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For achieving optimized
jet grout parameters and W/C ratio it is concluded to set trial tests in
constant local soil as the conclusion depends on local soil and presence of the
extensive range of the effective parameters. Considering the benefits, due to
abundance of the involved variables and the intrinsic geological complexity,
this system follows a great expense in the trial and implementation phases.
Utilizing the soft computing methods, this paper proposes a new approach to
reduce or to eliminate the cost of the trial phase. Therefore, the Adaptive
Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) was utilized to study the possibility of
anticipating the diameter of the jet grout (Soilcrete) columns on the trial
phase based on the Trial and Error procedure. Data were collected from several
projects and formed three sets of data. Consequently, parameters were held
constant (as input) and the diameters of the Soilcrete columns were recorded
(as output). To increase the precision, aforementioned data sets were combined
and ten different data sets were created and studied, with all the results
being assessed in two different approaches. Accordingly, Gaussian Function
results in a huge number of precise and acceptable outcomes among available
functions. Based on the measurements, Gaussian Function achieves the values of
the R which are frequently more than 0.8 and lower values of the RMSE.
Therefore, utilizing Gaussian Function, mainly a congruent relation between the
R and RMSE is experienced and it leads to close proximity of the actual and
predicted values of the Soilcrete diameter.
Newton considered three-dimensional universe endowed with flat space Euclidean
geometry, and treated the time as an outside parameter and established his
dynamics of the universe. Einstein along with space, considered time, and generated
a four-dimensional universe endowed with non-Euclidean curved space-time
geometry with time as its fourth dimension, and set up his field equations.
Schwarzschild solved Einstein’s field equations around a star in space, which
is, otherwise, flat, and obtained a solution. We, along with space and time,
considered mass which also included energy according to Einstein’s mass-energy
equivalence relation: E = mc2,
and generated a five-dimensional universe with the mass as its fifth dimension,
and solved the Einstein’s field equations, in some simple cases, and obtained
solutions around a star in space, which is otherwise, flat.