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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1292 matches for " Bianca deStavola "
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Health differentials in the older population of England: An empirical comparison of the materialist, lifestyle and psychosocial hypotheses
George B Ploubidis, Bianca L DeStavola, Emily Grundy
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-390
Abstract: We empirically compared the materialist, psychosocial and lifestyle/behavioural theoretical mechanisms of explanation for socio-economic variation in health using data from two waves of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), a nationally representative multi-purpose sample of the population aged 50 and over living in England. Three dimensions of health were examined: somatic health, depression and well-being.The materialist and lifestyle/behavioural paths had the most prominent mediating role in the association between socio-economic position and health in the older population, whereas the psychosocial pathway was less influential and exerted most of its influence on depression and well-being, with part of its effect being due to the availability of material resources.From a policy perspective there is therefore an indication that population interventions to reduce health differentials and thus improve the overall health of the older population should focus on material circumstances and population based interventions to promote healthy lifestyles.The 20th century witnessed significant improvements in health in most countries including substantial increases in survival to older ages and large reductions in late age mortality. However, substantial inequalities or disparities in the health of different socio-economic groups remain[1-3]. In developed countries with old age structures most deaths occur at older ages and older people account for the majority of those in poor health, which suggests a particular need to investigate health inequalities in the older population [4]. Early work on health inequalities tended to focus on younger age groups, particularly middle aged men. Socioeconomic disparities were thought to be small in early adulthood and later old age and increasingly large during the period between early adulthood and early old age [5], with the declining strength of health inequalities in later life being at least partly attributed to selective m
How good is probabilistic record linkage to reconstruct reproductive histories? Results from the Aberdeen children of the 1950s study
Dorothea Nitsch, Susan Morton, Bianca L DeStavola, Heather Clark, David A Leon
BMC Medical Research Methodology , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2288-6-15
Abstract: The Children of the 1950s cohort includes 5868 females born in Aberdeen 1950–56 who were in primary schools in the city in 1962. In 2001 a postal questionnaire was sent to the cohort members resident in the UK requesting information on offspring. Probabilistic record linkage (based on surname, maiden name, initials, date of birth and postcode) was used to link the females in the cohort to birth records held by the Scottish Maternity Record System (SMR 2).We attempted to mail a total of 5540 women; 3752 (68%) returned a completed questionnaire. Of these 86% reported having had at least one birth. Linkage to SMR 2 was attempted for 5634 women, one or more maternity records were found for 3743. There were 2604 women who reported at least one birth in the questionnaire and who were linked to one or more SMR 2 records. When judged against the questionnaire information, the linkage correctly identified 4930 births and missed 601 others. These mostly occurred outside of Scotland (147) or prior to full coverage by SMR 2 (454). There were 134 births incorrectly linked to SMR 2.Probabilistic record linkage to routine maternity records applied to population-based cohort, using name, date of birth and place of residence, can have high specificity, and as such may be reliably used in epidemiological research.Probabilistic record linkage is increasingly used in health research [1,2] particularly in countries such as Canada and the United Kingdom where there is no system of unique national identity numbers that can be used for linkage purposes [3,4].Despite a sound theoretical basis for probabilistic record linkage [2], it is often regarded as a second best method in comparison to exact linkage. There is, however, only a limited literature concerned with the reliability and accuracy of probabilistic record linkage [5-9], mainly because there is rarely an independent gold-standard source of information against which the linkage can be judged. Additionally, most assessments of linka
Activities of Daily Living Associated with Acquisition of Melioidosis in Northeast Thailand: A Matched Case-Control Study
Direk Limmathurotsakul ,Manas Kanoksil,Vanaporn Wuthiekanun,Rungrueng Kitphati,Bianca deStavola,Nicholas P. J. Day,Sharon J. Peacock
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002072
Abstract: Background Melioidosis is a serious infectious disease caused by the Category B select agent and environmental saprophyte, Burkholderia pseudomallei. Most cases of naturally acquired infection are assumed to result from skin inoculation after exposure to soil or water. The aim of this study was to provide evidence for inoculation, inhalation and ingestion as routes of infection, and develop preventive guidelines based on this evidence. Methods/Principal Findings A prospective hospital-based 1:2 matched case-control study was conducted in Northeast Thailand. Cases were patients with culture-confirmed melioidosis, and controls were patients admitted with non-infectious conditions during the same period, matched for gender, age, and diabetes mellitus. Activities of daily living were recorded for the 30-day period before onset of symptoms, and home visits were performed to obtain drinking water and culture this for B. pseudomallei. Multivariable conditional logistic regression analysis based on 286 cases and 512 controls showed that activities associated with a risk of melioidosis included working in a rice field (conditional odds ratio [cOR] = 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4–3.3), other activities associated with exposure to soil or water (cOR = 1.4; 95%CI 0.8–2.6), an open wound (cOR = 2.0; 95%CI 1.2–3.3), eating food contaminated with soil or dust (cOR = 1.5; 95%CI 1.0–2.2), drinking untreated water (cOR = 1.7; 95%CI 1.1–2.6), outdoor exposure to rain (cOR = 2.1; 95%CI 1.4–3.2), water inhalation (cOR = 2.4; 95%CI 1.5–3.9), current smoking (cOR = 1.5; 95%CI 1.0–2.3) and steroid intake (cOR = 3.1; 95%CI 1.4–6.9). B. pseudomallei was detected in water source(s) consumed by 7% of cases and 3% of controls (cOR = 2.2; 95%CI 0.8–5.8). Conclusions/Significance We used these findings to develop the first evidence-based guidelines for the prevention of melioidosis. These are suitable for people in melioidosis-endemic areas, travelers and military personnel. Public health campaigns based on our recommendations are under development in Thailand.
Regulation of Hepatic Paraoxonase-1 Expression
Bianca Fuhrman
Journal of Lipids , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/684010
Abstract: Serum paraoxonase-1 (PON1) is a member of the paraoxonases family (PON1, PON2, and PON3). PON1 is synthesized and secreted by the liver, and in circulation it is associated with HDL. PON1 has antioxidative properties, which are associated with the enzyme’s capability to decrease oxidative stress in atherosclerotic lesions and to attenuate atherosclerosis development. Epidemiological evidence demonstrates that low PON1 activity is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events and cardiovascular disease and is an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease. Therefore, pharmacological modulation of PON1 activity or PON1 gene expression could constitute a useful approach for preventing atherosclerosis. A primary determinant of serum PON1 levels is the availability of the enzyme for release by the liver, the principal site of PON1 production. Together with the enzyme secretion rate, enzymatic turnover, and protein stability, the level of PON1 gene expression is a major determinant of PON1 status. This paper summarizes recent progress in understanding the regulation of PON1 expression in hepatocytes. 1. Introduction The atherosclerotic lesion is dominated by accumulation of lipid peroxides along with the progression of early plaque development [1]. Serum paraoxonase-1 (PON1) is an HDL-associated lipolactonase, which is synthesized and secreted by the liver [2]. PON1 has antioxidative properties, which are associated with the enzyme’s capability to protect LDL [3], as well as HDL [4] from oxidation, to decrease macrophage oxidative status [5], to stimulate cholesterol efflux from macrophages [6], to decrease oxidative status in atherosclerotic lesions [7], and to attenuate atherosclerosis development. Immunohistochemical analysis has revealed accumulation of PON1 in the human atherosclerotic lesion as it progresses from fatty streak to advanced lesion [8]. Recently it was demonstrated that PON1 acts to reduce the oxidizing potency of lipids in atherosclerotic lesions, thus providing protection against oxidation [9]. Epidemiological evidence demonstrates that low PON1 activity is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events [10] and is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease [11]. A variety of nongenetic factors have been shown to influence serum PON1 levels and activity. PON1 undergoes inactivation under oxidative stress and its activity is preserved by dietary antioxidants [12]. Moderate daily consumption of alcohol [13], vitamin C and E [14], wine [15], or pomegranate juice [16], increased serum levels of PON1 in
A no??o de psíquico na teoria do imaginário de Sartre
Spohr, Bianca;
Psicologia USP , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-65642011005000027
Abstract: the definition of psychology as a science and its object of study have been the focus of discussion throughout the development of this discipline. although psychologists recognize the importance of this discussion and have contributed to this ongoing debate, they still believe they are far from reaching a general consensus. thus, taking this situation into consideration, this study aims at presenting sartre’s theory of the imaginary as an instrument for the understanding of the psychic - psychology’s object of study. therefore, in order to attain this objective, this research analyzes sartre’s l’imaginaire and la transcendance de l’ego, for the study of the imagination and its correlate, the imaginary, presupposes the study of consciousness and its correlate, the psychic. we have concluded that sartre has offered important contributions for an understanding of the psychic because he reformulated the notion of image by means of the reconstitution of consciousness and the psychic and because he stated that the imagination is a type of autonomous consciousness which represents, in essence, the notion of liberty.
Schattenwirtschaft unter Palmen: Der touristisch informelle Sektor im Urlaubsparadies Patong, Thailand
Bianca Gantner
ASEAS : ?sterreichische Zeitschrift für Südostasienwissenschaften , 2011,
Abstract: Seit den 1960er-Jahren spielt der Tourismussektor innerhalb der thail ndischen Wirtschaft eine wichtige Rolle und ist durch ein stetiges Wachstum gekennzeichnet. Für über 50 Prozent der Personen, die in Thailand ihren Lebensunterhalt durch informelle Besch ftigung (Schattenwirtschaft) sichern, stellt dieser boomende Sektor eine bedeutende Verdienstquelle dar. Unter Verwendung qualitativer Methoden (Interviews und teilnehmende Beobachtung) untersucht dieser Artikel den touristisch informellen Sektor des Ortes Patong auf der Insel Phuket und stellt sowohl die Entstehung und den Verlauf als auch die Akteurs- und Angebotsstruktur dieses Sektors dar. Die aktuelle Entwicklung wird dabei verglichen mit dem Modell Vorlaufers, das die Entwicklung einer staatlich gef rderten Tourismusdestination beschreibt. Entgegen der Annahme dieses Modells, mit einem Wachstum des Tourismussektors würde der Anteil an formeller gegenüber der informellen Besch ftigung steigen, zeigt sich, dass kein Rückgang des touristisch informellen Sektors zu erkennen ist, dieser weiterhin ein integraler Bestandteil der Tourismuswirtschaft Patongs geblieben ist und eine wichtige Verdienstquelle für MigrantInnen und die lokale Bev lkerung darstellt. --- Since the 1960s, tourism has become a vital part of the Thai economy and has been characterised by a steady growth. For more than 50 percent of all Thais working in the informal sector (shadow economy), the booming tourism industry represents an important source of income. In this article Patong on Phuket serves as a case study for examining the network of actors, the touristic supply structure as well as its evolution and developments over the years by using qualitative methods (interviews and participant observation). The empirical data will then be compared to Vorlaufer’s scheme on the development of a state-sponsored tourist destination. In contrast to the scheme’s assumption of a decline of the informal and a rise of the formal sector, the empirical results show that the level of informal activity remains on a high level and can be described as an integral part of Patong’s tourism industry. In addition, revenues from the informal sector serve as an important source of income for migrants and locals.
An existence and uniqueness theorem to the Cauchy problem for thermostatted-KTAP models
C. Bianca
International Journal of Mathematical Analysis , 2012,
The Sleep of the Sultan. Rewriting of the Mille et une nuits in eighteenth-century contes exotiques Il sonno del sultano. Riscrittura delle Mille et une nuits nei contes exotiques settecenteschi
Bianca Gai
Between , 2011,
Abstract: This paper analyses the influence of Galland's Les Mille et une nuits on two Eighteenth Century French tales: Crébillon's Le Sopha and Diderot's L'Oiseau blanc, conte bleu. The focus is the use of Galland's narrative structure by French conte philosophique. Particularly, Crébillon's and Diderot's tales inherit from Galland's work the topic of the "asleep sultan". If in Les Mille et une nuits the narrative voice has the function to keep the listener awake, Crébillon and Diderot overturn the link between speaker and listener, as their narrative voices induce on the contrary sleep on the listener. This overturning is considered here as a consequence of these writers' theory of literature and philosophy. Il contributo analizza l'influenza della raccolta Les Mille et une nuits di Galland su due racconti francesi del XVIII secolo: Le Sopha di Crébillon e L'oiseau blanc conte bleu di Diderot. Oggetto di indagine è l'uso della struttura narrativa di Galland nel "conte philosophique" francese. In particolare, i racconti di Crébillon e Diderot ereditano dall'opera di Galland il tema del "sultano addormentato". Se nelle Mille et une nuits la voce narrativa ha la funzione di tenere sveglio l'ascoltatore, Crébillon e Diderot rovesciano la relazione tra parlante e ascoltatore, in quanto loro voci narranti inducono al contrario il sonno dell'ascoltatore. Tale rovesciamento è considerato qui una conseguenza della teoria della letteratura e della concezione filosofica dei due scrittori.
La presenza greca in Italia alla fine del XV secolo
Concetta Bianca
Studi Slavistici , 2011,
European Commission (Hg.): Flexible working time arrangements and gender equality. A comparative review of 30 European countries. Luxemburg: Publications Office of the European Union 2010.
Bianca Muschiol
querelles-net , 2011,
Abstract: Die Flexibilisierung der Arbeitszeitgestaltung und die Gleichstellung der Geschlechter sind zentrale Bestandteile europ ischer Direktive. Der Expertenbericht der Europ ischen Kommission bietet nun eine Zusammenfassung über die gegenw rtigen Praktiken flexibler Arbeitszeitmodelle in den 27 EU-L ndern und drei EWR-EFTA-Staaten und stellt deren Auswirkungen auf die Gleichberechtigung der Geschlechter dar. Besonderes Augenmerk liegt hierbei auf der internen Flexibilit t, was einesteils die flexible Gestaltung der Arbeitsdauer beinhaltet und anderenteils die flexible Organisation der Arbeitszeit. Die Ergebnisse lassen darauf schlie en, dass beide Gr en wichtige Voraussetzungen für den wirtschaftlichen Aufschwung darstellen. Es zeigt sich allerdings auch, dass eine zunehmende Flexibilisierung der Arbeitszeitgestaltung den Frauen auch zum Nachteil gereichen kann. Flexibilizing the organization of working hours and treating all genders as equals are central constituents of the European directives. The European Commission’s expert report does now offer a summary of the current practices of flexible work time in the 27 EU countries and three EEA-EFTA countries and portrays their effects on equal opportunities for all genders. Special attention is paid to internal flexibility, both with regard to the flexible realization of the work duration and the flexible organization of working hours. The results imply that both components are important prerequisites for economic advancement. However, it can also be seen that an increased flexibilization of the organization of working hours can lead to disadvantages for women.
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