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Anticonvulsant potential of Anisomeles malabarica leaves against experimentally induced convulsions in rats
Singh Ishpinder,Singh Manjit,Singh Tajinder,Bijjem Krishna-Reddy
International Journal of Green Pharmacy , 2010,
Abstract: Anisomeles malabarica (AM) R.Br. (Lamiaceae) is an aromatic perennial herb, the leaves of which are traditionally used to treat convulsions in southern India. The present study has been designed to investigate the anticonvulsant potential of chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of leaves of AM against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and maximal electroshock (MES) induced convulsions. All the three extracts were administered (i.e. 100, 200, 400 mg/kg, p.o.) for 7 days and at the end of the treatment convulsions were induced experimentally. Diazepam and phenytoin (1 mg/kg, i.p. and 25 mg/kg, i.p., respectively) were used as reference anticonvulsant drugs against experimentally induced convulsions. High doses (400 mg/kg, p.o.) of chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts both significantly decreased the extent of MES- and PTZ-induced convulsions. On the other hand, ethyl acetate extract at lowest and medium selected doses (i.e. 100 mg/kg, p.o. and 200 mg/kg, p.o., respectively, for 7 days) had also significantly attenuated PTZ-induced convulsions. However, methanol extract at any of the doses used (i.e. 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) did not show any significant effect on PTZ- and MES-induced convulsions. None of the extracts at doses used in the present study have altered locomotor activity and motor coordination. Hence, it may be concluded that chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of AM leaves are effective against PTZ- and MES induced-convulsions in rats.
Development of a Highly Sensitive Extractive Spectrophotometric Method for the Determination of Nickel(II) from Environmental Matrices Using 2-Acetylpyridine-4-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazone  [PDF]
Desam Nagarjuna Reddy, Kanumukkala Vasudeva Reddy, Berhanu Menasbo Tegegne, Vanka Krishna Reddy
American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (AJAC) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2012.311096
Abstract: Nickel(II) reacts with 2-acetylpyridine-4-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (APMT) and forms a yellow colored complex, which was extracted into n-hexanol from sodium acetate and acetic acid buffer at pH 6.0. The absorbance value of the Ni(II)-APMT complex was measured at different intervals of time at 375 nm to ascertain the time stability of the complex. The extraction of the complex into the solvent was instantaneous and stable for more than 72 hrs. The system obeyed Beer’s law in the concentration range of 0.235 - 2.43 μg·ml–1 of nickel(II), with an excellent linearity and a correlation coefficient of 0.999. The molar absorptivity and Sandell’s sensitivity of the extracted species were found to be 2.16 × 104 L mol–1 ·cm–1 and 0.003 μg·cm–2 at 375 nm, respectively. Hence a detailed study of the extraction of nickel(II) with APMT has been undertaken with a view to developing a rapid and sensitive extractive spectrophotometric method for the determination of nickel(II) when present alone or in the presence of diverse ions which are usually associated with nickel(II) in environmental matrices like soil and industrial effluents. Various standard alloy samples (CM 247 LC, IN 718, BCS 233, 266, 253 and 251) have been tested for the determination of nickel for the purpose of validation of the present method. The results of the proposed method are comparable with those from atomic absorption spectrometry and were found to be in good agreement.
Corn and Soybean Rotation under Reduced Tillage Management: Impacts on Soil Properties, Yield, and Net Return  [PDF]
Krishna N. Reddy, Robert M. Zablotowicz, L. Jason Krutz
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2013.45A002
Abstract:

A 4-yr field study was conducted from 2007 to 2010 at Stoneville, MS to examine the effects of rotating corn and soybean under reduced tillage conditions on soil properties, yields, and net return. The six rotation systems were continuous corn (CCCC), continuous soybean (SSSS), corn-soybean (CSCS), soybean-corn (SCSC), soybean-soybean-cornsoybean (SSCS), and soybean-soybean-soybean-corn (SSSC). Field preparation consisted of disking, subsoiling, disking, and bedding in the fall of 2005. After the fall of 2006, the raised beds were refurbished each fall after harvest with no additional tillage operations to maintain as reduced tillage system. The surface 5 cm soil from continuous soybean had higher pH than continuous corn in all four years. Unlike pH, total carbon and total nitrogen were higher in continuous corn compared to continuous soybean. Delta 15N tended to be higher in continuous corn compared to continuous soybean. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) indicated minor changes in soil microbial community in relation to cropping sequence, however there was a significant shift in rhizosphere community depending on crop. Corn yield increased every year following rotation with soybean by 16%, 31%, and 15% in 2008, 2009, and 2010, respectively, compared to continuous corn. As a result, net returns were higher in rotated corn compared with continuous corn. This study demonstrated that alternating between corn and soybean is a sustainable practice with increased net returns in corn.

Irrigation Methods and Scheduling in the Delta Region of Mississippi: Current Status and Strategies to Improve Irrigation Efficiency  [PDF]
Hirut Kebede, Daniel K. Fisher, Ruixiu Sui, Krishna N. Reddy
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.520307
Abstract: Even though annual rainfall is high in the Delta region of Mississippi, only 30% occurs during the months in which the major crops are produced, making irrigation often necessary to meet crop water needs and to avoid risk of yield and profitability loss. Approximately, 65% of the farmland in this region is irrigated. The shallow Mississippi River Valley Alluvial Aquifer is the major source of water for irrigation and for aquaculture in the predominant catfish industry. This groundwater is being heavily used as row-crop irrigation has increased tremendously. Water level in this aquifer has declined significantly over the past twenty five years, with overdraft of approximately 370 million cubic meters of water per year. Moreover, the common irrigation practices in the Delta re-gion of Mississippi do not use water efficiently, further depleting the ground water and making ir-rigation more expensive to producers due to increasing energy prices. Irrigation experts in the re-gion have tested and verified various methods and tools that increase irrigation efficiency. This article presents a review of the current status of the irrigation practices in the Delta region of Mis-sissippi, and the improved methods and tools that are available to increase irrigation efficiency and to reduce energy costs for producers in the region as well as to stop the overdraft of the declining aquifer, ensuring its sustainable use.
Late-Season Grass Weed Management with In-Crop and Post-Harvest Herbicides in Twin-Row Glyphosate-Resistant Soybean  [PDF]
Krishna N. Reddy, Charles T. Bryson, Vijay K. Nandula
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2015.61024
Abstract: Emergence of grasses late in the season has become a problem in glyphosate-resistant (GR) soybean production in the southern US. A 3-yr field study was conducted from 2011 to 2013 at Stoneville, MS to determine efficacy of post-harvest and pyroxasulfone-based in-crop herbicides on late-season grasses and yield in twin-row glyphosate-resistant soybean. Experiments were conducted in a split-plot arrangement of treatments in a randomized complete block design with fall herbicides (with and without pendimethalin at 1.12 kg ai ha-1 and paraquatat 0.84 kg ai ha-1) as main plots and in-crop herbicides as subplots with four replications. The six in-crop herbicide programs were: glyphosate applied early postemergence (EPOST) at 0.84 kg·aeha-1 followed by (fb) glyphosate late postemergence (LPOST) at 0.84 kg·ha-1 with and without pyroxasulfone preemergence (PRE) applied at 0.18 kg ai ha-1, pyroxasulfone PRE fb glyphosate at 0.84 kg·ha-1 LPOST or glyphosate at 0.84 kg·ha-1 + S-metolachlor at 1.68 kg ai ha-1 EPOST, pyroxasulfone PRE fb S-meto- lachlor at 1.12 kg·ha-1 + fomesafen at 0.27 kg ai ha-1 EPOST fb clethodim at 0.14 kg ai ha-1, and a no-herbicide control. Browntop millet, Digitaria spp., and junglerice densities at 2 weeks after LPOST, grass weed dry biomass at harvest, and soybean yield were similar regardless of post- harvest herbicides in all three years. At 2 weeks after LPOST, browntop millet, Digitaria spp. and junglerice densities were greatly reduced in all five in-crop herbicide treatments compared with no herbicide plot in all three years. Grass weed dry biomass in no-herbicide plots was 3346, 6136, and 6916 kg·ha-1 in 2011, 2012, and 2013, respectively and
Periodontal treatment by local drug delivery using resorbable Base materials; in vitro comparative study assessing drug delivery properties of cellulose acetate and alginate strips
Hari Krishna Reddy S,Anitha Reddy S
Indian Journal of Dental Advancements , 2012,
Abstract: Periodontal diseases are characterized by microbial colonization of the pockets; the elimination of these microbes helps in achieving good prognosis along with the control of inflammation in the treatment of this disease and use of anti-microbials and anti inflammatory agents is an invaluable aid. The use of local drug delivery has been of added advantage over systemically given drugs, to date many local drug delivery vehicles were used which include drug incorporated Gels, resorbable microspheres etc but a very economical and effective drug delivery system was very much needed for wide spread use of this mode of drug delivery for treatment of periodontal infection, which happens to be the most prevalent cause of tooth loss. In this invitro study, the drug release patterns of two most economical and easily made resorbable base materials like sodium alginate and cellulose acetate strips incorporated with drugs most commonly used in treatment of Periodontitis like Metronidazole and Indomethacin (used as anti inflammatory agent)were evaluated, in salivary substitutes using spectrophotometer. The release evaluations were performed at 1st hour, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 24th and 48th hours, the temperature of the medium (salivary substitute) in which these strips were evaluated was maintained at 98oF using an electronically controlled conventional induction plate to mimic the normal body temperature. The evaluation of release patterns showed that the onset of drug release (of either Indomethacin or the Metronidazole) was very quick from the sodium alginate and the near 100% release was achieved with both the drugs within 24 hours where as with cellulose acetate the onset of drug release was a little slower starting almost 2 - 3hrs later than sodium alginate and the release pattern was very slow achieving only approximately 67-69% after 48 hours.
Morpho-Physiological Characterization of Glyphosate-Resistant and -Susceptible Horseweed (Conyza canadensis) Biotypes of US Midsouth  [PDF]
Vijay K. Nandula, Daniel H. Poston, Clifford H. Koger, Krishna N. Reddy, K. Raja Reddy
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2015.61006
Abstract: Horseweed is traditionally considered a non-cropland weed. However, populations resistant to glyphosate have eventually become established in no-till agronomic cropping systems. Growth chamber and greenhouse experiments were conducted to compare selected biological and physiological parameters of glyphosate-resistant (GR) and -susceptible (GS) horseweed biotypes from Mississippi with a broader goal of fitness characterization in these biotypes. Vegetative growth parameters (number of leaves, rosette diameter and area, shoot and root fresh weights) were recorded weekly from 5 to 11 wk after emergence and reproductive attributes [days to bolting (production of a flowering stalk) and flowering] and senescence were measured for both GR and GS biotypes under high (24°C/20°C) and low (18°C/12°C) temperature regimes, both with a 13-h light period. Physiological traits such as net photosynthesis, phenolic content, and cell membrane thermostability, all in the presence and absence of glyphosate, and leaf content of divalent cations such as Ca2+ and Mg2+ were assayed in the two biotypes under the high temperature regime. All horseweed vegetative growth parameters except root fresh weight were higher in the high temperature regime compared to that in low temperature regime in both biotypes. Number of leaves, rosette diameter and area, shoot and root fresh weight were 40 vs. 35, 9.3 vs. 8.7 cm, 51 vs. 43 cm2, 3.7 vs. 3.2 g, and 3.5 vs. 4.2 g under high and low temperature conditions, respectively, when averaged across biotypes and weekly measurements. All growth parameters listed above were higher for the GR biotype compared to the GS biotype. Number of leaves, rosette diameter and area, shoot and root fresh weight were 38 vs. 37, 9.1 vs. 8.9 cm, 50.2 vs. 44 cm2, 3.9 vs. 3.1 g, and 4.3 vs. 3.5 g for GR and GS biotypes, respectively, averaged across the temperature treatments and weekly measurements. Reproductive developmental data of these biotypes indicated that the GS biotype bolted earlier than the GR biotype. The GS biotype had more phenolic content and exhibited higher cell membrane thermostability, but less net photosynthetic rate compared to the GR biotype. At 48 h after treatment with glyphosate, there was no change in phenolic content of both GR and GS biotypes. However, glyphosate reduced cell membrane thermostability and net photosynthetic rate more in the GS biotype than that in the GR biotype. Chemical analysis of GR and GS
Fuzzy Set Field and Fuzzy Metric
Gebru Gebray,B. Krishna Reddy
Advances in Fuzzy Systems , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/968405
Abstract: The notation of fuzzy set field is introduced. A fuzzy metric is redefined on fuzzy set field and on arbitrary fuzzy set in a field. The metric redefined is between fuzzy points and constitutes both fuzziness and crisp property of vector. In addition, a fuzzy magnitude of a fuzzy point in a field is defined. 1. Introduction Different researchers introduced the concept of fuzzy field and notion of fuzzy metric on fuzzy sets. How to define a fuzzy metric on a fuzzy set is still active research topic in fuzzy set theory which is very applicable in fuzzy optimization and pattern recognition. The notion of fuzzy sets has been applied in recent years for studying sequence spaces by Tripathy and Baruah [1], Tripathy and Sarma [2], Tripathy and Borgohain [3], and others. Wenxiang and Tu [4] introduced the concept of fuzzy field in field and fuzzy linear spaces over fuzzy field. Furthermore, different authors are attempting to define fuzzy normed linear spaces, fuzzy inner product space, fuzzy Hilbert space, fuzzy Banach spaces, and so forth (cf. [5–8]). Many authors introduced different notion of fuzzy metric on a fuzzy set from different points of view. Kaleva and Seikkala [9] introduced the notion of a fuzzy metric space where metric was defined between fuzzy sets. The idea behind this notion was to fuzzify the classical metric by replacing real values of a metric by fuzzy values (fuzzy numbers). For the further research work and the properties of this type of fuzzy metric space see for instance Fang [10], Quan Xia and Guo [11], and others. Wong [12] defined fuzzy point and discussed its topological properties and there after Deng [13] defined Pseudo-metric spaces where metric was defined between fuzzy points rather than between fuzzy sets. Hsu [14] introduced fuzzy metric space with metric defined between fuzzy points and examined the completion of fuzzy metric space. For different notions of fuzzy metric space and for further research work see for instance Shi [15], Shi and Zheng [16], Shi [17] and others. This paper is an attempt to define a fuzzy set field in a field which is assumed to be the generalization of a fuzzy field introduced by [4]. We restate fuzzy set in more general form by allowing a particular fuzzy set to consist a family of membership functions. A fuzzy metric on fuzzy set and on fuzzy set field is reintroduced in such way that the classical metric is considered as a special type of fuzzy metric. In the sequel, a notion of magnitude of a fuzzy point in a field is introduced for the first time (up to our knowledge) and some of its
Simultaneous Determination of Cobalt(II) and Nickel(II) by Fourth-Order Derivative Spectrophotometric Method Using 2-Hydroxy-3-Methoxy Benzaldehyde Thiosemicarbazone
A. Praveen Kumar,P. Raveendra Reddy,V. Krishna Reddy
Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry , 2007, DOI: 10.1155/2007/48768
Abstract: A simple and new simultaneous fourth derivative spectrophotometric method is proposed for the analysis of a two-component system containing cobalt(II) and nickel(II) without separation using 2-hydroxy-3-methoxy benzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (HMBATSC) as a chromophoric reagent. The reagent reacts with cobalt(II) and nickel(II) at pH 6.0, forming soluble brown and yellow colored species, respectively. Cobalt(II) and nickel(II) present in the mixture are simultaneously determined without solving the simultaneous equations by measuring the fourth derivative amplitudes at 468.5 nm and 474.5 nm, respectively. The derivative amplitudes obey Beer's law at 468.5 nm and 474.5 nm for Co(II) and Ni(II) in the range 0.059–3.299 μgmL-1 and 0.058–3.285 μg mL-1, respectively. A large number of foreign ions do not interfere in the present method. The present simultaneous method is used for the determination of micro amounts of cobalt in biological samples, nickel in plant samples, and in some alloy steels and soil sample.
DIRECT AND SECOND DERIVATIVE SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF MOLYBDENUM (VI) IN FOOD STUFFS AND IN ALLOY STEELS USING 2- HYDROXY-3-METHOXY BENZALDEHYDE THIOSEMICARBAZONE (HMBATSC)
PRAVEENKUMAR,A; RAVEENDRA REDDY,P; KRISHNA REDDY,V;
Journal of the Chilean Chemical Society , 2007, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-97072007000400009
Abstract: a rapid, simple, sensitive and selective spectrophotometric method is developed for the determination of molybdenum (vi) in aqueous dimethyl formamide (dmf). molybdenum (vi) forms a yellow coloured complex with 2-hydroxy-3-methoxy benzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone in the ph range 1.0-6.0. the complex shows maximum absorbance at 375nm and in the ph range 1.0-2.0. however, at this wave length, the reagent shows considerable absorbance. at 385nm, the complex shows large absorbance while the reagent blank shows negligible absorbance. hence, analytical studies are carried out at 385nm and at ph 1.5 against reagent blank. beer's law is obeyed in the range 0.24-4.32 μg ml-1. the molar absorptivity and sandell's sensitivity forthe coloured solution are found to be 2.3 x 10-4 1 mol-1 cm-1 and 0.0042 μg cm-2 respectively. the interference effect of various diverse ions has been studied. the complex shows 1:1 [mo (vi): hmbatsc] stoichiometry with a stability constant 2.35 x 106. the standard deviation of the method in the determination of 2.396 μg ml-1 of mo(vi) is calculated as ± 0.0012. a second order derivative spectroscopic method is developed for the determination of molybdenum(vi), which is more sensitive than the zero order method.. the developed method has been employed for the determination of molybdenum (vi) in food stuffs and in alloy steels. the results are in excellent agreement with the certified values
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