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PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF THREE DIFFERENT SPECIES OF CURCUMA RHIZOME
Negi Richa Srivastava,Bindra Rattan Lal,Srivastava Vikas Kumar,Kumar Dhirendra
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2013, DOI: 10.7897/2230-8407.04333
Abstract: The Zingiberaceae, the largest family in the Zingerabales, comprises nearly 50 genera and 1000 species and is pantropical concentrated mainly in the old world, chiefly in Indomalaysia. Members of the family yield species, dyes, perfumes, medicines and a number of ornamental species are cultivated for their ornamental flowers. Curcuma is one of the important ‘Rasayana’ drugs mentioned in Ayurveda. In the present study three successive extractions of plant rhizomes viz. C. amada, C. malabarica and C. zedoaria were undertaken by using various solvent like alcohol, hydro-alcohol and water in their increasing polarity and the extracts thus obtained were subjected for their phytochemical analysis, followed by Thin Layer Chromatographic examination by optimizing the solvent system.
Considerations and Open Issues in Delay Tolerant Network’S (DTNs) Security  [PDF]
Harminder Singh Bindra, Amrit Lal Sangal
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/wsn.2010.28076
Abstract: Delay Tolerant Network (DTN) addresses challenges of providing end-to-end service where end-to-end data forwarding paths may not exist. Security and privacy are crucial to the wide deployments of DTN. Without security and privacy guarantees, people are reluctant to accept such a new network paradigm. To address the security and privacy issues in DTNs, we in this paper have discussed the various open issues and challenges which need to be addressed to evolve the secure DTNs.
Land Management Effects on Carbon Sequestration and Soil Properties in Reclaimed Farmland of Eastern Ohio, USA  [PDF]
David A. N. Ussiri, Rattan Lal
Open Journal of Soil Science (OJSS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojss.2013.31006
Abstract:

Reclaimed mined soils (RMSs) could restore soil quality and ecosystem productivity while sequestering C and off-setting some of C emissions associated with coal utilization. The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of tillage and pasture management on soil physical properties, soil organic carbon (SOC) and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) in RMSs managed for agricultural use in eastern Ohio. Soil bulk density (ρb) of the top 50 cm ranged from 1.11 to 1.93 Mg·m-3. The ρb of the RMSs was significantly more than that of the undisturbed soils. Water stable aggregates (WSA) and mean weight diameter (MWD) of the 0 - 10 cm soil layer were significantly lower under reclaimed conventional tillage (RCT) than reclaimed no tillage (RNT) and reclaimed pasture (RP), probably due to tillage-induced disturbance. The SOC pool of the top 50 cm layer was 64.2, 66.5, 75.4, 86.1 and 101.1 Mg·C·ha-1 for undisturbed pasture (Und P), RNT, RCT, RP and undisturbed hardwood forest (Und HWF), respectively (LSD = 7.7 Mg·ha-1). The RMSs under pasture accumulated SOC at higher rates than RMSs under cropland. Reclaimed pasture land use increased SOC pool by 14% or 0.5 Mg·ha-1·yr-1 and 30% or 0.9 Mg·ha-1·yr-1 relative to RNT and RCT land uses, respectively. Our data indicated that RMSs under forest and pastures had higher SOC sequestration rates than RMSs under arable land use, probably due to disturbances associated with farm operations. The MBC of the RMSs were generally lower than those of the undisturbed sites. The disturbances associated with mining and reclamation reduced the MBC by 39, 53 and 21% under RCT, RNT and RP compared to the undisturbed forest and pasture sites. However, the amount of mineralizable C was not significantly different among land disturbances or land uses.

Nanoenhanced Materials for Reclamation of Mine Lands and Other Degraded Soils: A Review
Ruiqiang Liu,Rattan Lal
Journal of Nanotechnology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/461468
Abstract: Successful mine soil reclamation facilitates ecosystem recovery, minimizes adverse environmental impacts, creates additional lands for agricultural or forestry uses, and enhances the carbon (C) sequestration. Nanoparticles with extremely high reactivity and deliverability can be applied as amendments to improve soil quality, mitigate soil contaminations, ensure safe land–application of the conventional amendment materials (e.g., manures and biosolids), and enhance soil erosion control. However, there is no report on using nanoenhanced materials for mine soil reclamation. Through reviewing the up-to-date research results on using environment-friendly nanoparticles for agricultural soil quality improvement and for contaminated soil remediation, this paper synthesizes that these nanomaterials with high potentials for mine soil reclamation include zeolites, zero-valent iron nanoparticles, iron oxide nanoparticles, phosphate-based nanoparticles, iron sulfide nanoparticles and C nanotubes. Transport of these particles in the environment and their possible ecotoxicological effects are also discussed. Additionally, this article proposes a practical and economical approach to applying nanotechnology for mine soil reclamation: adding small amounts of nanoparticles to the conventional soil amendment materials and then applying the mixtures for soil quality improvements. Hence the cost of using nanoparticles is reduced and the benefits of both nanoparticles and the conventional amendment materials are harnessed. 1. Introduction Ever since the commencement of industrial-scale mining of coal and other minerals, drastic environmental impacts have been recorded arising from both the mined lands and from the wastes left behind at the surface [1, 2]. The local landscape and the soil quality are among the most severely disturbed environmental components by the mining processes through directly stripping the vegetation and soil layers (open-pit mining) and/or through depositing the ores and mining wastes on the soils [3]. Dramatic alterations of the geological environment of the coal/ores and the mining wastes significantly reduce the chemical stability of the minerals, resulting in the release of the environmental disruptive chemicals into the soils and creating the “mine soils.” Typical mine soils often refer to the antecedent or original soils which are affected and degraded by the acid drainage and mining wastes. Practically, this type of soils also include the exposed parent materials due to accelerated soil erosion and/or the top soil removal for open pit mining, and
Biochar Impacts on Soil Physical Properties and Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Atanu Mukherjee,Rattan Lal
Agronomy , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/agronomy3020313
Abstract: Biochar, a co-product of a controlled pyrolysis process, can be used as a tool for sequestering C in soil to offset greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and as a soil amendment. Whereas the impacts of biochar application on soil chemical properties are widely known, the research information on soil physical properties is scarce. The objectives of this review are to (i) synthesize available data on soil physical properties and GHG emissions, (ii) offer possible mechanisms related to the biochar-amended soil processes, and (iii) identify researchable priorities. Application rates of 1%–2% (w/w) of biochar can significantly improve soil physical quality in terms of bulk density (BD), and water holding capacity (WHC). However, little data are available on surface area (SA), aggregation stability, and penetration resistance (PR) of biochar-amended soil. While biochar amendment can initially accentuate the flux of carbon dioxide (CO 2), the emission of GHGs may be suppressed over time. A 2-phase complexation hypothesis is proposed regarding the mechanisms of the interaction between soil and biochar.
Surface Modification of the Biowaste for Purification of Wastewater Contaminated with Toxic Heavy Metals—Lead and Cadmium  [PDF]
Bindra Shrestha, Jagjit Kour, Puspa Lal Homagai, Megh Raj Pokhrel, Kedar Nath Ghimire
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science (ACES) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aces.2013.33022
Abstract:

The surface of a biowaste was modified by introduction of amino group for the purification of wastewater contaminated with heavy metals. In this study waste tea leaf was used as a biowaste which was an economic and efficient bioadsorbent. The aminated tea leaves were characterized by spectral and elemental analysis. The adsorption capacity of the surface modified biosorbent was studied as the function of solution pH, concentration of metal ions and contact time of adsorption. The applicability of Langmuir isotherm was tested. The adsorption capacities were found to be 83.04 mg/g and 57 mg/g for Pb (II) and Cd (II), respectively. The biosorbent was regenerated by desorption of the metal loaded adsorbent with 0.1 M HNO3. These results showed that the aminated tea leaves may be an attractive alternative for treatment of wastewater contaminated with heavy metals.

Lines of Blaschko
Tagra Sunita,Talwar Amrita,Walia Rattan Lal
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology , 2005,
Abstract:
Tillage Effects on Corn Soil-plant-water Continuum in Alfisols of Southern Ohio
Meharban Singh Kahlon,Norman Fausey,Rattan Lal
Journal of Agricultural Science , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/jas.v4n10p35
Abstract: Tillage alters soil physical properties and impacts soil water regime, crop’s relative water content (RWC), and root distribution. Thus, a field study was conducted to characterize and correlate root distribution and assess RWC of corn (Zea mays L.) with soil physical properties under two tillage systems i.e. no-till (NT), and conventional tillage (CT). The RWC, determined four times during a course of the day at two growth stages (V8, i.e. 60 days after planting; and R2, i.e. 90 days after planting), was significantly different (P < 0.05) among two tillage treatments. Corn grown under NT had significantly higher RWC than that under CT during both growth stages. At the V8 growth stage, the RWC ranged from 73.2 to 95.4 % under NT compared with 60.9 to 89.6 % under CT. Further, during the afternoon measurements, RWC was 15 % higher under NT than CT. A similar trend was observed during the R2 growth stage but with lesser RWC values probably due to the lower soil water content at that time. Higher root mass density (RMD) i.e. 0.50 Mg m-3 was measured in 0-10 cm depth under NT than under CT (0.34 Mg m-3), and the opposite was true for 10-20 cm depth. Due to the presence of a compacted layer (plow pan) in CT, roots were concentrated mostly in 10-20 cm depth. Further, higher RMD was measured along the row than within row.
Waardenburg syndrome
Tagra Sunita,Talwar Amrita,Walia Rattan Lal,Sidhu Puneet
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology , 2006,
Abstract: Waardenburg syndrome is a rare inherited and genetically heterogenous disorder of neural crest cell development. Four distinct subtypes showing marked interfamilial and intrafamilial variability have been described. We report a girl showing constellation of congenital hearing impairment with 110 dB and 105 dB loss in right and left ear respectively, hypoplastic blue iridis, white forelock, dystopia canthorum and broad nasal root. Other affected relatives of the family, with variable features of the syndrome, have been depicted in the pedigree.
Torsion in a paediatric wandering spleen: Case report and review of literature
Singla Sham Lal,Rattan K,Sharma Sachit,Bansal Satish
Journal of Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons , 2007,
Abstract: Pediatric wandering spleen is a clinical rarity. Generally it remains asymptomatic, but may present as a painless migratory lump in the left hypochondrium. Rarely it may present as acute abdomen after undergoing torsion over its pedicle leading to infarction and gangrene. Available treatment options include splenectomy or splenopexy. Splenectomy at times is associated with post-operative infections. Splenopexy may result in recurrent torsion.
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