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OALib Journal期刊

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EMULGELS: A NOVEL FORMULATION APPROACH FOR TOPICAL DELIVERY OF HYDROPHOBIC DRUGS
Bhatt Preeti,Gnanaranjan.G
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2013,
Abstract: A unique feature of topical drug delivery is the direct accessibility of the skin as a target organ for diagnosis and treatment. Among the various groups of semisolid preparations, the use of gels has expanded both in cosmetics and in pharmaceutical preparations. Despite of several advantages of gels there is a limitation in delivery of hydrophobic drug moiety. This limitation can be overcome by the use of novel topical drug delivery i.e, emulgel. When gel and emulsion are used in combined form the dosage form are referred as emulgel. The presence of a gelling agent in the water phase converts a classical emulsion into an emulgel. The major objective behind this formulation is delivery of hydrophobic drugs to systemic circulation via skin. Emulgels show dual release control system i.e. gel and emulsion. These emulgel are having major advantages on novel vesicular systems as well as on conventional systems in various aspects. Emulgels for dermatological use have several favourable properties such as being thixotropic, greaseless, easily spreadable, easily removable, emollient, non-staining, water-soluble, longer shelf life, bio-friendly, transparent & pleasing appearance. Various permeation enhancers can potentiate the effect, So emulgels can be used as better topical drug delivery systems over present systems. The use of emulgels can be extended in analgesics, antifungal drugs and various cosmetic formulations.
Tessier 30 Facial Cleft Associated with Complete Duplication of Tongue: A Rare Entity  [PDF]
Jayanto Tapadar, Preeti Tiwari
International Journal of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery (IJOHNS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ijohns.2015.42029
Abstract: Background: Median cleft of mandible and lower lip is a rare anomaly [1]. Only a few cases have been reported in literature with different variations till now. Herein we report a patient with Tessier 30 cleft associated with complete duplication of tongue. Aim: We herein report this rare variant as it posed special challenges for its management by virtue of its uniqueness, late presentation and limited affordability of patient for standard treatment. Case Report: A 12 years old female reported to us with a chief complaint of a midline gap in the lower lip and mandible since birth. On examination under anaesthesia, we found that tongue was not bifid. There was complete duplication of the tongue. The case was planned for staged repair of the defect. In the same sitting, a repair of the soft tissues in the midline was performed. Conclusion: There are no specific guidelines in literature for management of such cases. This makes all these cases worth for reporting in order to guide treating surgeons.
Coupled Fixed Point for (α, Ψ)-Contractive in Partially Ordered Metric Spaces Using Compatible Mappings  [PDF]
  Preeti, Sanjay Kumar
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/am.2015.68130
Abstract: In this paper, first we introduce notions of (α, Ψ)-contractive and (α)-admissible for a pair of map and prove a coupled coincidence point theorem for compatible mappings using these notions. Our work extends and generalizes the results of Mursaleen et al. [1]. At the end, we will provide an example in support of our result.
Controls on Gosaikunda Lake Chemistry within Langtang National Park in High Himalaya, Nepal  [PDF]
Maya P. Bhatt, Seema Bhatt, Birgit Gaye
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2014.510094
Abstract: Surface water samples and lake bed sediments were collected and analyzed from Gosaikunda Lake within Langtang National Park (28°05'N, 85°25'E; 4380 m a.s.l.) in the central Himalayan region of Nepal during fall 2011. The major cations and anions in equivalents were present in the following order: \"\" and \"\", respectively. Sulfide oxidation coupled with carbonate dissolution and aluminosilicate dissolution appeared to be the dominant geochemical processes determining lake water dissolved ions. Sulfate concentration was much higher than the alkalinity which is
Characterization of Negative Exponential Distribution through Expectation  [PDF]
Milind Bhatt B.
Open Journal of Statistics (OJS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2013.35042
Abstract:

For characterization of negative exponential distribution one needs any arbitrary non-constant function only in place of approaches such as identical distributions, absolute continuity, constant regression of order statistics, continuity and linear regression of order statistics, non-degeneracy etc. available in the literature. Path breaking different approach for characterization of negative exponential distribution through expectation of non-constant function of random variable is obtained. An example is given for illustrative purpose.

Characterization of Power-Function Distribution through Expectation  [PDF]
Milind Bhanuprasad Bhatt
Open Journal of Statistics (OJS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2013.36052
Abstract:

For the characterization of the power function distribution, one needs any arbitrary non constant function only in place of independence of suitable function of order statistics, linear relation of conditional expectation, recurrence relations between expectations of function of order statistics, distributional properties of exponential distribution, record valves, lower record statistics, product of order statistics and Lorenz curve, etc. available in the literature. The goal of this research is not to give a different path-breaking approach for the characterization of power function distribution through the expectation of non constant function of random variable and provide a method to characterize the power function distribution as remark. Examples are given for the illustrative purpose.

Characterization of Generalized Uniform Distribution through Expectation  [PDF]
Milind B. Bhatt
Open Journal of Statistics (OJS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2014.48052
Abstract: Normally the mass of a root has a uniform distribution but some have different uniform distributions named Generalized Uniform Distribution (GUD). The characterization result based on expectation of function of random variable has been obtained for generalized uniform distribution. Applications are given for illustrative purpose including a special case of uniform distribution.
Cobb Syndrome: A Case Report with Review of Clinical and Imaging Findings  [PDF]
Alok Bhatt, Peter Kalina
Open Journal of Clinical Diagnostics (OJCD) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojcd.2014.44033
Abstract: Cobb syndrome is a rare entity characterized by cutaneous vascular lesions and arteriovenous malformations in the spine, both in the same metamere. This syndrome is also known as cutaneous vertebral medullary angiomatosis, cutaneomeningospinal angiomatosis, and spinal arterial metameric disorder. We report the case of a male infant diagnosed with Cobb syndrome who was treated surgically. The presence of a cutaneous vascular lesion in this patient prompted subsequent imaging for spinal angioma or AVM in the same dermatome. Early recognition in this patient was shown to be life-changing, as patients with Cobb syndrome who have undergone early intervention have shown to be without neurologic deficit or have a halt in progression of symptoms.
Study of Heavy Metal Accumulation in Sewage Irrigated Vegetables in Different Regions of Agra District, India  [PDF]
Preeti Parashar, Fazal Masih Prasad
Open Journal of Soil Science (OJSS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojss.2013.31001
Abstract:

Heavy metal contamination of soil resulting from sewage irrigation is a cause of serious concern due to the potential health impacts of consuming contaminated products. In this study an assessment made of the impact of sewage irrigation on heavy metal contamination of Spinach, Cabbage, Beetroot, Reddish, Okra, Tomato, and Cucumber is widely cultivated and consumed in urban India, particularly by the poor. A field study was conducted at seven major sites that were irrigated by either treated, (Dhandupura) or untreated wastewater in the suburban areas of Agra, India. Samples of irrigation water, soil, and the edible portion of all the vegetables were collected monthly during the winter seasons and were analyzed for Fe, Cd, Cu, Zn, and Pb. Heavy metals in irrigation water were below the internationally recom- mended (WHO) maximum permissible limits set for agricultural use for all heavy metals except Cd at all the sites. Similarly, the mean heavy metal concentrations in soil were below the Indian standards for all heavy metals, but the maximum value of Cd recorded during January was higher than the standard. However, in the edible portion of spinach, the Cd concentration was higher than the permissible limits of the Indian standard during summer, whereas Pb concentrations were higher in winter seasons. Results of correlation analysis were computed to assess the relationship between individual heavy metal concentration in the vegetable samples. The study concludes that the use of treated and untreated wastewater for irrigation has increased the contamination of Cd, Pb in edible portion of vegetables causing potential health risk in the long term from this practice. The study also points to the fact that adherence to standards for heavy metal contamination of soil and irrigation water does not ensure safe food. Fe was measured abundant in soil whereas Pb and Cd were found more in untreated sites as compared to treated site. Correlation, paired T-test and ANOVA were also carried out for pre post harvested soil and vegetables.

Molecular Significance of lon and cpxR Genes in the Pathogenicity of Salmonella  [PDF]
Rahul M. Nandre, Preeti Mahajan
Open Journal of Animal Sciences (OJAS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2015.54045
Abstract: The important foodborne zoonotic pathogen Salmonella causes gastroenteritis. The dynamics of host-pathogen Salmonella interaction and infection might enhance the development of novel tar-geted preventative measures and drug regimens. The lon and cpxR are virulence associated genes, which have an important role in the Salmonella pathogenesis. However, the deletions of lon and cpxRlead to the construction of genetically engineered live Salmonella vaccine candidate. In this review, lon and cpxR genes are focused for their involvement in Salmonella pathogenesis. Furthermore, the importance of these genes was briefly emphasized during the construction of Salmonella vaccine candidate.
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