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OALib Journal期刊

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Tenofovir for HBV: The beginning of the end or the end of the beginning?
Bhat Naresh,Yelsangikar Amit
Hepatitis B Annual , 2009,
Abstract: Patients with Hepatitis B virus infection may present to the treating clinicians at various stages of natural history of hepatitis B infection, including acute viral hepatitis, chronic active hepatitis, incidental hepatitis B s antigen-positive patients and those with decompensated cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Management of chronic hepatitis B patients, especially those with e antigen-negative disease poses the biggest challenge today. There are various treatment options available and choosing the correct drug according to the patient profile is important both for optimum response and preventing drug resistance. This article reviews an exciting new molecule tenofovir, which has been approved in August 2008 by the US Food and Drug Administration for treatment of chronic hepatitis B.
Preparation and characterization of diltiazem nanocapsules: Influence of various polymers
Kumar G,Bhat Amit,Rani Shoba
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutics , 2010,
Abstract: Nanocapsules are submicroscopic colloidal drug delivery system and are composed of an oily or an aqueous core surrounded by a thin polymeric membrane. Nanocapsules have recently generated lot of interest in the area of controlled release with availability of biocompatible and biodegradable polymers. Nanocapsules of diltiazem were prepared with an objective of achieving controlled release of the drug in order to reduce the frequency of administration of drug, to obtain more uniform plasma concentration, and to improve patient compliance. Diltiazem was chosen as the model drug, as it is widely used in the treatment of chronic conditions such as hypertension and angina which require prolonged therapy. Nanocapsules were prepared by the interfacial deposition technique by taking different concentrations of polymers and phospholipid mixture. Five best formulations were selected based on the encapsulation efficiency. The morphology of nanocapsules was assessed by scanning electron microscope and they were found to be smooth, spherical, and discrete. The particles followed normal size distribution with particle size in the range of 20 to 380 nm. In vitro release studies indicated prolonged release for all polymers for 48 hours, with polycaprolactone as the best polymer releasing about 95 to 98%. The formulations were stable at 4°C but unstable at 25°C, and hence recommended for storage in refrigeration. Thus, it can be concluded that nanocapsules are a useful technology for controlled release of diltiazem.
Saturation of Zeldovich Stretch-Twist-Fold Map Dynamos
Amit Seta,Pallavi Bhat,Kandaswamy Subramanian
Physics , 2014,
Abstract: Zeldovich's stretch-twist fold (STF) dynamo provided a breakthrough in conceptual understanding of fast dynamos, including fluctuation or small scale dynamos. We study the evolution and saturation behaviour of two types of Baker's map dynamos, which have been used to model Zeldovich's STF dynamo process. Using such maps allows one to analyze dynamos at much higher magnetic Reynolds numbers $R_M$ as compared to direct numerical simulations. In the 2-strip map dynamo there is constant constructive folding while the 4-strip map dynamo also allows the possibility of field reversal. Incorporating a diffusive step parameterised by $R_M$, we find that the magnetic field $B(x)$ is amplified only above a critical $R_M=R_{crit} \sim 4$ for both types of dynamos. We explore the saturation of these dynamos in 3 ways; by a renormalized decrease of the effective $R_M$ (Case I) or due to a decrease in the efficiency of field amplification by stretching (Case II), or a combination of both effects (Case III). For Case I, we show that $B(x)$ in the saturated state, for both types of maps, goes back to the marginal eigenfunction, which is obtained for the critical $R_M=R_{crit}$. This is independent of the initial $R_M=R_{M0}$. On the other hand in Case II, for the 2-strip map, we show that $B(x)$ now saturates preserving the structure of the kinematic eigenfunction. Thus the energy is transferred to larger scales in Case I but remains at the smallest resistive scales in Case II. For the 4-strip map, the $B(x)$ oscillates with time, although with a structure similar to the kinematic eigenfunction. Interestingly, the saturated state for Case III shows an intermediate behaviour, with $B(x)$ now similar to the kinematic eigenfunction for an intermediate $R_M=R_{sat}$, with $R_{M0}>R_{sat}>R_{crit}$. These saturation properties are akin to the ones discussed in the context of fluctuation dynamos.
Gaucher′s disease type III C: Unusual cause of intracardiac calcification
Shah Sejal,Misri Amit,Bhat Meenakshi,Maheshwari Sunita
Annals of Pediatric Cardiology , 2008,
Abstract: We report a case of intracardiac calcification associated with oculomotor apraxia and corneal deposits in a 12-year-old girl, who presented with dyspnea on exertion, sinusitis, and epistaxis since the age of 6 years. Unusual presentation with multiorgan involvement prompted us to evaluate her in terms of metabolic/storage disorder. The bone marrow aspirate confirmed the diagnosis of Gaucher′s disease.
Non-Fragile Controller Design for 2-D Discrete Uncertain Systems Described by the Roesser Model  [PDF]
Amit Dhawan
Journal of Signal and Information Processing (JSIP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jsip.2012.32033
Abstract: This paper is concerned with the design problem of non-fragile controller for a class of two-dimensional (2-D) discrete uncertain systems described by the Roesser model. The parametric uncertainties are assumed to be norm-bounded. The aim of this paper is to design a memoryless non-fragile state feedback control law such that the closed-loop system is asymptotically stable for all admissible parameter uncertainties and controller gain variations. A new linear matrix inequality (LMI) based sufficient condition for the existence of such controllers is established. Finally, a numerical example is provided to illustrate the applicability of the proposed method.
Single Incision Laparoscopic Surgery-An Overview and Current Status  [PDF]
Amit Goel
Surgical Science (SS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2012.310100
Abstract: Single incision laproscopic surgery is an alternative to conventional multiport laproscopy. Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery term coined by a Consortium in 2005 remains a research technique with few clinical cases. Single incision surgery offers advantage of better cosmesis, reduced incisions, lesser hernias, decreased pain and infections. Long learning curves and cost of instrumentation are the difficulties encountered in its propagation. Single incision laproscopic surgery is an evolving technique for advanced laproscopic centers. This article outlines the overview of devices and instruments and the techniques, feasibility of single incision laproscopic surgery.
Comparative Study of Clinical Manifestation, Plain Film Radiography and Computed Tomography for Diagnosis of Maxillofacial Trauma  [PDF]
Amit Goel
Modern Plastic Surgery (MPS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/mps.2015.54008
Abstract: Objective: Maxillofacial injuries are one of the commonest injuries encountered. Roentgenographic evaluation of maxillofacial trauma is of prime importance for diagnosis and treatment of these injuries. Study Design: Forty patients were evaluated in the prospective four-year study. We studied and evaluated the demography and diagnostic efficacy of clinical, plain radiography, and computed scan in maxillofacial trauma. Result: Road traffic accidents were the commonest cause of maxillofacial injuries. Patients having multiple fractures, mandibular fractures were the commonest. Conclusion: Computed tomography proved a useful adjunct in midfacial trauma.
Curve Veering in Torsional Systems with Stepped Shafts  [PDF]
Mehdi Eshaghi, Rama Bhat
World Journal of Mechanics (WJM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/wjm.2015.55010
Abstract: In this study, the influence of geometrical parameters on the curve veering phenomenon in a tor-sional system with stepped shaft is investigated. Three approximate solutions including finite el-ement, Rayleigh-Ritz and discretization methods, along with an exact solution are employed to obtain the natural frequencies of the structure. The study reveals that, under specific circumstances, the results obtained by approximate methods are very close to the exact solution. The curve veering behavior is manifested irrespective of the method employed. It is concluded that for the structure studied the curve veering behavior is not because of the approximate techniques used to compute the natural frequencies, and is an inherent behavior of the structure.
Antidiabetic Activity of Gnidia glauca and Dioscorea bulbifera: Potent Amylase and Glucosidase Inhibitors
Sougata Ghosh,Mehul Ahire,Sumersing Patil,Amit Jabgunde,Meenakshi Bhat Dusane,Bimba N. Joshi,Karishma Pardesi,Sanjay Jachak,Dilip D. Dhavale,Balu A. Chopade
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/929051
Abstract: Diabetes is a metabolic disorder affecting about 220 million people worldwide. One of the most critical complications of diabetes is post-prandial hyper-glycemia (PPHG). Glucosidase inhibitor and α-amylase inhibitors are class of compounds that help in managing PPHG. Low-cost herbal treatment is recommended due to their lesser side effect for treatment of diabetes. Two plants with significant traditional therapeutic potential, namely, Gnidia glauca and Dioscorea bulbifera, were tested for their efficiency to inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Stem, leaf, and flower of G. glauca and bulb of D. bulbifera were sequentially extracted with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, and methanol as well as separately with 70% ethanol. Petroleum ether extract of flower of G. glauca was found to inhibit α-amylase significantly (78.56%). Extracts were further tested against crude murine pancreatic, small intestinal, and liver glucosidase enzyme which revealed excellent inhibitory properties. α-glucosidase inhibition provided a strong in vitro evidence for confirmation of both G. glauca and D. bulbifera as excellent antidiabetic remedy. This is the first report of its kind that provides a strong biochemical basis for management of type II diabetes using G. glauca and D. bulbifera. These results provide intense rationale for further in vivo and clinical study.
Molecular Characterization of UGT94F2 and UGT86C4, Two Glycosyltransferases from Picrorhiza kurrooa: Comparative Structural Insight and Evaluation of Substrate Recognition
Wajid Waheed Bhat, Niha Dhar, Sumeer Razdan, Satiander Rana, Rukmankesh Mehra, Amit Nargotra, Rekha S. Dhar, Nasheeman Ashraf, Ram Vishwakarma, Surrinder K. Lattoo
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0073804
Abstract: Uridine diphosphate glycosyltransferases (UGTs) are pivotal in the process of glycosylation for decorating natural products with sugars. It is one of the versatile mechanisms in determining chemical complexity and diversity for the production of suite of pharmacologically active plant natural products. Picrorhiza kurrooa is a highly reputed medicinal herb known for its hepato-protective properties which are attributed to a novel group of iridoid glycosides known as picrosides. Although the plant is well studied in terms of its pharmacological properties, very little is known about the biosynthesis of these important secondary metabolites. In this study, we identified two family-1 glucosyltransferases from P. kurrooa. The full length cDNAs of UGT94F4 and UGT86C4 contained open reading frames of 1455 and 1422 nucleotides, encoding polypeptides of 484 and 473 amino acids respectively. UGT94F2 and UGT86C4 showed differential expression pattern in leaves, rhizomes and inflorescence. To elucidate whether the differential expression pattern of the two Picrorhiza UGTs correlate with transcriptional regulation via their promoters and to identify elements that could be recognized by known iridoid-specific transcription factors, upstream regions of each gene were isolated and scanned for putative cis-regulatory elements. Interestingly, the presence of cis-regulatory elements within the promoter regions of each gene correlated positively with their expression profiles in response to different phytohormones. HPLC analysis of picrosides extracted from different tissues and elicitor-treated samples showed a significant increase in picroside levels, corroborating well with the expression profile of UGT94F2 possibly indicating its implication in picroside biosynthesis. Using homology modeling and molecular docking studies, we provide an insight into the donor and acceptor specificities of both UGTs identified in this study. UGT94F2 was predicted to be an iridoid-specific glucosyltransferase having maximum binding affinity towards 7-deoxyloganetin while as UGT86C4 was predicted to be a kaempferol-specific glucosyltransferase. These are the first UGTs being reported from P. kurrooa.
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