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James S. Wrobel,Samuel Marclay,Bijan Najafi
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine , 2012,
Abstract: Golfers have better balance than their age-matched counterparts; however, it is uncertain if this persists during the swing as a function of skill level. The purpose of the study was to investigate dynamic postural control (center of mass (COM) motion) measured during different phases of the swing in golfers of varying proficiency. Eighteen healthy golfers were grouped by handicap: novice (no handicap, n = 7), intermediate (handicap 15-19, n = 7), and advanced (handicap 9-14, n = 4). Indoor testing was performed hitting 3 tee shots using a common driver. A five-camera (60 Hz) motion analysis system (9 markers) was used to extract kinematics data. There were no significant group differences in gender, age, or BMI. Advanced players had lower COM displacement with respect to address at the time of maximum arm speed (p = 0. 001) compared to intermediate (57%, p = 0.014) and novice (73%, p = 0.023). These changes persisted after COM distance and time normalization. Advanced golfers had improved COM linearity during the downswing (p < 0.001) compared to intermediate (30%, p = 0.029) and novice (51%, p < 0.001). Advanced players had decreased COM displacement at the time of maximum arm speed and a more linear COM path during the early downswing. Further study should focus on these changes during ball launch conditions
Training dual-task walking in community-dwelling adults within 1 year of stroke: a protocol for a single-blind randomized controlled trial
Plummer-D’Amato Prudence,Kyvelidou Anastasia,Sternad Dagmar,Najafi Bijan
BMC Neurology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2377-12-129
Abstract: Background Community ambulation is a highly complex skill requiring the ability to adapt to increased environmental complexity and perform multiple tasks simultaneously. After stroke, individuals demonstrate a diminished ability to perform dual-tasks. Current evidence suggests that conventional rehabilitation does not adequately address gait-related dual-task impairments after stroke, which may be contributing to low levels of participation and physical inactivity in community-dwelling stroke survivors. The objective of this study is to investigate the efficacy of dual-task gait training in community-dwelling adults within 1 year of stroke. Specifically, we will compare the effects of dual-task gait training and single-task gait training on cognitive-motor interference during walking at preferred speed and at fastest comfortable speed (Aim 1), locomotor control during obstacle negotiation (Aim 2), and spontaneous physical activity (Aim 3). Methods/Design This single-blind randomized controlled trial will involve 44 individuals within 12 months of stroke. Following baseline evaluation, participants will be randomly allocated to single- or dual-task gait training. Both groups will receive 12, 30-minute sessions provided one-on-one over 4–6 weeks in an outpatient therapy setting. Single-task gait training involves practice of gait activities incorporating motor relearning principles. Dual-task gait training involves an identical gait training protocol; the critical difference being that the dual-task gait training group will practice the gait activities while simultaneously performing a cognitive task for 75% of the repetitions. Blinded assessors will measure outcomes at baseline, post-intervention, and 6 months after completion of the intervention. The primary outcome measure will be dual-task effects on gait speed and cognition during unobstructed walking. Secondary outcomes include spatiotemporal and kinetic gait parameters during unobstructed single- and dual-task walking at preferred and fastest comfortable walking speeds, gait parameters during high and low obstacle crossing, spontaneous physical activity, executive function, lower extremity motor function, Timed Up and Go, balance self-efficacy, number of falls, and stroke-related disability. Hypotheses for each aim will be tested using an intention-to-treat analysis with repeated measures ANOVA design. Discussion This trial will provide evidence to help clinicians make decisions about the types of activities to include in rehabilitation to improve dual-task walking after stroke. Trial regi
Aging and Type 2 Diabetes: Consequences for Motor Control, Musculoskeletal Function, and Whole-Body Movement
Neil D. Reeves,Bijan Najafi,Ryan T. Crews,Frank L. Bowling
Journal of Aging Research , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/508756
Aging and Type 2 Diabetes: Consequences for Motor Control, Musculoskeletal Function, and Whole-Body Movement
Neil D. Reeves,Bijan Najafi,Ryan T. Crews,Frank L. Bowling
Journal of Aging Research , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/508756
Hybrid Imaging: A New Frontier in Medical Imaging
Bijan Bijan
Iranian Journal of Radiology , 2010,
Abstract: Introduction of hybrid imaging in the arena of medical imaging calls for re-strategizing in current practice. Operating PET-CT and upcoming PET-MRI is a turf battle between Radiologists, Nuclear Medicine Physicians, Oncologists, Cardiologists and other related fields.
Plantar Temperature Response to Walking in Diabetes with and without Acute Charcot: The Charcot Activity Response Test
Bijan Najafi,James S. Wrobel,Gurtej Grewal,Robert A. Menzies,Talal K. Talal,Mahmoud Zirie,David G. Armstrong
Journal of Aging Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/140968
Abstract: Objective. Asymmetric plantar temperature differences secondary to inflammation is a hallmark for the diagnosis and treatment response of Charcot foot syndrome. However, little attention has been given to temperature response to activity. We examined dynamic changes in plantar temperature (PT) as a function of graduated walking activity to quantify thermal responses during the first 200 steps. Methods. Fifteen individuals with Acute Charcot neuroarthropathy (CN) and 17 non-CN participants with type 2 diabetes and peripheral neuropathy were recruited. All participants walked for two predefined paths of 50 and 150 steps. A thermal image was acquired at baseline after acclimatization and immediately after each walking trial. The PT response as a function of number of steps was examined using a validated wearable sensor technology. The hot spot temperature was identified by the 95th percentile of measured temperature at each anatomical region (hind/mid/forefoot). Results. During initial activity, the PT was reduced in all participants, but the temperature drop for the nonaffected foot was 1.9 times greater than the affected side in CN group ( ?? = 0 . 0 4 ). Interestingly, the PT in CN was sharply increased after 50 steps for both feet, while no difference was observed in non-CN between 50 and 200 steps. Conclusions. The variability in thermal response to the graduated walking activity between Charcot and non-Charcot feet warrants future investigation to provide further insight into the correlation between thermal response and ulcer/Charcot development. This stress test may be helpful to differentiate CN and its response to treatment earlier in its course. 1. Background Charcot neuroarthropathy (CN) is a devastating complication of diabetes. It has a similar mortality rate as lower extremity ulceration and a twofold higher rate of major amputation compared to those without CN [1]. It has been estimated that 63% of CN patients will develop a foot ulcer [2]. The combination of foot ulcer and CN increases the risk of amputation 12-fold [3]. The increased mortality risk associated with CN appears to be independent of foot ulcer and other comorbidities [2]. What further complicates CN is that there is no clear definition for it [4]. There are no pathologic markers or diagnostic criteria. Therefore, the diagnosis relies on pattern recognition and clinical intuition [5]. Not surprisingly, the diagnosis can be missed up to 95% of the time [6] and the average diagnostic delay has been estimated at almost 7 months [7]. A significant number of CN patients either
A Novel Approach in Estimation of the Soilcrete Column’s Diameter and Optimization of the High Pressure Jet Grouting Using Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS)  [PDF]
Bijan Ehsanzadeh, Kaveh Ahangari
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2014.48030

For achieving optimized jet grout parameters and W/C ratio it is concluded to set trial tests in constant local soil as the conclusion depends on local soil and presence of the extensive range of the effective parameters. Considering the benefits, due to abundance of the involved variables and the intrinsic geological complexity, this system follows a great expense in the trial and implementation phases. Utilizing the soft computing methods, this paper proposes a new approach to reduce or to eliminate the cost of the trial phase. Therefore, the Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) was utilized to study the possibility of anticipating the diameter of the jet grout (Soilcrete) columns on the trial phase based on the Trial and Error procedure. Data were collected from several projects and formed three sets of data. Consequently, parameters were held constant (as input) and the diameters of the Soilcrete columns were recorded (as output). To increase the precision, aforementioned data sets were combined and ten different data sets were created and studied, with all the results being assessed in two different approaches. Accordingly, Gaussian Function results in a huge number of precise and acceptable outcomes among available functions. Based on the measurements, Gaussian Function achieves the values of the R which are frequently more than 0.8 and lower values of the RMSE. Therefore, utilizing Gaussian Function, mainly a congruent relation between the R and RMSE is experienced and it leads to close proximity of the actual and predicted values of the Soilcrete diameter.

Mass as the Fifth Dimension of the Universe  [PDF]
Bijan Nikouravan, Jitendra J. Rawal
International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (IJAA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijaa.2013.33030

Newton considered three-dimensional universe endowed with flat space Euclidean geometry, and treated the time as an outside parameter and established his dynamics of the universe. Einstein along with space, considered time, and generated a four-dimensional universe endowed with non-Euclidean curved space-time geometry with time as its fourth dimension, and set up his field equations. Schwarzschild solved Einstein’s field equations around a star in space, which is, otherwise, flat, and obtained a solution. We, along with space and time, considered mass which also included energy according to Einstein’s mass-energy equivalence relation: E = mc2, and generated a five-dimensional universe with the mass as its fifth dimension, and solved the Einstein’s field equations, in some simple cases, and obtained solutions around a star in space, which is otherwise, flat.

Letter to Editor
Bijan Sadrizadeh
Iranian Journal of Public Health , 2009,
Abstract: Dear Dr Farhud Editor in Chief It is a well-known fact that in our daily life we can learn from everything including the good com-munica-tion practices among health professionals. Delayed communication is a challenge for effective health management in many parts of the world in par-ticular the developing countries. Sometimes we learn lessons from a simple exchange of emails between a national public health officer and a WHO program manager. As an example, few weeks ago I sent the following email message to Dr Keiji Fukuda the Special Adviser on Pandemic Influenza to the Director General, World Health Organiza-tion as follows: Dear Dr Fukuda First of all I should congratulate you for your excellent work including valuable information being con-veyed to the Member States through the WHO Site concerning the most recent developments in the area of the new Influenza A (H1N1) so called Pandemic (H1N1) 2009. However, sometimes there is contra-dictory information placed on some of the popular sites of the world which is misleading .As an exam-ple, I would like to refer to the Yahoo News which refers to the interview of the Director General in Paris. I am sure the text published by the (AFP) is at least to some extent manipulated. Also the text of the Article is somehow different with the title. This is in contrast with the excellent document placed on the WHO site under the Global Alert and Response (GAR) entitled "preparing for the second wave: les-sons from current outbreaks of Pandemic (H1N1)2009, briefing note 9. Whereas I have no doubt about the fast and extensive spread of the pandemic. I personally disagree with the exaggerations being made by the media/press concerning the intensity and the dangers of the pandemic which creates a lot of tension among the populations and results in a great deal of unnecessary expenses due to over doings by the Member States. I believe, while we should closely and seriously continue to monitor the spread, trend and intensity of the pandemic and its impact on the health system, at the same time we should miti-gate its harmful effects on the populations and be prepared for unusual /unexpected changes of the vi-rus. In my view, we should not overestimate the magnitude of the problem as it may result in overspend-ing of the limited resources which are badly needed for other priority problems of the coun-tries. Furthermore, we may lose the trust and confidence of the decision ma
The Professional Medical Journal , 2007,
Abstract: One fifth of cancers world wide are associated with viral infection.Epidemiologic and biomolecular evidence suggested that Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) infection may be associatedwith the development of head and neck cancer. Objectives: (1) To clarify the role of HPV infection in head and neckcancers. (2) To evaluate the presence of HPV DNA in laryngeal and oral squamous cell carcinoma in southern Iranand comparison of results with studies in other regions. Setting: Department of Otolaryngology-Head and NeckSurgery, Khallili Hospital, Shiraz Medical University Iran Period: From 2003 to 2006. Material & Methods: Eighty three(83) patients with Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) of the larynx, 40 patients with benign mucosal lesion of the larynx(control), 47 patients with SCC of oral cavity and 10 patients with benign oral lesion were studied for the presence ofHPV DNA by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Results: None of the laryngeal SCCs or control group was positivefor HPV DNA. Only 3/47 specimens from oral SCC were positive for HPV DNA. Oral control group was negative forHPV DNA. Conclusions: The present work suggests that HPV infection has not important role in carcinogenesis oflaryngeal or oral SCC in southern Iran. However a multi center case-control study is needed to clarify this association.
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