the surface of adsorbent. The modified adsorbent was characterized by elemental analysis, zeta potential analysis, SEM, DRFTIR, XRD and TG/DTA analysis to conform the modification. Adsorption capacity of the adsorbent was determined as the function of pH of the solution, initial concentration of the solution and contact time. The adsorption experiments were performed using batch experiments. The maximum adsorption capacities of the adsorbent were found to be 91.68 and 71.20 mg/g for Pb(II) and Cu(II), respectively. To minimize the process cost, regeneration of the biosorbent and recovery of metal ions was explored by desorption study. The results indicate that the adsorbent holds great potential for the sequestration of Pb(II) and Cu(II) from their aqueous solution. Hence the modified exhausted tea leaves (MTL) have been investigated as a new cost effective and efficient biosorbent for removal of Pb(II) and Cu(II) from their aqueous solution.
Surface Modification of the Biowaste for Purification of Wastewater Contaminated with Toxic Heavy Metals—Lead and Cadmium  [PDF]
Bindra Shrestha, Jagjit Kour, Puspa Lal Homagai, Megh Raj Pokhrel, Kedar Nath Ghimire
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science (ACES) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aces.2013.33022

The surface of a biowaste was modified by introduction of amino group for the purification of wastewater contaminated with heavy metals. In this study waste tea leaf was used as a biowaste which was an economic and efficient bioadsorbent. The aminated tea leaves were characterized by spectral and elemental analysis. The adsorption capacity of the surface modified biosorbent was studied as the function of solution pH, concentration of metal ions and contact time of adsorption. The applicability of Langmuir isotherm was tested. The adsorption capacities were found to be 83.04 mg/g and 57 mg/g for Pb (II) and Cd (II), respectively. The biosorbent was regenerated by desorption of the metal loaded adsorbent with 0.1 M HNO3. These results showed that the aminated tea leaves may be an attractive alternative for treatment of wastewater contaminated with heavy metals.

Removal of Copper (II) and Zinc (II) ions from Aqueous Solution by Biosorption onto Aminated Tea Waste
Bindra Shrestha,P. L. Homagai,M. R. Pokhrel,K. N. Ghimire
Journal of Nepal Chemical Society , 2011, DOI: 10.3126/jncs.v28i0.8058
Abstract: An efficient and cost effective non-conventional biosorbent has been prepared from tea waste by amination with ethylenediamine. The prepared adsorbent, ATW was characterized using elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopic image and FTIR spectroscopy. Its adsorption behavior for Cu ++ and Zn ++ ions was studied by using batch adsorption method. The maximum adsorption capacity onto ATW was found to be 46.4mg/g and 30.08 mg/g for Cu ++ and Zn ++ respectively. The effect of pH of solution, initial metal concentration and contact time for removal of metal ions were studied. The applicability of data was analyzed by Langmuir isotherm. The kinetics of removal of Cu ++ and Zn ++ ions was studied using pseudosecond order model, in which the data were well fitted. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jncs.v28i0.8058 Journal of Nepal Chemical Society Vol.28, 2011 Page 48-53 Uploaded date : May 7, 2013
Exhausted Tea Leaves – a low cost bioadsorbent for the removal of Lead (II) and Zinc (II) ions from their aqueous solution
Bindra Shrestha,P. L. Homagai,M. R. Pokhrel,K. N. Ghimire
Journal of Nepal Chemical Society , 2012, DOI: 10.3126/jncs.v30i0.9383
Abstract: An efficient and cost effective bioadsorbent has been prepared from exhausted tea leaves using hydrazine monohydrate. The aminated tea leaves (ATL) was characterised by elemental and spectral analysis. The batch adsorption study was performed using ATL for the removal of Pb ++ and Zn ++ from their aqueous solution. Adsorption experiment was conducted as the function of solution pH, initial metal concentration and contact time. The maximum adsorption capacity of the adsorbent was found to be 120.8 mg/g for Pb ++ and 79.76 mg/g for Zn ++ . These results indicated that the aminated tea leaves hold great potential to remove Pb ++ and Zn ++ from aqueous solution. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jncs.v30i0.9383 Journal of Nepal Chemical Society Vol. 30, 2012 Page: 123-129 Uploaded date : 12/20/2013 ? ?
Considerations and Open Issues in Delay Tolerant Network’S (DTNs) Security  [PDF]
Harminder Singh Bindra, Amrit Lal Sangal
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/wsn.2010.28076
Abstract: Delay Tolerant Network (DTN) addresses challenges of providing end-to-end service where end-to-end data forwarding paths may not exist. Security and privacy are crucial to the wide deployments of DTN. Without security and privacy guarantees, people are reluctant to accept such a new network paradigm. To address the security and privacy issues in DTNs, we in this paper have discussed the various open issues and challenges which need to be addressed to evolve the secure DTNs.
Morphology of the Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ) of Sheep (Ovis aries)  [PDF]
Amol S. Patil, Gunit K. Bindra
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine (OJVM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojvm.2012.24039
Abstract: The detailed anatomy of TMJ of sheep was explored so that it could be used as an experimental animal for study of condylar growth. The experimental animal was a 3 month old sheep, head of which was procured from a local abettor. The results showed that the sheep is an excellent experimental model for the study of condylar growth, with and without the use of functional appliances, because of similarity in anatomy related to size, shape and position of the condyle to that of human beings. Thus, it is concluded that the study will help future investigators in the field of dentistry to consider the sheep as an experimental animal for further research.
Comparative prevalence of MRSA in two Nepalese tertiary care hospitals  [PDF]
Bidya Shrestha
Open Journal of Clinical Diagnostics (OJCD) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojcd.2013.32013
Abstract: This comparative study has been focused on the prevalence of MRSA types and their antibiotic resistance in two tertiary care hospitals of Nepal. During November 2007 to June 2009, clinical samples from patients with nosocomial infection from two Nepali hospitals, Kathmandu Based Hospital (KBH) and Lalitpur Based Hospital (LBH) were cultured and antibiotic susceptibility tests done following standard methodology in Microbiology laboratory, Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal. Occurrence of MRSA (52.9% of 304 Staphylococcus aureus isolates) in KBH and that of MSSA (62% of 100 S. aureus isolates) in LBH were significant. No association of age was observed with MRSA or MSSA. Among MSSA from both hospitals, the highest resistance was found against penicillin. KBH urinary isolates were resistant to norfloxacin (51.4%), while isolates from other sites were resistant to ciprofloxacin (30.6%), erythromycin (12%), gentamicin (10.3%). LBH isolates were resistant to co-trimoxazole (22.6%), erythromycin (17.2%), ciprofloxacin (13.8%), gentamicin (12.9%). Among MRSA, most of the isolates from both hospitals were resistant to a wide array of antibiotics. A majority of the MSSA and MRSA isolates were susceptible to rifampicin and chloramphenicol. Most of KBH MRSA were homogeneous MRSA, 80.5% (significant), of which, 99.2% were multiresistant oxacillin resistant S. aureus (MORSA). And among the heterogeneous MRSA isolates from KBH, 71% were MORSA. On the other hand, among LBH MRSA isolates, 52.6% were homogeneous MRSA, cent percent of which were MORSA while 47.4% were heterogeneous MRSA of which 44.5% were MORSA. Since almost all of the homogeneous MRSA and most of the heterogeneous MRSA from both hospitals were MORSA, there is a possibility that a hospital acquired S. aureus could be MORSA. Hence, every infected patient should be considered as a potential source of MORSA.
Long Lead-Time Streamflow Forecasting Using Oceanic-Atmospheric Oscillation Indices  [PDF]
Niroj Kumar Shrestha
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2014.66062

Climatic variability influences the hydrological cycle that subsequently affects the discharge in the stream. The variability in the climate can be represented by the ocean-atmospheric oscillations which provide the forecast opportunity for the streamflow. Prediction of future water availability accurately and reliably is a key step for successful water resource management in the arid regions. Four popular ocean-atmospheric indices were used in this study for annual streamflow volume prediction. They were Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), El-Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Multivariate Relevance Vector Machine (MVRVM), a data driven model based on Bayesian learning approach was used as a prediction model. The model was applied to four unimpaired stream gages in Utah that spatially covers the state from north to south. Different models were developed based on the combinations of oscillation indices in the input. A total of 60 years (1950-2009) of data were used for the analysis. The model was trained on 50 years of data (1950-1999) and tested on 10 years of data (2000-2009). The best combination of oscillation indices and the lead-time were identified for each gage which was used to develop the prediction model. The predicted flow had reasonable agreement with the actual annual flow volume. The sensitivity analysis shows that the PDO and ENSO have relatively stronger effect compared to other oscillation indices in Utah. The prediction results from the MVRVM were compared with the Support Vector Machine (SVM) and the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) where MVRVM performed relatively better.

Characterization and Modeling of Urban Water Quality in the City of Calgary, Canada  [PDF]
Dhiraj Shrestha, Jianxun He
Natural Resources (NR) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2017.88032
Abstract: Non-point source pollution (NPS) besides point source pollution (PS) has contributed to pollutant loading into natural receiving water bodies. Due to the nature of NPS, the quantification of pollutant loading from NPS is very challenging but crucial to riverine water quality management, especially for the river reach flowing through urban areas. The water quality in the river reach of the Bow River flowing through the City of Calgary in Alberta, Canada, is affected by both PS and NPS. Thus, understanding and characterizing water quality of discharges (affected by NPS) into the river reach is necessary for better managing riverine water quality and preventing water quality degradation. In the paper, monitored event mean concentrations (EMCs) of stormwater runoff and mean concentrations of snowmelt and baseflow of seven common pollutants from sub-catchments, which are categorized into four land use types including commercial, industrial, residential and on-going development land uses, were used to investigate the linkage between land use and water quality. Statistical analysis techniques were adopted to identify differences or similarities in water quality among different flow types, different land use types, and among/between catchments of same land use. The results indicated that EMCs of many water quality parameters vary among different land use types and among/between catchments of same land use. The results also showed median EMCs of pollutants of snowmelt and baseflow are, in general, lower than those of stormwater runoff. In addition, Stormwater Management Model was employed to investigate the physical process that would affect water quality response to storm events for two typical land uses, industrial and residential land uses. The modeling results supported that wash-off of particulate matters might primarily affect water quality response of catchments between different land uses. All the results shed the light on the necessity of quantifying pollutant loading considering the characteristics of land uses.
Mortality and Morbidity Pattern of Preterm Babies at a Tertiary Level Hospital in Nepal
Laxman Shrestha,Prabina Shrestha
Journal of Nepal Paediatric Society , 2013, DOI: 10.3126/jnps.v33i3.9200
Abstract: Introduction: Preterm birth is a major determinant of neonatal mortality and morbidity and has long-term adverse consequences for health. The objectives of this study were to find the demographic characteristics and clinical course of preterm babies admitted at Neonatal Unit of TU Teaching Hospital. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was done by collecting data from labour room, NICU and by reviewing medical records of all preterm babies admitted to NICU in 2011. Results: There were total of 266 preterm deliveries in TUTH in the year 2011. About 45% of them required NICU admission. Ninety five babies were included in the study. Most common cause of premature delivery was maternal pregnancy induced hypertension (26%). Other causes were preterm premature rupture of membrane (24%) and in 25% of cases the cause was unknown. There were 10 (10.5%) severe preterm babies with mean weight 1.4 ± 0.3 kg, 27 (28.5 %) moderate preterm babies with mean weight 1.8 ± 0.4 kg and 58 (61%) late preterm babies with mean weight 2.2 ± 0.5 kg. Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) was seen in 32% babies, hyperbilirubinemia in 40% babies, sepsis occurred in 37% and NEC in 4%. Hypothermia was seen in 10.5% and hypoglycemia in 5% babies. Apnea of prematurity was seen in 7% babies. Mechanical ventilation was required in 7% babies. The overall mortality was 12%. The main causes of death were respiratory distress syndrome and sepsis. The mean duration of stay was 10.2±8.8days. The survival rate of severe preterm babies was 80%, moderate preterm babies was 78% while that of late preterm was 95%. Conclusion: The main causes of morbidities in preterm babies were respiratory distress, hyperbilirubinemia and sepsis. Respiratory distress syndrome and sepsis were the predominant causes of mortality in these babies. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jnps.v33i3.9200 J. Nepal Paediatr. Soc. 2013;33(3):201-205
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